The Human Truth Foundation

Togo (Togolese Republic)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #morals #research #science #the_environment

Togo
Togolese Republic
StatusIndependent State
CapitalLome
Land Area 54 390km21
LocationAfrica
Population6.3m (2011)2
Life Expectancy60.18yrs (2017)3
GNI$1 262 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesTG, TGO, 7685
Internet Domain.tg6
CurrencyFranc (XOF)7
Telephone+2288

1. Overview

French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multi-party elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967 and maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and condemnation from international organizations for human rights abuses, Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community. In January 2012, Togo assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2012-13 term.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverWith its palm-fringed beaches, verdant hills and savannah, and approximately 40 ethnic groups, Togo crams a whole lot of Africa into a surprisingly small space. For those fond of travelling off the beaten track, Togo will prove a rewarding destination. It offers a great diversity of landscapes, from the lakes and palm-fringed beaches along the Atlantic coastline to the rolling forested hills in the centre. As you head further north, the landscape leaves its mantle of lush forest green for the light green and yellowy tinges of savannah land. The cherry on top is Lomé, the low-key yet elegant capital, with its large avenues, tasty restaurants and throbbing nightlife – not to mention the splendid beaches on its doorstep. Togo is also an excellent playground for hikers – there´s no better ecofriendly way to experience the country´s savage beauty than on foot.

Another highlight is the culture. Togo is a melting pot. The fortified compounds of Koutammakou are a reminder that the country´s ethnically diverse population didn´t always get along. Nowadays, however, voodoo, Muslim, Christian and traditional festivals crowd the calendar and are often colourful celebrations for all.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Togo National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
163Uganda163
164Haiti163
165Sudan165
166Togo166
167Benin167
168Yemen168
169Afghanistan169
170Malawi170
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
157Liberia44.7
158Benin44.2
159Lesotho44.2
160Togo44.1
161Cambodia44.1
162Madagascar44.1
163Cameroon43.8
164Guinea-Bissau43.8
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population #Togo

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
12Nigeria05.1
13Qatar05.1
14Somalia05.4
15Togo05.4
16Ivory Coast05.6
17Malawi05.6
18Senegal05.6
19Yemen05.7
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
102Turkey5.6
103Comoros5.6
104Congo, (Brazzaville)5.6
105Togo5.4
106Ivory Coast5.4
107Switzerland5.4
108Malaysia5.3
109Guinea5.2
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
137Tonga3.81
138Papua New Guinea3.83
139Guatemala3.86
140Togo3.90
141Ethiopia3.91
142Ghana4.03
143Solomon Islands4.08
144Burundi4.10
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
105Ecuador2.9
106Iran2.8
107Albania2.8
108Togo2.7
109Marshall Islands2.7
110Trinidad & Tobago2.6
111Benin2.5
112Paraguay2.5
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
164Zambia60.82
165Afghanistan60.70
166Gambia60.46
167Togo60.18
168Benin59.76
169Guinea59.22
170Uganda59.21
171Zimbabwe59.20
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
103Libya6.5m
104Jordan6.5m
105Laos6.4m
106Togo6.3m
107El Salvador6.3m
108Sierra Leone6.1m
109Nicaragua6.0m
110Denmark5.6m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Togo's population is predicted to rise to 8.684 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 3.90. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #politics #slavery #Togo

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
120Dominican Rep.31.4
121Ivory Coast30.8
122Timor-Leste (E. Timor)30.8
123Togo30.4
124Sierra Leone30.2
125Mozambique30.0
126Guatemala30.0
127Mauritania29.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)19
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties19
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
82Russia17
83Armenia17
84Egypt16
85Togo16
86Belarus16
87Seychelles16
88Tajikistan16
89Ghana16
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)20
Pos.Lower is better
Rank20
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
133Sierra Leone133
134Swaziland134
135Gabon135
136Togo136
137Bangladesh137
138Belize138
139Congo, (Brazzaville)139
140Nigeria140
World Avg79.7
q=159.

Press Freedom (2013)21
Pos.Lower is better21
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
79Dominican Rep.2834
80Lesotho2836
81Bhutan2842
82Togo2845
83Greece2846
84Kosovo2847
85Guinea2849
86Bulgaria2858
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)22
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims22
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
120Turkey0.65
121Niger0.67
122Zimbabwe0.67
123Togo0.68
124Cameroon0.69
125Kenya0.69
126Albania0.69
127Malaysia0.69
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory23. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends24. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life25. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves26.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery27. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity28. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.29. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi22, Eritrea22, Indonesia30) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery31.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #politics #Togo #women

Gender Inequality (2015)32
Pos.Lower is better32
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
131Ghana0.55
132Lesotho0.55
133Syria0.55
134Togo0.56
135Kenya0.56
136Egypt0.57
137Swaziland0.57
138Cameroon0.57
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote33
Pos.Lower is better
Year33
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
54Senegal1945
55Indonesia1945
56Japan1945
57Togo1945
58Korea, N.1946
59Liberia1946
60Romania1946
61Panama1946
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Togo is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)34
Pos.Higher is better34
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
93Syria0
94Sierra Leone0
95Thailand0
96Togo0
97Benin0
98Tunisia0
99Uganda0
100Bangladesh0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below35:

Christian43.7%
Muslim14%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion35.6%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated6.2%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Christian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%36.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #the_internet #Togo

Internet Users (2016)37
Pos.Higher is better37
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
178Solomon Islands10%
179Liberia9%
180Congo, (Brazzaville)8%
181Togo7%
182Comoros7%
183Afghanistan7%
184Malawi7%
185Mozambique6%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #parenting #population #smoking #Togo #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)32
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100032
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
157Zambia90.4
158Kenya90.9
159Central African Rep.91.9
160Togo92.0
161Lesotho92.7
162Dominican Rep.97.9
163Gabon99.9
164Somalia103.9
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)38
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita38
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
43Nepal2.2
44Azerbaijan2.3
45Mozambique2.3
46Togo2.3
47Lebanon2.4
48Malawi2.5
49Sudan2.7
50Israel2.8
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
145Botswana145
146Samoa146
147Jamaica147
148Togo148
149Tonga149
150Nigeria150
151St Lucia151
152Trinidad & Tobago152
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)40
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %40
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
141Belarus85.3
142Canada85.2
143Guatemala85.2
144Togo84.3
145Zambia84.2
146Congo, (Brazzaville)83.6
147Cameroon83.3
148Laos83.3
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)41
Pos.Lower is better41
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
50St Lucia 232
51Mali 236
52Dominican Rep. 245
53Togo 250
54Kenya 257
55Mauritius 261
56El Salvador 280
57Comoros 289
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
42
Pos.Lower is better42
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
137Czechia116.5
138Venezuela117.5
139Georgia117.75
140Togo118
141Morocco119
142Tunisia121
143Montenegro121.75
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
108Yemen108
109Brazil109
110Nicaragua110
111Togo111
112Belize112
113Algeria113
114Bahamas114
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
74Antigua & Barbuda74
75Turkey75
76Kyrgyzstan76
77Togo77
78Albania78
79Brunei79
80Suriname80
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
35Korea, S.35
36Qatar36
37Germany37
38Togo38
39Argentina39
40China40
41Canada41
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
130Samoa130
131Antigua & Barbuda131
132Azerbaijan132
133Togo133
134St Vincent & Grenadines134
135Afghanistan135
136Trinidad & Tobago136
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)39
Pos.Lower is better
Rank39
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
13Austria13
14Germany14
15Albania15
16Togo16
17France17
18Singapore18
19Malaysia19
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
86Uruguay0.23
87Mongolia0.23
88Bermuda0.23
89Togo0.22
90Nigeria0.22
91Azerbaijan0.21
92Burkina Faso0.20
93Vietnam0.19
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
143Burundi3.8
144Afghanistan3.8
145Yemen3.7
146Chad3.7
147Benin3.7
148Central African Rep.3.6
149Botswana3.6
150Togo2.8
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
181Guinea-Bissau$1 369
182Comoros$1 335
183Madagascar$1 320
184Togo$1 262
185Mozambique$1 098
186Malawi$1 073
187Guinea$1 058
188Niger$0 889
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
156Gambia42.4
157Congo, (Brazzaville)42.4
158Bosnia & Herzegovina41.8
159Togo41.8
160Liberia41.6
161Cameroon40.8
162Swaziland40.3
163Djibouti40.0
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)45
Pos.Higher is better
Score45
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
172Pakistan-26
173Egypt-27
174Iraq-29
175Togo-29
176Comoros-30
177Angola-30
178Uzbekistan-30
179Tonga-30
q=196.
IQ (2006)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
110Jamaica71
111Ghana71
112Namibia70
113Togo70
114Botswana70
115Rwanda70
116Benin70
117Ivory Coast69
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/togo.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #religion #research #science #slavery #smoking #the_environment #the_internet #Togo #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

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(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/to.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Togo".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  20. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  21. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  22. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  23. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  24. McCall (1979). P180.^
  25. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  26. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  27. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  30. Klein (2004) .^
  31. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  32. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  33. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  34. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)46.^
  35. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  36. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  37. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  38. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  39. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  40. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  41. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  42. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  43. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  44. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  45. Sources:^
  46. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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