The Human Truth Foundation

Italy (Italian Republic)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#italy

Italy
Italian Republic
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index25th best
CapitalRome
Land Area 294 140km21
LocationEurope, Mediterranean
Population61.0m (2011)2
Life Expectancy83.34yrs (2017)3
GNI$33 573 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesIT, ITA, 3805
Internet Domain.it6
CurrencyEuro (EUR)7
Telephone+398

1. Overview

#germany

Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy is a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include sluggish economic growth, high youth and female unemployment, organized crime, corruption, and economic disparities between southern Italy and the more prosperous north.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverItaly is the ultimate dream date: impossibly good-looking, impeccably cultured and obscenely good in the kitchen. Endlessly inspiring and naturally flirtatious, it will leave you swooning. Italians really do know how to live well. Ever since the Etruscans came, liked what they saw and decided to stay and party, the locals have embraced the finer things in life. Here, family, faith, friendship, food and wine reign supreme, contributing to the famous Italian dolce vita (sweet life).

Travellers have been falling under Italy´s spell ever since the days of the 18th-century Grand Tour, enticed by its sun-kissed landscape, delectable cuisine and extraordinary art. This is the home of gently rolling Tuscan hills and postcard-perfect coastlines; the place where simple dishes such as pizza and pasta attain culinary perfection. It´s where Michelangelo shocked the establishment with his humanist sculptures and Caravaggio shocked everyone else with his criminal highjinks and darkly atmospheric paintings.

So make like Julius Caesar. Come and see – you´re sure to be conquered. If you get it right, travelling in the bel paese (beautiful country) is one of those rare experiences than cannot be overrated.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Italy National and Social Development

UN HDI (2016)
Lower is better

Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
23Finland23
24Austria24
25Slovenia25
26Italy26
27Spain27
28Czech Rep.28
29Greece29
30Brunei30
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
Higher is better

Points12
1Iceland84.1
2Sweden80.8
3Norway80.0
...
22Estonia70.7
23USA69.4
24Portugal69.0
25Italy68.7
26Czech Rep.68.4
27Korea, S.68.2
28Israel67.0
29Singapore66.9
World Avg54.5
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)
Lower is better

Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
178Netherlands41.9
179Slovenia42.7
180Finland43.3
181Hong Kong43.7
182Portugal44.7
183Germany47.7
184Italy48.6
185Japan53.1
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
96Guatemala6.1
97Brunei6.0
98Netherlands6.0
99Italy5.8
100Benin5.8
101Laos5.7
102Turkey5.6
103Comoros5.6
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)
2.0 is best
15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
86Nicaragua2.52
87Belarus1.47
88Slovenia1.47
89Italy1.47
90Cyprus1.46
91Moldova1.46
92Cuba1.45
93India2.55
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
66St Vincent & Grenadines7.9
67Ghana7.6
68Suriname7.5
69Italy7.4
70Montenegro6.8
71Burkina Faso6.4
72Macedonia6.3
73Namibia6.3
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)
Higher is better

Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
4Singapore83.21
5Switzerland83.13
6Spain82.77
7Iceland82.72
8Israel82.56
9Australia82.54
10France82.36
11Sweden82.35
12Canada82.22
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
20Congo, DR69.6m
21France63.5m
22UK62.8m
23Italy61.0m
24S. Africa50.7m
25Myanmar (Burma)48.7m
26Korea, S.48.6m
27Tanzania47.7m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Italy's population is predicted to fall to 60 851 000 by 2030. Developed countries with falling populations face a pension's crises, whereby an incresingly ageing population must be cared for by fewer and fewer workers. Economic stability can be maintained by increasing foreign workers from younger countries. This country has a fertility rate of 1.47. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Gender Inequality (2015)
Lower is better18
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
13Luxembourg0.07
14Austria0.08
15Spain0.08
16Italy0.08
17Portugal0.09
18Canada0.10
19France0.10
20Israel0.10
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote
Lower is better

Year19
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
50Jamaica1944
51Slovenia1945
52Croatia1945
53Italy1945
54Senegal1945
55Indonesia1945
56Japan1945
57Togo1945
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Italy is notable for its equality between the sexes.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#afterlife #buddhism #christianity #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #judaism #universalism

Religiosity (2009)
Lower is better
%20
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
34Singapore70
35Montenegro71
36Greece71
37Italy72
38Moldova72
39Kyrgyzstan72
40Armenia73
41Mexico73
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)
Higher is better21
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
46Kyrgyzstan7
47Cambodia7
48Moldova6
49Italy6
50Laos5
51Ireland5
52Mozambique5
53Zimbabwe4
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below22:

Christian83.3%
Muslim3.7%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.2%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated12.4%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 87.5% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 72% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Christian 80% (overwhelming Roman Catholic with very small groups of Jehova Witnesses and Protestants), Muslims NEGL (about 700,000 but growing), Atheists and Agnostics 20%23.

The Afterlife: Ipsos-NA in 2011 gathered some statistics on Italy24. Despite the large numbers of Christians, not many have traditional beliefs in the afterlife - just 21%. More people don't know what to believe (25%). Some believe that upon death, you simply cease to exist (24%). Also, 2% specifically believe in heaven but not in hell (which is nice - making them possible "universalists"). 4% believe in reincarnation.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012), in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Italy states:

The constitution and other laws and policies protect freedom of religion or belief. However, under article 724 of the penal code, blasphemy is considered as an "administrative offense" and punished with a fine. Administrative law requires that all classrooms in state schools display crucifixes. Additionally, the government recognizes the Holy See as a sovereign authority. Under the 1984 revision of the concordat with the Catholic Church, the state is secular but maintains the practice of state support for religion, which can also be extended to non-Catholic confessions if requested. In such cases, state support is governed by legislation implementing the provisions of an intesa (accord) between the government and the religious group. An intesa grants clergy automatic access to state hospitals, prisons, and military barracks; allows for civil registry of religious marriages; facilitates special religious practices regarding funerals; and exempts students from school attendance on religious holidays. If a religious community so requests, an intesa may provide for state routing of funds, through a voluntary check-off on taxpayer returns, to that community. The state paid Catholic religion teachers, but this financial support was not available to other religious communities. If a student requested the assistance of a religion teacher of a non-Catholic religious group, that group could select a representative but had to cover the cost. The government provided funds for the construction of places of worship, granted public land for their construction, and helped preserve and maintain historic places of worship that shelter much of the country's artistic and cultural heritage.

Cases of Discrimination

On June 12, 2006, the blasphemy case against the author Oriana Fallaci begins in Bergamo, Italy. Prosecutors alleged that her latest book, La Forza della Ragione (The Force of Reason), contained eighteen statements "unequivocally offensive to Islam and Muslims." Oriana Fallaci died of lung cancer before the trial could conclude.

On March 16, 2005, a Milan court prohibited a billboard campaign by the clothes company Francois Girbaut because of a photo imitating Leonardo's Last Supper.

On October 20, 2010, the Italian Minister for Foreign Affairs, Franco Frattini, called for Muslims, Jewsand Christians to unite to fight the "threat" that he claims atheism poses to society.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)25

Links:

6. The Internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)
Lower is better
26
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
4Australia18
5Hungary19
6Philippines23
7Italy23
8UK25
9S. Africa26
10Argentina26
11Ukraine27
12Brazil27
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)
Higher is better
27
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
64Brazil66%
65St Kitts & Nevis66%
66Dominica66%
67Italy66%
68Uruguay65%
69Antigua & Barbuda65%
70Greece65%
71Saudi Arabia65%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)
Higher is better

Ratio28
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
41Sri Lanka2.9
42Latvia2.2
43Israel1.8
44Italy1.7
45Argentina1.4
46Faroe Islands1.4
47Russia1.3
48Bulgaria1.3
World Avg3.82
q=176.

IT Security (2013)
Lower is better
29
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
47British Virgin Islands1.08
48Mali1.12
49France1.13
50Italy1.15
51Vietnam1.15
52Nigeria1.18
53Mauritania1.19
54Azerbaijan1.21
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)
Lower is better

Per 100018
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
11Sweden5.7
12Norway5.9
13Luxembourg5.9
14Italy6.0
15Iceland6.1
16Libya6.2
17Finland6.5
18Germany6.7
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)
Lower is better

Per Capita30
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
100St Vincent & Grenadines6.6
101Suriname6.6
102China6.7
103Italy6.7
104Trinidad & Tobago6.7
105Macedonia6.7
106Burkina Faso6.8
107Barbados6.8
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)
Higher is better

Avg %31
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
83Lithuania93.9
84Estonia93.9
85Korea, N.93.8
86Italy93.8
87Austria93.8
88Argentina93.7
89Bulgaria93.7
90Serbia93.5
World Avg88.3
q=194.

Smoking Rates (2014)
Lower is better
32
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
146Saudi Arabia1 395
147Netherlands1 396
148Poland1 396
149Italy1 443
150Germany1 480
151Bulgaria1 505
152Kuwait1 517
153Armenia1 545
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)
Lower is better

Per 100k33
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
33Panama10.9
34Nicaragua11.6
35Costa Rica12.1
36Italy12.8
37Macedonia13.5
38Mauritius13.7
39UK13.9
40Ecuador14.1
World Avg20.93
q=91.

8. Politics and Freedom

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)
Higher is better

Treaties34
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
11Serbia23
12Sweden23
13Uruguay23
14Italy22
15Denmark22
16Croatia22
17Belgium22
18Austria22
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)
Lower is better

Rank35
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
25Iceland25
26Taiwan26
27Slovakia27
28Italy28
29Chile29
30Romania30
31France31
32Japan32
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)
Lower is better
36
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
53Argentina2567
54Moldova2601
55Hungary2609
56Italy2611
57Hong Kong2616
58Senegal2619
59Chile2624
60Sierra Leone2635
World Avg3249
q=178.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Anti-Semite Opinions
Lower is better

%37
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
23Jamaica18
24India20
25Ireland20
26Italy20
27China20
28Portugal21
29Ivory Coast22
30Estonia22
q=101.
Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
Lower is better
38
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
69Namibia61
70Bolivia61.5
71Honduras61.75
72Italy63.5
73Botswana63.75
74Ghana63.75
75Spain64
q=156.
Global Peace Index (2012)
Lower is better
39
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
35Croatia1.65
36Costa Rica1.66
37Laos1.66
38Italy1.69
39Bulgaria1.70
40France1.71
41Estonia1.72
42Korea, S.1.73
q=157.
Research and Development
Higher is better

% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
23Ireland1.52
24Estonia1.43
25Hungary1.37
26Italy1.29
27Portugal1.28
28Luxembourg1.26
29Spain1.22
30Russia1.19
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)
Higher is better
40
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
43Malta6.2
44Uruguay6.1
45Japan6.1
46Italy6.1
47Slovenia6.0
48Guyana6.0
49Honduras5.9
50Slovakia5.9
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)
Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
29Iceland$37 065
30Korea, S.$34 541
31Oman$34 402
32Italy$33 573
33New Zealand$32 870
34Spain$32 779
35Israel$31 215
36Malta$29 500
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2010)
Higher is better
41
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
15New Zealand73.4
16Chile73.3
17Germany73.2
18Italy73.1
19Portugal73.0
20Japan72.5
21Latvia72.5
22Czech Rep.71.6
q=162.
LGBT Equality (2013)
Higher is better

Score42
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
21Peru120
22Poland115
23Guatemala115
24Italy115
25Paraguay110
26Japan110
27Monaco110
28Honduras110
q=211.
IQ (2006)
Higher is better43
1Singapore108
2Hong Kong108
3Korea, S.106
4Japan105
5Taiwan105
6China105
7Italy102
8Iceland101
9Switzerland101
10Mongolia101
11Norway100
12Netherlands100
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/italy.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#afterlife #buddhism #christianity #germany #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #italy #judaism #universalism

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Aug 01.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Ipsos-NA. Ipsos-North America.
(2011) Supreme Being(s), the Afterlife and Evolution. Ipsos press release page, link to raw data. Accessed 2017 May 29. The poll was conducted in 23 developed and mostly rich countries - it would be unwise to use their irresponsibly extrapolated data on "global beliefs", but their data on individual countries is still good..

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes..

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016..

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Analysis conducted by the UN Development Report Office. Available on hdr.undp.org/..

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017) Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017) Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/it.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014) chapter "Italy" .^
  11. UN (2017) Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  13. UN (2017) Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013) Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013) Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017) Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013) Table 14.^
  18. UN (2017) Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  19. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote (1893+) New Zealand, Australia, Finland" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  20. Gallup (2009) .^
  21. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009).^
  22. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  23. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  24. Ipsos (2011) .^
  25. IHEU (2012) . Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  26. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  27. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  28. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  29. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 4.4. Malware and Email Spam (2010-2) " by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  30. WHO (2014) Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  31. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  32. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  33. UN (2013) World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  34. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  35. Fraser Institute, the (2016) . Covers data for 2014.^
  36. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  37. ADL (2014) . Lower is better.^
  38. Charities Aid Foundation . Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  39. ^
  40. UN (2013) Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  41. UN (2011) Table 6. Higher is better.^
  42. Higher is better. Sources:^
  43. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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