The Human Truth Foundation

Kuwait (State of Kuwait)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #intelligence #kuwait #morals #research #science #the_environment #yemen

Kuwait
State of Kuwait
StatusIndependent State
CapitalKuwait
Land Area 17 820km21
LocationAsia, Middle East
Population2.9m (2011)2
Life Expectancy74.55yrs (2017)3
GNI$76 075 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesKW, KWT, 4145
Internet Domain.kw6
CurrencyDinar (KWD)7
Telephone+9658

1. Overview

#iraq #islam #UK

Britain oversaw foreign relations and defense for the ruling Kuwaiti AL-SABAH dynasty from 1899 until independence in 1961. Kuwait was attacked and overrun by Iraq on 2 August 1990. Following several weeks of aerial bombardment, a US-led, UN coalition began a ground assault on 23 February 1991 that liberated Kuwait in four days. Kuwait spent more than $5 billion to repair oil infrastructure damaged during 1990-91. The AL-SABAH family has ruled since returning to power in 1991 and reestablished an elected legislature that in recent years has become increasingly assertive. The country witnessed the historic election in May 2009 of four women to its National Assembly. Amid the 2010-11 uprisings and protests across the Arab world, stateless Arabs, known as bidoon, staged small protests in February and March 2011 demanding citizenship, jobs, and other benefits available to Kuwaiti nationals. Youth activist groups - supported by opposition legislators and the prime minister's rivals within the ruling family - rallied repeatedly in 2011 for an end to corruption and the ouster of the prime minister and his cabinet. Opposition legislators forced the prime minister to resign in late 2011. In October-December 2012, Kuwait witnessed unprecedented protests in response to the Amir's changes to the electoral law by decree reducing the number of votes per person from four to one. The opposition, led by a coalition of Sunni Islamists, tribalists, some liberals, and myriad youth groups, boycotted the December 2012 legislative election, resulting in a historic number of Shia candidates winning seats. Since 2006, the Amir has dissolved the National Assembly on five occasions (the Constitutional Court annulled the Assembly once in June 2012) and reshuffled the cabinet 12 times, usually citing political stagnation and gridlock between the legislature and the government.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverLong an oasis in the parched desert, Kuwait is now at the vanguard of political change and cultural development in the Gulf. Kuwait, in the cradle of one of the most ancient and most contested corners of the world, is best described as a city state. For centuries Kuwait City has been like a magnet, attracting Bedouin people from the interior in search of a sea breeze and escape from recurring drought. Today the metropolis is still an oasis in a land of desert plains, but rather more of the cultural and culinary kind. Excellent museums, a corniche of combed beaches and lively restaurants, malls and souqs mark the Kuwait City experience.

Outside the capital there are few attractions other than coastal resorts. Oil excavation dominates the flat desert plains and there are few distinctive geographical features. That said, there is always something to see in a desert, with a bit of patience and an eye for detail; when it comes to the ritual camping expedition, Kuwaitis have plenty of both.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Kuwait National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
48Montenegro48
49Russia49
50Romania50
51Kuwait51
52Belarus52
53Oman52
54Barbados54
55Uruguay54
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
82Ukraine54.2
83Colombia53.7
84Ecuador53.5
85Kuwait53.5
86Kyrgyzstan53.4
87Jordan53.3
88Bahamas53.3
89Cuba53.0
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #Kuwait #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
42Central African Rep.06.8
43Sudan06.8
44Mauritania06.8
45Kuwait06.8
46Congo, (Brazzaville)07.0
47Solomon Islands07.0
48Rwanda07.0
49Namibia07.4
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
74Morocco9.3
75Sri Lanka9.1
76Somalia8.7
77Kuwait8.5
78Ecuador8.3
79Poland8.3
80Afghanistan8.1
81Paraguay7.9
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
39Mexico2.25
40Sri Lanka2.26
41Armenia1.74
42Kuwait2.27
43Bhutan2.27
44Jamaica2.28
45Suriname2.28
46Uzbekistan2.29
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
4Kuwait68.8
5Andorra64.4
6Jordan45.9
7Palestine43.6
8Singapore40.7
9Israel40.4
10Bahrain39.1
11Hong Kong38.8
12San Marino37.0
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
78Brazil74.75
79Thailand74.62
80Mauritius74.60
81Kuwait74.55
82Saudi Arabia74.44
83Venezuela74.39
84Latvia74.34
85Bulgaria74.32
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
134Albania3.2m
135Armenia3.1m
136Oman2.9m
137Kuwait2.9m
138Mongolia2.8m
139Jamaica2.8m
140Namibia2.4m
141Latvia2.2m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Kuwait's population is predicted to rise to 4.012 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 2.27. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #freedom #human_rights #kuwait #politics #tolerance

Kuwait is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Kuwait comes in the top 20 in eliminating modern slavery18. It does better than average in its Global Peace Index rating19, fighting corruption20, opposing gender inequality21 and in supporting press freedom22. It is one of the few Gulf states that constructively allows Human Rights Watch to engage directly in making observations. Kuwait does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in commentary from Human Rights Watch23, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms24 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights25. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in fighting anti-semitic opinions26 and in LGBT equality27. Native Bidun peoples are oppressed and abused28. Free speech is overly restricted and dissenters and political opponents are frequently harassed and persecuted, often in the name of national security28. Despite making some positive reforms, more needs to be done to protect migrant workers (who make up 2/3 of the population) against abuse and forced labour28. Kuwait does not accept the concept of freedom of belief and religious persecution is rife29; anyone convicted of insulting Islam cannot run for office nor vote28. Male homosexuality is punishable by up to seven years in prison or expulsion28. Kuwait has participated in coalition battles in Yemen, and has possibly been involved in some attacks which constituted serious war crimes there28.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #kuwait #religion

Religiosity (2009)30
Pos.Lower is better
%30
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
71Tanzania89
72Kosovo90
73India90
74Kuwait91
75UAE91
76Pakistan92
77Paraguay92
78Saudi Arabia93
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)31
Pos.Higher is better31
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
124Rwanda0
125Cameroon0
126Philippines0
127Kuwait0
128Madagascar0
129Nigeria0
130Malawi0
131Chad0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below32:

Christian14.3%
Muslim74.1%
Hindu8.5%
Buddhist2.8%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim (official) 85% (Sunni 70%, Shia 30%), other (includes Christian, Hindu, Parsi) 15%33.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: Kuwait does not accept the concept of freedom of belief and sociologists Grim & Finke place Kuwait into the worst category for religious persecution, along with just 13 other countries29. Since 2016 anyone convicted of blasphemy against Islam cannot run for office, nor vote28, therefore routinely discriminating against people based on their beliefs.

Links:

6. The Internet

#internet #it_security #Kuwait #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)34
Pos.Higher is better34
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
36Ireland81%
37Barbados80%
38Hungary80%
39Kuwait80%
40Malta80%
41Chile78%
42Lithuania77%
43Latvia76%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)35
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio35
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
107Turkmenistan0.0
108Bangladesh0.0
109Qatar0.0
110Kuwait0.0
111Guernsey0.0
112Bahamas0.0
113Antigua & Barbuda0.0
114Venezuela0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.
IT Security (2013)36
Pos.Lower is better36
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
37Iran0.85
38Laos0.86
39Spain0.88
40Kuwait0.93
41Saudi Arabia0.93
42Malaysia0.96
43Canada0.96
44Tajikistan1.01
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

The Cybercrime Law, which went into effect in 2016, includes far-reaching restrictions on internet-based speech, such as prison sentences, and fines for insulting religion, religious figures, and the emir.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)28

7. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #Kuwait #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)21
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100021
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
30Croatia9.5
31Israel9.7
32Canada9.8
33Kuwait9.8
34Portugal9.9
35Czechia9.9
36Ireland10.4
37Algeria10.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)37
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita37
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
4Mauritania0.1
5Comoros0.2
6Saudi Arabia0.2
7Bangladesh0.2
8Yemen0.3
9Niger0.3
10Egypt0.4
11Iraq0.5
12Somalia0.5
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
17New Zealand17
18Jordan18
19S. Korea19
20Kuwait20
21Japan21
22Spain22
23France23
24Italy24
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)39
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %39
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
20Thailand97.8
21Mauritius97.6
22Fiji97.6
23Kuwait97.5
24Morocco97.5
25Monaco97.3
26Cook Islands97.3
27Greece97.3
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)40
Pos.Lower is better40
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
149Italy1 443
150Germany1 480
151Bulgaria1 505
152Kuwait1 517
153Armenia1 545
154Turkey1 581
155Slovakia1 618
156Romania1 620
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)41
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k41
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
7S. Africa1.8
8Bahamas2.5
9Peru2.9
10Kuwait3.6
11Armenia3.9
12Dominican Rep.4.6
13St Lucia4.9
14Tajikistan5.2
World Avg20.93
q=91.

8. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
42
Pos.Lower is better42
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
19Kenya17.75
20Jamaica20.5
21Austria21.25
22Kuwait21.5
23Hong Kong21.5
24Germany22.75
25Switzerland25
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
124Chad124
125Brunei125
126Ivory Coast126
127Kuwait127
128Vietnam128
129Azerbaijan129
130Bangladesh130
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
107Uganda107
108Lesotho108
109Georgia109
110Kuwait110
111China111
112Swaziland112
113Argentina113
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
137Dominica137
138Cape Verde138
139St Lucia139
140Kuwait140
141Saudi Arabia141
142St Vincent & Grenadines142
143Belize143
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
78Sri Lanka78
79Algeria79
80Ecuador80
81Kuwait81
82Paraguay82
83Sierra Leone83
84Israel84
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
80Latvia80
81Romania81
82Costa Rica82
83Kuwait83
84Belarus84
85Saudi Arabia85
86Azerbaijan86
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
77Bosnia & Herzegovina0.33
78Iran0.31
79Nepal0.30
80Kuwait0.30
81Pakistan0.29
82Zambia0.28
83Botswana0.25
84Armenia0.24
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
30Saudi Arabia6.7
31Germany6.7
32Trinidad & Tobago6.7
33Kuwait6.6
34Qatar6.6
35Chile6.6
36Spain6.5
37Singapore6.5
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
4Liechtenstein$75 065
5Brunei$72 843
6Norway$67 614
7UAE$66 203
8Luxembourg$62 471
9Switzerland$56 364
10Hong Kong$54 265
11USA$53 245
12Saudi Arabia$51 320
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
58Tunisia62.4
59Azerbaijan62.3
60S. Korea62.3
61Kuwait62.3
62Jordan62.2
63Armenia62.1
64Peru61.9
65Montenegro61.3
q=180.
IQ (2006)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
67Indonesia87
68Turkmenistan87
69Uzbekistan87
70Kuwait86
71Philippines86
72Yemen85
73Trinidad & Tobago85
74Peru85
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2018 Dec 31
http://www.humantruth.info/kuwait.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #charity #christianity #demographics #economics #equality #freedom #god #happiness #health #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #intelligence #internet #iraq #islam #it_security #judaism #Kuwait #life_expectancy #mental_health #morals #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #religion #research #science #smoking #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #UK #vaccines #yemen

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Book Cover

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Grim & Finke. Dr Grim is senior researcher in religion and world affairs at the Pew Research Center, Washington, D.C, USA. Finke is Professor of Sociology and Religious Studies at the Pennsylvania State University.
(2011) The Price of Freedom Denied. Subtitled: "Religious Persecution and Conflict in the Twenty-First Century". Amazon Kindle digital edition. Published by Cambridge University Press, UK. An e-book.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ku.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Kuwait".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  19. ^
  20. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  21. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^
  24. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  25. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  26. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^
  27. Sources:^
  28. Human Rights Watch (2018). p324-328.^^^
  29. Grim & Finke (2011) .^^
  30. Gallup (2009) .^
  31. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)45.^
  32. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  33. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  34. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  35. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  36. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  37. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  38. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  39. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  40. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  41. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  42. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  43. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  44. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  45. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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