The Human Truth Foundation

Italy (Italian Republic)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#Italy

Italy
Italian Republic
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index33rd best
CapitalRome
Land Area1 294 140 km2
LocationEurope, Mediterranean
Population2 60.96 million
Life Expectancy381.966yrs (2012)
GNI3$26 158
ISO3166-1 Codes4IT, ITA, 380
Internet Domain5.it
Currency6Euro (EUR)
Telephone7+39

1. Overview

Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy is a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include sluggish economic growth, high youth and female unemployment, organized crime, corruption, and economic disparities between southern Italy and the more prosperous north.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)8

2. Italy National and Social Development

UN's Human Development Index
Country2012
score
Average
1980-2010
1Norway95.587.3
2Australia93.888.9
3USA93.787.8
...
22Slovenia89.284.4
23Spain88.578.9
24Liechtenstein88.390.4
25Italy88.179.5
26Luxembourg87.580.9
27UK87.580.4
28Czech Rep.87.383.9
29Greece86.078.7
30Brunei85.579.7
31Cyprus84.879.5
32Malta84.777.1
33Andorra84.683.8
34Estonia84.677.5
Data Source
Social and Moral Development
CountryScore
1Sweden88.9
2Iceland87.4
3Denmark87.2
...
30Slovakia71.3
31USA70.5
32Singapore70.3
33Italy69.9
34Antigua & Barbuda69.9
35Lithuania69.6
36Barbados69.2
37Latvia69.1
38Costa Rica68.7
39Israel68.5
40Seychelles68.4
41St Kitts & Nevis68.1
42Bahamas67.9
43Uruguay67.7
Data Source

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others. The values in the chart are factored by 100.

The Social and Moral Development Index is a formulaic aggregation of many factors. It concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).

3. Population and Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy (at birth)
1Japan83.6
2Hong Kong83
3Switzerland82.5
4Monaco82.3
5Australia82
6Italy82
7Iceland81.9
8San Marino81.9
9Israel81.9
10France81.7
11Sweden81.6
12Spain81.6
Data Source
Fertility Rate
1Korea, N.2.0
2Brunei2.0
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.0
...
86Nicaragua2.5
87Belarus1.5
88Slovenia1.5
89Italy1.5
90Cyprus1.5
91Moldova1.5
92Cuba1.4
93India2.6
Data Source
Population (m=millions)
CountryPeoplePer km2
1China1 353.6m145
2India1 258.35m423
3USA 315.79m35
...
20Congo, DR 69.58m31
21France 63.46m116
22UK 62.8m260
23Italy 60.96m207
24S. Africa 50.74m42
25Myanmar (Burma) 48.72m75
26Korea, S. 48.59m500
Data Source

Italy's population is predicted to fall to 60 851 000 by 2030, decreasing the burden on the planet's resources. Developed countries with falling populations face a pension's crises, whereby an incresingly ageing population must be cared for by fewer and fewer workers. Economic stability can be maintained by increasing foreign workers from younger countries. This country has a fertility rate of 1.47.

The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Female Vote and Stand
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
49Jamaica1944
50Bulgaria1944
51Japan1945
52Italy1945
53Indonesia1945
54Senegal1945
55Togo1945
56Slovenia1945
Gender Equality
1Netherlands0.04
2Sweden0.05
3Denmark0.06
...
8Slovenia0.08
9France0.08
10Iceland0.09
11Italy0.09
12Belgium0.10
13Singapore0.10
14Austria0.10
15Spain0.10
Data Source

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Italy is on the way towards ending gender inequality.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Disbelief In God
1Vietnam81%
2Japan65%
3Sweden64%
...
45Dominican Rep.7%
46Kyrgyzstan7%
47Croatia7%
48Italy6%
49Moldova6%
50Ireland5%
51Laos5%
52Mozambique5%
Data Source
How Many Are Religious?
1Estonia16%
2Sweden17%
3Denmark19%
...
34Singapore70%
35Montenegro71%
36Greece71%
37Italy72%
38Moldova72%
39Kyrgyzstan72%
40Mexico73%
41Armenia73%
Data Source

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below9:

Christian83.3%
Muslim3.7%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.2%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated12.4%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 87.5% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 72% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Christian 80% (overwhelming Roman Catholic with very small groups of Jehova Witnesses and Protestants), Muslims NEGL (about 700,000 but growing), Atheists and Agnostics 20%10.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012), in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Italy states:

The constitution and other laws and policies protect freedom of religion or belief. However, under article 724 of the penal code, blasphemy is considered as an "administrative offense" and punished with a fine. Administrative law requires that all classrooms in state schools display crucifixes. Additionally, the government recognizes the Holy See as a sovereign authority. Under the 1984 revision of the concordat with the Catholic Church, the state is secular but maintains the practice of state support for religion, which can also be extended to non-Catholic confessions if requested. In such cases, state support is governed by legislation implementing the provisions of an intesa (accord) between the government and the religious group. An intesa grants clergy automatic access to state hospitals, prisons, and military barracks; allows for civil registry of religious marriages; facilitates special religious practices regarding funerals; and exempts students from school attendance on religious holidays. If a religious community so requests, an intesa may provide for state routing of funds, through a voluntary check-off on taxpayer returns, to that community. The state paid Catholic religion teachers, but this financial support was not available to other religious communities. If a student requested the assistance of a religion teacher of a non-Catholic religious group, that group could select a representative but had to cover the cost. The government provided funds for the construction of places of worship, granted public land for their construction, and helped preserve and maintain historic places of worship that shelter much of the country's artistic and cultural heritage.

Cases of Discrimination

On June 12, 2006, the blasphemy case against the author Oriana Fallaci begins in Bergamo, Italy. Prosecutors alleged that her latest book, La Forza della Ragione (The Force of Reason), contained eighteen statements "unequivocally offensive to Islam and Muslims." Oriana Fallaci died of lung cancer before the trial could conclude.

On March 16, 2005, a Milan court prohibited a billboard campaign by the clothes company Francois Girbaut because of a photo imitating Leonardo's Last Supper.

On October 20, 2010, the Italian Minister for Foreign Affairs, Franco Frattini, called for Muslims, Jewsand Christians to unite to fight the "threat" that he claims atheism poses to society.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)11

Links:

6. The Internet

Internet Freedom
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
4Australia18
5Hungary19
6Philippines23
7Italy23
8UK25
9Argentina26
10S. Africa26
11Brazil27
12Ukraine27
Data Source
IT Security Risks
271USA3.68
270Russia2.42
269India2.10
...
243Mauritania1.19
242Nigeria1.18
241Vietnam1.15
240Italy1.15
239France1.13
238Mali1.12
237British Virgin Islands1.08
236Indonesia1.05
Data Source
Internet Users in Population
1Iceland95.64
2Norway93.28
3Netherlands90.70
...
42Croatia60.12
43Malaysia56.30
44Bahrain54.99
45Italy53.74
46Cyprus53.02
47Bosnia & Herzegovina52.00
48Montenegro51.96
49Macedonia51.91
Data Source

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

Links:

7. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability (2013-2016)12
CountryValue12
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
69Namibia61
70Bolivia61.5
71Honduras61.75
72Italy63.5
73Botswana63.75
74Ghana63.75
75Spain64
76Sudan64
Economic Freedom
1Hong Kong9.0
2Singapore8.8
3New Zealand8.4
...
78Jamaica6.9
79Kazakhstan6.8
80Tunisia6.8
81Italy6.8
82Greece6.8
83Croatia6.8
84Thailand6.7
85S. Africa6.7
Data Source
Global Peace Index
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
35Croatia1.65
36Costa Rica1.66
37Laos1.66
38Italy1.69
39Bulgaria1.70
40France1.71
41Estonia1.72
42Korea, S.1.73
Data Source
Average IQ
1Singapore108
2Korea, S.106
3Taiwan105
4Japan105
5China105
6Italy102
7Iceland101
8Mongolia101
9Switzerland101
10Norway100
11Austria100
12Netherlands100
Data Source
Human Rights Treaties
1Argentina24
2Ecuador23
3Germany23
...
14Austria22
15Denmark22
16Croatia22
17Italy22
18Belgium22
19Brazil21
20Bosnia & Herzegovina21
21Bolivia21
Data Source
Press Freedom Index
1Finland99.0
2Netherlands99.0
3Norway99.0
...
53Argentina99.2
54Moldova99.3
55Hungary99.3
56Italy99.3
57Hong Kong99.3
58Senegal99.3
59Chile99.3
60Sierra Leone99.3
Data Source
R & D Spending
Country% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.2913
2Israel4.1113
3Japan3.5813
...
23Ireland1.5213
24Estonia1.4313
25Hungary1.3713
26Italy1.2913
27Portugal1.2813
28Luxembourg1.2613
29Spain1.2213
30Russia1.1913
Gross National Income
1Qatar$87 478
2Liechtenstein$84 880
3Kuwait$52 793
...
27Korea, S.$28 231
28Bahamas$27 401
29Israel$26 224
30Italy$26 158
31Spain$25 947
32New Zealand$24 358
33Oman$24 092
34Slovenia$23 999
Data Source
Happiness
1Denmark7.8
2Netherlands7.6
3Norway7.6
...
41Guatemala6.3
42Czech Rep.6.3
43Malta6.2
44Italy6.1
45Japan6.1
46Uruguay6.1
47Guyana6
48Slovenia6
Data Source
Environmental Performance
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
15New Zealand73.4
16Chile73.3
17Germany73.2
18Italy73.1
19Portugal73.0
20Latvia72.5
21Japan72.5
22Czech Rep.71.6
Data Source
Gay Equality
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
19UK130
20Uruguay125
21Peru120
22Italy115
23Guatemala115
24Poland115
25Paraguay110
26Honduras110
Data Source

Current edition: 2013 May 01
http://www.humantruth.info/italy.html
Parent page: Vexing International Issues

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Feb 20.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

OECD
(2016) Research and development (R&D) - Gross domestic spending on R&D. Data from data.oecd.org. Accessed 2016 Sep 28.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2013) .^
  4. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  5. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  6. According to ISO4217.^
  7. According to ITU-T.^
  8. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/it.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  9. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  10. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  11. IHEU (2012) . Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  12. Charities Aid Foundation . Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  13. OECD (2016) data for year 2014.^

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