The Human Truth Foundation

Laos (Lao People's Democratic Republic)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #laos #morals #the_environment

Laos
Lao People's Democratic Republic
StatusIndependent State
CapitalVientiane
Land Area 230 800km21
LocationAsia
Population6.4m (2011)2
Life Expectancy66.60yrs (2017)3
GNI$5 049 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesLA, LAO, 4185
Internet Domain.la6
CurrencyKip (LAK)7
Telephone+8568

1. Overview

Modern-day Laos has its roots in the ancient Lao kingdom of Lan Xang, established in the 14th century under King FA NGUM. For 300 years Lan Xang had influence reaching into present-day Cambodia and Thailand, as well as over all of what is now Laos. After centuries of gradual decline, Laos came under the domination of Siam (Thailand) from the late 18th century until the late 19th century when it became part of French Indochina. The Franco-Siamese Treaty of 1907 defined the current Lao border with Thailand. In 1975, the Communist Pathet Lao took control of the government ending a six-century-old monarchy and instituting a strict socialist regime closely aligned to Vietnam. A gradual, limited return to private enterprise and the liberalization of foreign investment laws began in 1988. Laos became a member of ASEAN in 1997 and the WTO in 2013.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverLaos, long a forgotten backwater, combines some of the best elements of Southeast Asia in one bite-sized destination. Pockets of pristine environment, a kaleidoscope of diverse cultures and quite possibly the most chilled-out people on earth have earned Laos cult status among travellers. Imagine a country where your pulse slows, smiles are genuine and the locals are still curious about you.Village life is refreshingly simple, and even in Vientiane it´s hard to believe this sort of languid riverfront life exists in a capital city. Magical Luang Prabang bears witness to hundreds of saffron-robed monks gliding through the streets in search of alms; it´s one of the region´s iconic images.Away from the cities, it´s easy to make a quick detour off the beaten track and end up in a fairytale landscape with jagged limestone cliffs, brooding jungle and the snaking Mekong River as a backdrop. Community-based trekking combines these natural attractions with a village homestay. The Lao people are wonderfully welcoming hosts and there is no better way to get to know their culture than by sharing their lives.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Laos National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
135Congo, (Brazzaville)135
136Equatorial Guinea135
137Kiribati137
138Laos138
139Zambia139
140Bangladesh139
141Ghana139
142Sao Tome & Principe142
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
141Uganda46.4
142Myanmar (Burma)46.2
143Bangladesh46.1
144Laos46.0
145Rwanda45.8
146Libya45.7
147Tonga45.6
148Gambia45.5
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #Laos #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
51UAE07.7
52Oman07.8
53Jordan08.0
54Laos08.1
55Timor-Leste (E. Timor)08.2
56Belize08.3
57Gabon08.5
58Pakistan08.6
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
98Netherlands6.0
99Italy5.8
100Benin5.8
101Laos5.7
102Turkey5.6
103Comoros5.6
104Congo, (Brazzaville)5.6
105Togo5.4
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
92Cuba1.45
93India2.55
94Germany1.44
95Laos2.58
96Malaysia2.58
97Hungary1.42
98Romania1.42
99Japan1.40
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
176Eritrea0.3
177Afghanistan0.3
178Lesotho0.3
179Laos0.3
180Egypt0.3
181Iraq0.3
182Somalia0.2
183Colombia0.2
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
133India68.32
134Solomon Islands68.11
135Senegal66.93
136Laos66.60
137Sao Tome & Principe66.58
138Guyana66.50
139Pakistan66.37
140Kiribati66.23
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
102Paraguay6.7m
103Libya6.5m
104Jordan6.5m
105Laos6.4m
106Togo6.3m
107El Salvador6.3m
108Sierra Leone6.1m
109Nicaragua6.0m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Laos's population is predicted to rise to 7.754 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 2.58. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #Laos #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
4Netherlands5
5Vietnam6
6UK8
7Denmark9
8USA9
9Tanzania12
10Thailand13
11Czechia13
12Canada14
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)19
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score19
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
147Kenya26.0
148Bangladesh25.8
149Papua New Guinea25.6
150Laos25.4
151Guinea25.0
152Central African Rep.23.8
153Tajikistan23.6
154Congo, (Brazzaville)22.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)20
Pos.Lower is better20
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
34Vietnam1.64
35Croatia1.65
36Costa Rica1.66
37Laos1.66
38Italy1.69
39Bulgaria1.70
40France1.71
41Estonia1.72
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)21
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties21
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
153Swaziland11
154Zimbabwe11
155Saudi Arabia10
156Laos10
157Solomon Islands10
158Qatar10
159Vatican City10
160India10
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)22
Pos.Lower is better
Rank22
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
106Malawi106
107Thailand107
108Lebanon108
109Laos109
110Ivory Coast110
111Ukraine111
112Senegal111
113Colombia111
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)23
Pos.Lower is better23
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
164Bahrain6275
165Equatorial Guinea6720
166Djibouti6740
167Laos6799
168Yemen6922
169Sudan7006
170Cuba7164
171Vietnam7178
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)24
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims24
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
143Macedonia0.87
144Swaziland0.88
145Thailand0.89
146Laos0.94
147Papua New Guinea1.03
148Belarus1.09
149Brunei1.09
150Myanmar (Burma)1.10
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory25. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends26. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life27. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves28.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery29. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity30. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.31. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi24, Eritrea24, Indonesia32) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery33.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #Laos #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better34
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
103Nicaragua0.46
104Paraguay0.46
105Indonesia0.47
106Laos0.47
107Dominican Rep.0.47
108Namibia0.47
109Burundi0.47
110Bhutan0.48
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote35
Pos.Lower is better
Year35
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
113Egypt1956
114Comoros1956
115Malaysia1957
116Laos1958
117Hungary1958
118Chad1958
119Nigeria1958
120Burkina Faso1958
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Laos and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting. Laos is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)36
Pos.Higher is better36
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
47Cambodia7
48Moldova6
49Italy6
50Laos5
51Ireland5
52Mozambique5
53Zimbabwe4
54Namibia4
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below37:

Christian1.5%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist66%
Folk Religion30.7%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.9%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Buddhist 67%, Christian 1.5%, other and unspecified 31.5% (2005 census)38.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012)39, in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Laos states:

The constitution provides for freedom of religion or belief. However, other laws and policies restrict this right. The prime minister's Decree on Religious Practice (Decree 92) is the principal legal instrument defining rules for religious practice; it institutionalizes the government's role as the final arbiter of permissible religious activities. Although the government does not recognize an official state religion, the government's exemption of Buddhism from many of the Decree 92 restrictions, sponsorship of Buddhist facilities, incorporation of Buddhist ritual and ceremony in state functions, and promotion of Buddhism as an element of the country's cultural and spiritual identity give Theravada Buddhism an elevated status40.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)41

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #it_security #Laos #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
161Mauritania17%
162S. Sudan17%
163Gambia17%
164Laos16%
165Namibia16%
166Turkmenistan15%
167Bangladesh13%
168Iraq13%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)43
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio43
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
102Colombia0.0
103Ghana0.0
104Yemen0.0
105Laos0.0
106Malta0.0
107Turkmenistan0.0
108Bangladesh0.0
109Qatar0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.
IT Security (2013)44
Pos.Lower is better44
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
35Ivory Coast0.82
36Ethiopia0.84
37Iran0.85
38Laos0.86
39Spain0.88
40Kuwait0.93
41Saudi Arabia0.93
42Malaysia0.96
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #Laos #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100034
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
126Philippines61.7
127Mexico62.8
128Argentina63.8
129Laos64.1
130Honduras65.0
131El Salvador65.2
132S. Sudan65.9
133Belize65.9
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)45
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita45
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
119Japan7.2
120Mexico7.2
121Ecuador7.2
122Laos7.3
123Angola7.5
124Uruguay7.6
125Tanzania7.7
126Georgia7.7
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)46
Pos.Lower is better
Rank46
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
120Seychelles120
121Guinea-Bissau121
122Argentina122
123Laos123
124Antigua & Barbuda124
125Burkina Faso125
126Mauritius126
127Congo, DR127
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)47
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %47
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
145Zambia84.2
146Congo, (Brazzaville)83.6
147Cameroon83.3
148Laos83.3
149Djibouti82.6
150Uganda82.5
151Comoros81.8
152Marshall Islands81.8
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)48
Pos.Lower is better48
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
109Papua New Guinea 826
110UK 827
111Sweden 831
112Laos 836
113Iran 869
114Thailand 895
115Turkmenistan 925
116Chile 930
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
49
Pos.Lower is better49
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
43Slovenia38.75
44Costa Rica38.75
45Liberia40.67
46Laos41
47Uganda41.25
48Singapore42
49Somaliland42
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)46
Pos.Lower is better
Rank46
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
97St Vincent & Grenadines97
98Zimbabwe98
99Panama99
100Laos100
101Cameroon101
102Peru102
103Cape Verde103
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)46
Pos.Lower is better
Rank46
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
142Malawi142
143Benin143
144Cameroon144
145Laos145
146Nigeria146
147Equatorial Guinea147
148Angola148
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)46
Pos.Lower is better
Rank46
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
102Lesotho102
103Antigua & Barbuda103
104Latvia104
105Laos105
106Mozambique106
107Poland107
108Ukraine108
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)46
Pos.Lower is better
Rank46
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
156Ivory Coast156
157St Lucia157
158Vietnam158
159Laos159
160Equatorial Guinea160
161Fiji161
162Tonga162
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)46
Pos.Lower is better
Rank46
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
109Thailand109
110Ecuador110
111Malawi111
112Laos112
113China113
114S. Africa114
115Cape Verde115
q=163.
Life Satisfaction (2011)50
Pos.Higher is better50
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
84Iraq5.0
85Philippines5.0
86Zambia5.0
87Laos5.0
88Mauritania5.0
89Latvia5.0
90Mongolia5.0
91Romania5.0
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
133Vietnam$5 335
134Tonga$5 284
135Palestine$5 256
136Laos$5 049
137Pakistan$5 031
138Moldova$5 026
139Myanmar (Burma)$4 943
140Nicaragua$4 747
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)51
Pos.Higher is better51
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
150Cambodia43.2
151Solomon Islands43.2
152Iraq43.2
153Laos42.9
154Burkina Faso42.8
155Sierra Leone42.5
156Gambia42.4
157Congo, (Brazzaville)42.4
q=180.
Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
4Netherlands5
5Vietnam6
6UK8
7Denmark9
8USA9
9Tanzania12
10Thailand13
11Czechia13
12Canada14
q=101.
LGBT Equality (2017)52
Pos.Higher is better
Score52
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
90Micronesia20
91Armenia20
92Mozambique17
93Laos15
94Haiti15
95Azerbaijan15
96Equatorial Guinea15
97Burkina Faso15
q=196.
IQ (2006)53
Pos.Higher is better53
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
57Kyrgyzstan90
58Chile90
59Costa Rica89
60Laos89
61Ecuador88
62Mexico88
63Brazil87
64Bolivia87
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/laos.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #antisemitism #belief #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #it_security #judaism #Laos #life_expectancy #mass_media #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #slavery #smoking #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

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(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Klein, Naomi
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Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

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Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
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Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/la.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Laos".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  19. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  20. ^
  21. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  22. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  23. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  24. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  25. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  26. McCall (1979). P180.^
  27. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  28. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  31. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  32. Klein (2004) .^
  33. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  34. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  35. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  36. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)53.^
  37. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  38. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  39. IHEU (2012) .^
  40. uscirf.gov/...laos-chapter-summary-2012.html in IHEU 2012.^
  41. IHEU (2012) .Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  42. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  43. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  44. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  45. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  46. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  47. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  48. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  49. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  50. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  51. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  52. Sources:^
  53. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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