By Vexen Crabtree 2013
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Republic of Indonesia
|Social and Moral Index||131st best|
|Land Area1||1 811 570 km2|
|Life Expectancy3||69.791yrs (2012)|
|ISO3166-1 Codes4||ID, IDN, 360|
“The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted "Guided Democracy." After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged Communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was removed from power. From 1966 until 1988, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his "New Order" Government. After rioting toppled Suharto in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006.”
CIA's The World Factbook (2013)8
Indonesia owns half of the large island, New Guinea.
The island of New Guinea is divided almost equally into two halves. The Eatern half is called Papua New Guinea, which has been an independent state since 1975, before which it was owned by Australia, Germany and the UK. The Western half is part of Indonesia. Humans have lived on the island of New Guinea for 40,000 years, whereupon they started cultivating and exploiting plants like yams and taro9. "Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement"8.
|UN's Human Development Index|
|Social and Moral Development|
The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others. The values in the chart are factored by 100.
The Social and Moral Development Index is a formulaic aggregation of many factors. It concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).
|Life Expectancy (at birth)|
|116||Trinidad & Tobago||70.3|
|3||St Vincent & Grenadines||2.0|
Indonesia's population is predicted to rise to 279.66 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 2.07.
The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.
|Female Vote and Stand|
Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.
Indonesia is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.
|Disbelief In God|
|71||Central African Rep.||2%|
|How Many Are Religious?|
Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below10:
The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)11.
The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012), in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Indonesia states:
“Indonesia recognizes only six official religions - Islam, Catholicism, Protestantism, Confucianism, Buddhism, and Hinduism - and requires its citizens to adhere to one of these. The country's blasphemy law makes it illegal to promote other faiths, or atheism. Article 156(a) of the country's criminal code also punishes "disseminating information aimed at inciting religious hatred or hostility" with up to five years in prison. Persons who do not identify with one of the six official religions, including people with no religion, continue to experience official discrimination. This discrimination occurs often in the context of civil registration of marriages and births and other situation involving family law.12
Official ID cards must list one of the six official religions12; therefore "atheism" or "Humanism" or "no religion" are not permitted options. Applicants for government jobs must also identify as belonging to one of the six official religions. To register an organization in Indonesia, the organizers must declare their allegiance to the Basic Ideology of the State (called Pancasila); the first principle of Pancasila is 'Belief in the one and only God'. That means no atheist group can legally register itself.
Cases of discrimination:”
"In January 2012, Alexander Aan, an Indonesian civil servant in the province of West Sumatra, was arrested after being attacked by a mob of Muslim militants. The mob was reacting to statements Aan made on Facebook which criticized Islam and said he had left Islam and become an atheist. The police charged Aan on three separate counts: insulting religion (which has a maximum sentence of five years jail), the electronic transmission of defamatory comments (six years jail), and false reporting on an official form (six years jail). The charges of blasphemy and defamation related to his criticism of Islam on Facebook. The final charge [... was] based on the conflict between his atheist Facebook posts and his official registration as a Muslim - a registration he had to submit because Indonesians must identify with one of the six officially permitted religions. [...]
On June 14, 2012, a district court sentenced atheist Alexander Aan to two years and six months in prison for "spreading information inciting religious hatred and animosity." Aan was also reportedly fined 100 million rupiah (US $10,600)."
"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)13
|IT Security Risks|
|237||British Virgin Islands||1.08|
|Internet Users in Population|
Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.
The IHEU's Freedom of Thought publication notes that in countries like Pakistan and Indonesia, where "organized atheism is impossible if not directly illegal", atheists frequently organize themselves online. This is because in these heavily Muslim countries, any deviance from Islam is grimly punishable. It is their only possible avenue of expression. But those "who have been caught criticizing religion online have been arrested and harrassed on seemingly spurious thought-crime type offences"14. The Internet is itself a tool of human rights, even in the dark corners of the world where the vested interests of powerful religionists seek to restrict basic freedoms.
(World Position, 2013-2016)16
|Personal, Civil and Economic Freedom17|
|75||Papua New Guinea||74|
|Global Peace Index|
|65||Bosnia & Herzegovina||1.92|
|Human Rights Treaties|
|176||Sao Tome & Principe||7|
|Press Freedom Index|
|R & D Spending|
|Country||% RDP PPP|
|117||Trinidad & Tobago||0.05||20|
|Gross National Income|
|137||Papua New Guinea||44.3|
Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Feb 28.
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.
IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.
Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.
MacGregor, Neil. Director of the British Museum.
(2010) A History of the World in 100 Objects. Published by the BBC and the British Museum. Aired on BBC Radio 4.
The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016..
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
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