The Human Truth Foundation

Vietnam (Socialist Republic of Vietnam)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #intelligence #morals #research #science #the_environment #vietnam

Vietnam
Socialist Republic of Vietnam
StatusIndependent State
CapitalHanoi
Land Area 310 070km21
LocationAsia
Population89.7m (2011)2
Life Expectancy75.94yrs (2017)3
GNI$5 335 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesVN, VNM, 7045
Internet Domain.vn6
CurrencyDong (VND)7
Telephone+848

1. Overview

#france #vietnam

The conquest of Vietnam by France began in 1858 and was completed by 1884. It became part of French Indochina in 1887. Vietnam declared independence after World War II, but France continued to rule until its 1954 defeat by communist forces under Ho Chi MINH. Under the Geneva Accords of 1954, Vietnam was divided into the communist North and anti-communist South. US economic and military aid to South Vietnam grew through the 1960s in an attempt to bolster the government, but US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire agreement in 1973. Two years later, North Vietnamese forces overran the South reuniting the country under communist rule. Despite the return of peace, for over a decade the country experienced little economic growth because of conservative leadership policies, the persecution and mass exodus of individuals - many of them successful South Vietnamese merchants - and growing international isolation. However, since the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986, Vietnamese authorities have committed to increased economic liberalization and enacted structural reforms needed to modernize the economy and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. The communist leaders, however, maintain control on political expression and have resisted outside calls to improve human rights. The country continues to experience small-scale protests from various groups - the vast majority connected to land-use issues, calls for increased political space, and the lack of equitable mechanisms for resolving disputes. Various ethnic minorities, such as the Montagnards of the Central Highlands and the Khmer Krom in the southern delta region, have also held protests.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverAstonishingly exotic and utterly compelling, Vietnam is a country of breathtaking natural beauty with an incredible heritage that quickly becomes addictive. Unforgettable experiences are everywhere in Vietnam. There´s the sublime: gazing over a surreal seascape of limestone islands from the deck of a Chinese junk in Halong Bay. The ridiculous: taking 10 minutes just to cross the street through a tsunami of motorbikes in Hanoi. The inspirational: exploring the world´s most spectacular cave systems in Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park. The comical: watching a moped loaded with honking pigs weave a wobbly route along a country lane. And the contemplative: witnessing a solitary grave in a cemetery of tens of thousands of war victims.

You´ll witness children riding buffalo, see the impossibly intricate textiles of hill-tribe communities and taste the super-fresh and subtle flavours of Vietnamese cuisine.

The nation is a budget traveller´s dream, with inexpensive transport, outstanding street food, good-value accommodation and bia hoi - perhaps the world´s cheapest beer.

This is a dynamic nation on the move. Prepare yourself for the ride of your life.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Vietnam National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
112Turkmenistan111
113Indonesia113
114Palestine114
115Vietnam115
116Philippines116
117El Salvador117
118Bolivia118
119S. Africa119
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
96El Salvador51.9
97Nepal51.9
98Suriname51.7
99Vietnam51.3
100Azerbaijan51.2
101Belarus51.2
102Russia51.1
103Tunisia51.0
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population #Vietnam

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
109Panama17.7
110N. Korea17.8
111Turkey18.0
112Vietnam18.3
113Tunisia18.6
114Azerbaijan18.7
115Colombia18.8
116Antigua & Barbuda19.0
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
145Costa Rica2.7
146Rwanda2.6
147Pakistan2.5
148Vietnam2.5
149Niger2.4
150Argentina2.4
151Cambodia2.3
152Uganda2.2
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
34Brazil1.80
35Guyana2.21
36Netherlands1.79
37Vietnam1.77
38Lebanon1.77
39Mexico2.25
40Sri Lanka2.26
41Armenia1.74
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
185Myanmar (Burma)0.2
186N. Korea0.2
187Morocco0.2
188Cuba0.1
189Peru0.1
190Vietnam0.1
191Indonesia0.1
192China0.1
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
56Antigua & Barbuda76.24
57Ecuador76.12
58China75.96
59Vietnam75.94
60Jamaica75.82
61Barbados75.77
62Iran75.58
63Bahamas75.56
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
10Japan126.4m
11Mexico116.1m
12Philippines96.5m
13Vietnam89.7m
14Ethiopia86.5m
15Egypt84.0m
16Germany82.0m
17Iran75.6m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Vietnam's population is predicted to rise to 101.48 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.77. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance #vietnam

Vietnam is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Vietnam comes in the top 20 in fighting anti-semitic opinions18. It does better than average in its Global Peace Index rating19, LGBT equality20 and in opposing gender inequality21. Vietnam does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in commentary from Human Rights Watch22, eliminating modern slavery23, fighting corruption24, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms25 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights26. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in supporting press freedom27. Vietnam does not permit independent political parties, labor unions or human rights organizations28. "Vietnam´s human rights situation seriously deteriorated in 2017. Police arrested at least 21 people for sweeping “national security” offenses that are used to punish critical speech and peaceful activism"28. Police brutality, sometimes involves deaths in custody, remains a problem28.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #vietnam

Religiosity (2009)29
Pos.Lower is better
%29
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
4Japan24
5Hong Kong24
6UK27
7France30
8Vietnam30
9Russia34
10Belarus34
11Latvia39
12Luxembourg39
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)30
Pos.Higher is better30
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
4Czechia61
5Estonia49
6Denmark48
7France44
8Belgium43
9Netherlands42
10Germany42
11UK42
12Cuba40
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below31:

Christian8.2%
Muslim0.2%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist16.4%
Folk Religion45.3%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated29.6%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 70.3% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 30% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Buddhist 9.3%, Catholic 6.7%, Hoa Hao 1.5%, Cao Dai 1.1%, Protestant 0.5%, Muslim 0.1%, none 80.8% (1999 census)32.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: The government attempts to strictly control religious activity and pressurizes all its citizens to only participate in state-sanctioned events and organisations, and "sometimes violently cracks down on religious groups operating outside government-controlled institutions. Unrecognized branches of the Cao Dai church, Hoa Hao Buddhist church, independent Protestant and Catholic house churches, Khmer Krom Buddhist temples, and the Unified Buddhist Church of Vietnam face constant surveillance"28.

Links:

6. The Internet

#internet #it_security #politics #the_internet #Vietnam

Freedom On The Internet (2012)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
37Belarus69
38Bahrain71
39Saudi Arabia71
40Vietnam73
41Ethiopia75
42Myanmar (Burma)75
43Uzbekistan77
44Syria83
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)34
Pos.Higher is better34
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
92Maldives54%
93Georgia53%
94China52%
95Vietnam52%
96S. Africa52%
97Dominican Rep.52%
98Uzbekistan51%
99Armenia50%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)35
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio35
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
28Hungary7.4
29Guatemala6.9
30Saudi Arabia6.8
31Vietnam5.9
32Slovenia5.4
33Bolivia5.0
34Macau4.2
35Singapore4.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

IT Security (2013)36
Pos.Lower is better36
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
48Mali1.12
49France1.13
50Italy1.15
51Vietnam1.15
52Nigeria1.18
53Mauritania1.19
54Azerbaijan1.21
55Belarus1.22
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines #Vietnam

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)21
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100021
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
88Romania34.6
89Bulgaria37.7
90Tajikistan38.1
91Vietnam38.6
92Pakistan38.7
93Haiti39.3
94Syria39.4
95Kyrgyzstan39.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)37
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita37
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
95Haiti6.4
96Cook Islands6.4
97Lesotho6.5
98Vietnam6.6
99Equatorial Guinea6.6
100St Vincent & Grenadines6.6
101Suriname6.6
102China6.7
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
96Namibia96
97Guyana97
98Colombia98
99Vietnam99
100Lesotho100
101Tanzania101
102Equatorial Guinea102
103Barbados103
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)39
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %39
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
102El Salvador92.4
103Swaziland92.4
104Palau92.4
105Vietnam92.3
106Denmark92.3
107Azerbaijan92.2
108Australia92.1
109Barbados92.1
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)40
Pos.Lower is better40
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
131Canada1 154
132Albania1 177
133Egypt1 188
134Vietnam1 215
135Iraq1 227
136Spain1 265
137Malta1 266
138Philippines1 291
World Avg 819
q=182.

8. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
41
Pos.Lower is better41
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
93France80.5
94Peru83.75
95Comoros84
96Vietnam84.5
97Paraguay84.75
98Argentina86.5
99Gabon86.75
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
125Brunei125
126Ivory Coast126
127Kuwait127
128Vietnam128
129Azerbaijan129
130Bangladesh130
131Mongolia131
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
99El Salvador99
100Nicaragua100
101Russia101
102Vietnam102
103Armenia103
104Ghana104
105Bahrain105
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
56Mauritius56
57Zambia57
58Romania58
59Vietnam59
60Malawi60
61Brazil61
62Grenada62
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
155Congo, DR155
156Ivory Coast156
157St Lucia157
158Vietnam158
159Laos159
160Equatorial Guinea160
161Fiji161
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
85Saudi Arabia85
86Azerbaijan86
87Uganda87
88Vietnam88
89Central African Rep.89
90Botswana90
91Guinea-Bissau91
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
90Nigeria0.22
91Azerbaijan0.21
92Burkina Faso0.20
93Vietnam0.19
94Panama0.18
95Mauritius0.18
96Oman0.17
97Kazakhstan0.17
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
52Moldova5.8
53Malaysia5.8
54Bolivia5.8
55Vietnam5.8
56Paraguay5.8
57Turkmenistan5.8
58Nicaragua5.7
59Jordan5.7
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
130Tuvalu$5 395
131Samoa$5 372
132Timor-Leste (E. Timor)$5 371
133Vietnam$5 335
134Tonga$5 284
135Palestine$5 256
136Laos$5 049
137Pakistan$5 031
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
129Tajikistan47.9
130Kenya47.3
131Bhutan47.2
132Vietnam47.0
133Indonesia46.9
134Guinea46.6
135Mozambique46.4
136Uzbekistan45.9
q=180.
IQ (2006)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
39Portugal95
40Israel95
41Kazakhstan94
42Vietnam94
43Armenia94
44Romania94
45Georgia94
46Argentina93
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2019 Jan 01
http://www.humantruth.info/vietnam.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #charity #christianity #demographics #economics #equality #france #freedom #god #happiness #health #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #intelligence #internet #islam #it_security #judaism #life_expectancy #morals #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #religion #research #science #smoking #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #vaccines #vietnam

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 14.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vm.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Vietnam".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^
  19. ^
  20. Sources:^
  21. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  22. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^
  23. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  24. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  25. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  26. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  27. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  28. Human Rights Watch (2018). p625-630.^^
  29. Gallup (2009) .^
  30. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)44.^
  31. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  32. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  33. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  34. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  35. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  36. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  37. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  38. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  39. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  40. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  41. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  42. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  43. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  44. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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