The Human Truth Foundation

Niger (Republic of Niger)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #morals #niger #the_environment

Niger
Republic of Niger
StatusIndependent State
CapitalNiamey
Land Area1 266 700km21
LocationAfrica
Population16.6m (2011)2
Life Expectancy61.94yrs (2017)3
GNI$0 889 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesNE, NER, 5625
Internet Domain.ne6
CurrencyFranc (XOF)7
Telephone+2278

1. Overview

Niger became independent from France in 1960 and experienced single-party and military rule until 1991, when Gen. Ali SAIBOU was forced by public pressure to allow multiparty elections, which resulted in a democratic government in 1993. Political infighting brought the government to a standstill and in 1996 led to a coup by Col. Ibrahim BARE. In 1999, BARE was killed in a counter coup by military officers who restored democratic rule and held elections that brought Mamadou TANDJA to power in December of that year. TANDJA was reelected in 2004 and in 2009 spearheaded a constitutional amendment that would allow him to extend his term as president. In February 2010, a military coup deposed TANDJA, immediately suspended the constitution, and dissolved the Cabinet. ISSOUFOU Mahamadou emerged victorious from a crowded field in the election following the coup and was inaugurated in April 2011. Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa. The Nigerien Movement for Justice, a predominately Tuareg ethnic group, emerged in February 2007, and attacked several military targets in Niger's northern region throughout 2007 and 2008. Successful government offensives in 2009 limited the rebels' operational capabilities. Niger is facing increased security concerns on its borders from various external threats including insecurity in Libya and spillover from the rebellion in Mali.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverNiger is dominated by two of Africa´s most iconic natural features, the Niger River in the southwest and the Sahara in the north. Niger is perhaps West Africa´s most unfairly ignored country. True, Niger only seems to make the news for its Tuareg rebellion, its uranium mines, famine and – incredibly in 2008 – for its ongoing slavery problem, but if you make the effort to visit this desert republic, you´ll find a warm and generous Muslim population and some superb tout-free West African travel. Life here can be unrelentingly tough, but Niger´s diverse peoples bear these difficult times with remarkable dignity.

Sadly, for the time being the country´s greatest attractions, the Ténéré Desert and the Aïr Mountains are out of bounds due to the ongoing Tuareg rebellion against the government, but the fascinating trans-Saharan trade-route town of Agadez is still accessible, as well as a bevy of attractions in the peaceful south: the ancient sultanate of Zinder, the fantastic Parc Regional du W, West Africa´s last herd of wild giraffe at Kouré and the impossibly romantic Sunday market of Ayorou. Add to this the laidback but cosmopolitan capital of Niamey and a trip down the mighty Niger River in a dugout pirogue (traditional canoe), and you´ve got yourself a West African adventure that can cheerfully rival any other in this book.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Niger National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
181Mozambique181
182S. Sudan181
183Guinea183
184Burundi184
185Burkina Faso185
186Chad186
187Niger187
188Central African Rep.188
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
182Palestine38.9
183Mauritania38.3
184Mali38.0
185Niger38.0
186Sudan37.9
187Syria35.7
188Burundi35.6
189Marshall Islands35.4
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #Niger #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
18Senegal05.6
19Yemen05.7
20Cameroon05.8
21Niger05.8
22Congo, DR05.8
23Benin05.8
24Burundi05.9
25Liberia05.9
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
146Rwanda2.6
147Pakistan2.5
148Vietnam2.5
149Niger2.4
150Argentina2.4
151Cambodia2.3
152Uganda2.2
153Sudan2.2
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
173Uganda5.95
174Malawi5.98
175Timor-Leste (E. Timor)5.99
176Afghanistan6.03
177Mali6.16
178Zambia6.30
179Somalia6.30
180Niger6.96
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
141Bolivia1.5
142Bulgaria1.4
143Solomon Islands1.3
144Niger1.3
145Mali1.2
146Timor-Leste (E. Timor)1.2
147Guinea-Bissau1.2
148Korea, S.1.1
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
158Papua New Guinea62.77
159Djibouti62.30
160Kenya62.16
161Niger61.94
162Ghana61.53
163Liberia61.19
164Zambia60.82
165Afghanistan60.70
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
59Burkina Faso17.5m
60Chile17.4m
61Netherlands16.7m
62Niger16.6m
63Kazakhstan16.4m
64Mali16.3m
65Malawi15.9m
66Guatemala15.1m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Niger's population is predicted to rise to 30.84 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 6.96. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #Niger #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
103Albania34.4
104Egypt34.2
105Argentina34.2
106Niger34.2
107Indonesia34.2
108Djibouti34.0
109Bolivia34.0
110Malawi33.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
112Jamaica2.22
113Benin2.23
114Armenia2.24
115Niger2.24
116Turkmenistan2.24
117Bahrain2.25
118Rwanda2.25
119Kenya2.25
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
70Algeria18
71Malta18
72Tunisia18
73Niger18
74El Salvador18
75Mongolia17
76Timor-Leste (E. Timor)17
77Estonia17
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)21
Pos.Lower is better
Rank21
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
129Azerbaijan128
130Sri Lanka130
131Morocco131
132Niger132
133Sierra Leone133
134Swaziland134
135Gabon135
136Togo136
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)22
Pos.Lower is better22
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
39Botswana2291
40Papua New Guinea2297
41Romania2305
42Niger2308
43Trinidad & Tobago2312
44Malta2330
45Burkina Faso2370
46Taiwan2382
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)23
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims23
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
118Equatorial Guinea0.64
119Ukraine0.64
120Turkey0.65
121Niger0.67
122Zimbabwe0.67
123Togo0.68
124Cameroon0.69
125Kenya0.69
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory24. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends25. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life26. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves27.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery28. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity29. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.30. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi23, Eritrea23, Indonesia31) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery32.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #Niger #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
152Tonga0.66
153Congo, DR0.66
154Afghanistan0.67
155Ivory Coast0.67
156Mali0.69
157Chad0.69
158Niger0.70
159Yemen0.77
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote34
Pos.Lower is better
Year34
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
72Korea, S.1948
73Israel1948
74Belgium1948
75Niger1948
76Suriname1948
77Seychelles1948
78Costa Rica1949
79Chile1949
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Niger culture has a severe problem with gender equality, with male rights dominating those of women. Things need to change.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)35
Pos.Lower is better
%35
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
107Somaliland98
108Burundi98
109Sri Lanka99
110Malawi99
111Yemen99
112Indonesia99
113Niger99.5
114Bangladesh99.5
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)36
Pos.Higher is better36
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
119Libya0
120Ivory Coast0
121Pakistan0
122Niger0
123Saudi Arabia0
124Rwanda0
125Cameroon0
126Philippines0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below37:

Christian0.8%
Muslim98.4%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.7%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim 80%, other (includes indigenous beliefs and Christian) 20%38.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #Niger #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)39
Pos.Higher is better39
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
193Chad3%
194Myanmar (Burma)3%
195Sierra Leone2%
196Niger2%
197Guinea2%
198Somalia2%
199Burundi2%
200Timor-Leste (E. Timor)1%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #Niger #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100033
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
178Chad133.5
179Ivory Coast135.5
180Malawi136.2
181Mozambique139.7
182Guinea140.6
183Angola164.3
184Mali174.6
185Niger202.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)40
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita40
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
4Mauritania0.1
5Comoros0.2
6Saudi Arabia0.2
7Bangladesh0.2
8Yemen0.3
9Niger0.3
10Egypt0.4
11Iraq0.5
12Somalia0.5
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
140Chad140
141Rwanda141
142Mali142
143Niger143
144Marshall Islands144
145Botswana145
146Samoa146
147Jamaica147
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)42
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %42
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
177Madagascar71.9
178Iraq70.7
179Afghanistan70.6
180Niger69.7
181Samoa68.1
182Yemen67.4
183Papua New Guinea66.3
184Haiti65.7
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
19Burundi 98
20Tanzania 101
21Liberia 104
22Niger 105
23Sao Tome & Principe 111
24India 111
25Eritrea 114
26Haiti 114
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
44
Pos.Lower is better44
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
131Chad113.75
132Madagascar114
133Benin114.25
134Niger115
135Angola115
136Mali115.25
137Czechia116.5
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
117Sri Lanka117
118Rwanda118
119Guatemala119
120Niger120
121El Salvador121
122Dominican Rep.122
123Oman123
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
125Dominican Rep.125
126Oman126
127Mozambique127
128Niger128
129Sierra Leone129
130Bangladesh130
131Kazakhstan131
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
98Czechia98
99Lithuania99
100Luxembourg100
101Niger101
102Lesotho102
103Antigua & Barbuda103
104Latvia104
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
85Tanzania85
86Jamaica86
87Nicaragua87
88Niger88
89India89
90Cameroon90
91Venezuela91
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
48Armenia48
49UAE49
50Greece50
51Niger51
52Sri Lanka52
53Haiti53
54Rwanda54
q=163.
Life Satisfaction (2011)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
125Angola4.2
126Sri Lanka4.2
127Liberia4.2
128Niger4.1
129Syria4.1
130Egypt4.1
131Tanzania4.1
132Sierra Leone4.1
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
185Mozambique$1 098
186Malawi$1 073
187Guinea$1 058
188Niger$0 889
189Burundi$0 691
190Liberia$0 683
191Congo, DR$0 680
192Central African Rep.$0 587
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
169Pakistan37.5
170Angola37.4
171Central African Rep.36.4
172Niger35.7
173Lesotho33.8
174Haiti33.7
175Madagascar33.7
176Nepal31.4
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)47
Pos.Higher is better
Score47
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
119Ivory Coast1
120Russia1
121Benin1
122Niger1
123Bahrain-2
124Sierra Leone-3
125Grenada-5
126Dominica-5
q=196.
IQ (2006)48
Pos.Higher is better48
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
116Benin70
117Ivory Coast69
118Malawi69
119Niger69
120Mali69
121Burundi69
122Nigeria69
123Chad68
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/niger.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #misogyny #morals #Niger #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #slavery #smoking #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ng.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Niger".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. ^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  25. McCall (1979). P180.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  27. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  31. Klein (2004) .^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  33. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  34. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  35. Gallup (2009) .^
  36. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)48.^
  37. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  38. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  39. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  40. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  41. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  42. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  43. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  44. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  45. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  46. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  47. Sources:^
  48. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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