The Human Truth Foundation

France (French Republic)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#france

France
French Republic
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index20th best
CapitalParis
Land Area 547 660km21
LocationEurope, The Mediterranean
Population65.0m2
Life Expectancy82.36yrs (2017)3
GNI$38 085 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesFR, FRA, 2505
Internet Domain.fr6
CurrencyEuro (EUR)7
Telephone+338

1. Overview

#france #germany

France today is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leader among European nations. It plays an influential global role as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, NATO, the G-8, the G-20, the EU and other multilateral organizations. France rejoined NATO's integrated military command structure in 2009, reversing de Gaulle's 1966 decision to take French forces out of NATO. Since 1958, it has constructed a hybrid presidential-parliamentary governing system resistant to the instabilities experienced in earlier, more purely parliamentary administrations. In recent decades, its reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the economic integration of Europe, including the introduction of a common currency, the euro, in January 1999. In the early 21st century, five French overseas entities - French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion - became French regions and were made part of France proper.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverFrance seduces travellers with its unfalteringly familiar culture woven around cafe terraces, village-square markets and lace-curtained bistros with their plat du jour chalked on the board. Few countries provoke such passion as La Belle France. Love it or loathe it, everyone has their own opinion about this Gallic Goliath. Snooty, sexy, superior, chic, infuriating, arrogant, officious and inspired in equal measures, the French have long lived according to their own idiosyncratic rules, and if the rest of the world doesn´t always see eye-to-eye with them, well, tant pis (too bad) - it´s the price you pay for being a culinary trendsetter, artistic pioneer and cultural icon.

If ever there was a country of contradictions, this is it. France is a deeply traditional place: castles, chateaux and ancient churches litter the landscape, while centuries-old principles of rich food, fine wine and joie de vivre underpin everyday life. Yet it is also a country that has one of Western Europe´s most multicultural make-ups, not to mention a well-deserved reputation for artistic experimentation and architectural invention. Enjoy!

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. France National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
18S. Korea18
19Israel19
20Luxembourg20
21France21
22Belgium22
23Finland23
24Austria24
25Slovenia25
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
22Canada$42 582
23Belgium$41 243
24Finland$38 868
25France$38 085
26UK$37 931
27Japan$37 268
28Bahrain$37 236
29Iceland$37 065
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
17Spain42.2
18Ireland42.9
19Belgium43.5
20France44.0
21S. Korea45.0
22Italy45.1
23Slovenia47.2
24Hungary48.0
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. France's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

France's population is predicted to rise to 68.47 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.99. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
19Iran81.8m
20Thailand69.4m
21UK67.1m
22France65.0m
23Italy60.6m
24S. Africa57.8m
25Tanzania56.3m
26Myanmar (Burma)53.7m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
7Iceland82.72
8Israel82.56
9Australia82.54
10France82.36
11Sweden82.35
12Canada82.22
13S. Korea82.13
14New Zealand82.03
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
4France1.99
5Turkey2.04
6Australia1.96
7Uruguay2.05
8Norway1.95
9Myanmar (Burma)1.95
10Indonesia2.07
11Sweden1.93
12Tunisia1.93
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
171Canada38.5
172Croatia39.7
173Malta39.9
174France40.5
175Austria40.5
176Greece41.3
177Spain41.4
178Netherlands41.9
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
44Spain12.8%
45Iceland12.5%
46Libya12.4%
47France12.2%
48Barbados12.1%
49Djibouti12.1%
50Netherlands12.1%
51Slovenia11.8%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
141Spain3.0%
142Central African Rep.2.9%
143Angola2.8%
144France2.8%
145Costa Rica2.7%
146Rwanda2.6%
147Pakistan2.5%
148Vietnam2.5%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #France #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

France performs very well in ensuring human rights and freedom compared to most other countries. France does the best when it comes to commentary in Human Rights Watch reports19. It comes in the best 20 in LGBT equality20, its nominal commitment to Human Rights21 and in opposing gender inequality22. It does better than average in speed of uptake of HR treaties23, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms24 and in supporting press freedom25. In 2017, Human Rights Watch singled out Emmanuel Macron (France's President) in particular as embracing and supporting human rights visibly and explicitly, and his success in the polls indicates that his stance is widely accepted26. They also say that France's support of women's rights at home and internationally has been notable27. France does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average for its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice28. In some cases, anti-terrorism laws are being used to bypass judicial process, and, France's dealing with the Calais area migration camps have resulted in "dire living conditions" and the French ombudsman states that police behaviour has been abusive.29.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. France's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #France #health #life_expectancy #longevity #mental_health #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Health (2020)30,31
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank30,31
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
56Poland82.5
57Albania82.8
58Croatia82.9
59France82.9
60Vietnam83.0
61Czechia83.0
62Canada83.1
63Bosnia & Herzegovina83.1
64St Lucia84.4
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives30. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea30.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe30, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia30.

Health:

France does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. France comes in the best 20 when it comes to its average life expectancy12. It does better than average for its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance32, its adolescent birth rate22 and in its fertility rate15 (but bad for Europe). France does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average for its immunizations take-up33 and in its smoking rate34 (still low for Europe). And finally, it falls into the worst 20 when it comes to its suicide rate35 and in its alcohol consumption rate36. The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% over the last 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
7Iceland82.72
8Israel82.56
9Australia82.54
10France82.36
11Sweden82.35
12Canada82.22
13S. Korea82.13
14New Zealand82.03
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)36
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita36
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
176Belgium12.1
177Portugal12.3
178Slovenia12.6
179France12.6
180Romania12.7
181Bulgaria12.7
182Latvia12.9
183Luxembourg13.0
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
4France1.99
5Turkey2.04
6Australia1.96
7Uruguay2.05
8Norway1.95
9Myanmar (Burma)1.95
10Indonesia2.07
11Sweden1.93
12Tunisia1.93
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)34
Pos.Higher is worse34
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
124Latvia1 041
123Algeria1 024
122Brunei1 023
121France 993
120Bahrain 969
119Mongolia 957
118Australia 956
117Ireland 954
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)35
Pos.
Per 100k35
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
70Poland30.5
71Austria30.9
72Uruguay32.3
73France33.2
74Moldova35.7
75Switzerland36.2
76Croatia36.4
77Estonia37.9
World Avg20.93
q=91.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
20Kuwait20
21Japan21
22Spain22
23France23
24Italy24
25Qatar25
26Oman26
27Estonia27
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)37
Pos.Lower is better
%37
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
133Iceland59.1
134Montenegro59.4
135Belarus59.4
136France59.5
137Belgium59.5
138Lithuania59.6
139Croatia59.6
140El Salvador59.9
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)22
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100022
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
26Spain8.4
27Bosnia & Herzegovina8.6
28Saudi Arabia8.8
29France8.9
30Croatia9.5
31Israel9.7
32Canada9.8
33Kuwait9.8
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)33
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %33
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
98USA92.8
99Latvia92.8
100Romania92.7
101France92.6
102El Salvador92.4
103Swaziland92.4
104Palau92.4
105Vietnam92.3
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. France's Modernity and Learning

#education #english #intelligence #it_security #maths #modernity #religion #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)38
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank38
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
21Hungary21.2
22S. Korea21.5
23Hong Kong21.6
24France22.0
25Luxembourg22.2
26USA24.7
27Israel26.0
28Portugal27.0
29Latvia27.3
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2939
2Israel4.1139
3Japan3.5839
...
11USA2.7440
12Belgium2.4639
13Slovenia2.3939
14France2.2639
15Australia2.2541
16Singapore2.0040
17Czechia2.0039
18Netherlands1.9739
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
52Belgium84.8%
53UK84.5%
54Jordan84.0%
55France83.5%
56Sri Lanka82.8%
57Bosnia & Herzegovina81.2%
58Malaysia80.8%
59Cyprus80.3%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)43
Pos.Higher is better
Years43
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
37Malta15.9
38Palau15.6
39Russia15.5
40France15.5
41Seychelles15.5
42Georgia15.4
43Brazil15.4
44Costa Rica15.4
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
21Germany21
22Grenada22
23Poland23
24France24
25S. Africa25
26Singapore26
27Greece27
28Serbia28
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Maths, Science & Reading (2015)44
Pos.Higher is better
Score44
1Singapore1655
2Hong Kong1598
3Japan1586
...
22Australia1507
23UK1499
24Portugal1491
25France1487
26Sweden1487
27Austria1477
28Russia1476
29Spain1475
World Avg1389
q=70.
Religiosity (2009)45
Pos.Lower is better
%45
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
4Japan24
5Hong Kong24
6UK27
7France30
8Vietnam30
9Russia34
10Belarus34
11Latvia39
12Luxembourg39
World Avg75.1
q=114.
IQ (2006)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
23Andorra98
24Czechia98
25Spain98
26France98
27Australia98
28Denmark98
29USA98
30Latvia98
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
24Germany88%
25Aruba88%
26Switzerland87%
27France86%
28S. Korea86%
29Australia85%
30Bahamas85%
31Puerto Rico83%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IT Security (2013)48
Pos.Lower is better48
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
46Indonesia1.05
47British Virgin Islands1.08
48Mali1.12
49France1.13
50Italy1.15
51Vietnam1.15
52Nigeria1.18
53Mauritania1.19
World Avg0.98
q=81.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)49
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio49
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
9Ireland26.1
10UK24.7
11Japan22.1
12France18.8
13Canada18.3
14Peru18.3
15Ecuador18.2
16Estonia17.6
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
50
Pos.Lower is better50
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
90Senegal79
91Kazakhstan79.75
92Portugal80.25
93France80.5
94Peru83.75
95Comoros84
96Vietnam84.5
97Paraguay84.75
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)51
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score51
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
21Austria72.2
22Barbados71.5
23Chile70.4
24France70.0
25Bahamas69.8
26UAE68.6
27St Lucia68.3
28Estonia68.2
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)52
Pos.Higher is better52
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
20UAE6.8
21Czechia6.7
22Malta6.6
23France6.5
24Mexico6.5
25Chile6.5
26Taiwan6.4
27Panama6.4
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
11UK11
12Portugal12
13Finland13
14France14
15Germany15
16Slovenia16
17Latvia17
18Barbados18
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
14Germany14
15Albania15
16Togo16
17France17
18Singapore18
19Malaysia19
20Nicaragua20
21Portugal21
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)53
Pos.Lower is better53
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
37Laos1.66
38Italy1.69
39Bulgaria1.70
40France1.71
41Estonia1.72
42S. Korea1.73
43Lithuania1.74
44Argentina1.76
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
50Ireland50
51Norway51
52Finland52
53France53
54Australia54
55Italy55
56Mauritius56
57Zambia57
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)32
Pos.Lower is better
Rank32
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
13Belgium13
14Italy14
15Spain15
16France16
17Cyprus17
18Slovenia18
19New Zealand19
20Luxembourg20
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)54
Pos.Lower is better
Score54
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
112Iran4.72
113Chad4.76
114Russia4.90
115France5.01
116Indonesia5.07
117Nepal5.09
118Burundi5.10
119Palestine5.18
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)55
Pos.Higher is better
%55
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
27Italy22.5
28Turkey21.8
29Iran17.8
30France17.7
31Algeria17.3
32Bulgaria17.1
33Thailand17.1
34Chile16.2
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)56
Pos.Higher is better56
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
4Malta80.9
5Sweden80.5
6UK79.9
7Luxembourg79.1
8Austria79.0
9Ireland78.8
10Finland78.6
11Iceland78.6
12Spain78.4
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)57
Pos.Higher is better57
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
...
48Algeria10.00
49Macedonia10.00
50Croatia10.00
51France09.90
52Lebanon09.90
53Hungary09.80
54Latvia09.80
55Poland09.71
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
64Micronesia1994 Sep 18
65Malaysia1994 Sep 22
66Benin1994 Sep 28
67France1994 Sep 29
68Netherlands1994 Oct 10
69Pakistan1994 Oct 24
70Kenya1994 Oct 24
71Finland1994 Oct 25
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)58
Pos.Higher is better
%58
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
...
69Cameroon39.0%
70Uganda38.6%
71Sierra Leone38.6%
72France38.4%
73Mongolia38.4%
74Hungary38.0%
75Mauritania38.0%
76Croatia37.8%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)59
Pos.Higher is worse59
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
30Hungary4.20
29UK4.10
28Germany3.80
27France3.80
26Austria3.70
25Australia3.70
24Denmark3.60
23Cyprus3.60
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)60
Pos.Lower is better
%60
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
35Switzerland32.3
36Bangladesh32.4
37Mauritania32.6
38France32.7
39Estonia32.7
40Nepal32.8
41Tunisia32.8
42Mali33.0
World Avg38.1
q=152.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#afterlife #belief #buddhism #christianity #god #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #universalism

Religiosity (2009)45
Pos.Lower is better
%45
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
4Japan24
5Hong Kong24
6UK27
7France30
8Vietnam30
9Russia34
10Belarus34
11Latvia39
12Luxembourg39
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)61
Pos.Higher is better
%61
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
4Czechia61
5Estonia49
6Denmark48
7France44
8Belgium43
9Netherlands42
10Germany42
11UK42
12Cuba40
World Avg9.9
q=137.

France is a highly secular country, and even amongst those who declare themselves to be religious there is a high degree of non-belief. 51% of the French people are Catholic, but only half of those Catholics actually say they believe in God. Of the god-believers, only 18% of them have Catholic beliefs about God. These statistics led scholar Nikolai G. Wenzel (2011)62 to ask "what does it really mean to be Catholic any more?".63. Those statistics from 2007 have been verified by later data:

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below64:

Christian63%
Muslim7.5%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.5%
Folk Religion0.3%
Jew0.5%
Unaffiliated28%

By adding up the Pew Forum data for the major monotheistic religions we can see that these make up 71% of the population. Yet there are simply too many who disbelieve in God for this to be true (44%). This is due to the so-called 'Census Effect', whereby many put down a religion for cultural reasons rather than because it reflects their beliefs. In highly Christian countries, as many as half of those who say they're a Christian lack any connection to a Church, and do not hold Christian beliefs (such as believing in God!).

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 71.9% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 30% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 83%-88%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim 5%-10%, unaffiliated 4%. overseas departments: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Hindu, Muslim, Buddhist, pagan65.

The Afterlife: Ipsos-NA in 2011 gathered some statistics on France66. Despite the large numbers of Christians, not many have traditional beliefs in the afterlife - just 4%. More people don't know what to believe (32%). Even more people believe that upon death, you simply cease to exist (39%). Also, 1% specifically believe in heaven but not in hell (which is nice - making them possible "universalists"). 5% believe in reincarnation.

The movement to remove the privileges of institutionalized religion in France started earliest out of all Europe. Dobbelaere (2011)67 records that...:

In France, the secularist movement started at the end of the eighteenth century with laws introducing gradually the separation of church and state... state schools were compelled by law to be 'laïque' and 'neutral' towards the different creeds.

"The Meaning and Scope of Secularization" by Karel Dobbelaere (2011)68

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012)69, in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for France is one of the shortest of all countries (a good sign). It states:

The constitution and other laws, including the 1905 law on the "Separation of the Churches and the State", ensure state secularism (laïcité) and protect freedom of religion or belief. There are some exceptions to the policy of strict secularism. For example the French government owns and maintains free of charge all the Roman Catholic churches built before 1905, but no other religious building. And the law of 1905 does not completely apply to regions that (re)joined France after 1905. For example, there are still blasphemy laws on the book in the regions of Alsace and Moselle, as Articles 166 and 167 of the local penal code, although no convictions have been registered.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)70

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