The Human Truth Foundation

Guinea (Republic of Guinea)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #guinea #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #morals #the_environment

Guinea
Republic of Guinea
StatusIndependent State
CapitalConakry
Land Area 245 720km21
LocationAfrica
Population10.5m (2011)2
Life Expectancy59.22yrs (2017)3
GNI$1 058 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesGN, GIN, 3245
Internet Domain.gn6
CurrencyFranc (GNF)7
Telephone+2248

1. Overview

Guinea has had a history of authoritarian rule since gaining its independence from France in 1958. Lansana CONTE came to power in 1984 when the military seized the government after the death of the first president, Sekou TOURE. Guinea did not hold democratic elections until 1993 when Gen. CONTE (head of the military government) was elected president of the civilian government. He was reelected in 1998 and again in 2003, though all the polls were marred by irregularities. History repeated itself in December 2008 when following President CONTE's death, Capt. Moussa Dadis CAMARA led a military coup, seizing power and suspending the constitution. His unwillingness to yield to domestic and international pressure to step down led to heightened political tensions that culminated in September 2009 when presidential guards opened fire on an opposition rally killing more than 150 people, and in early December 2009 when CAMARA was wounded in an assassination attempt and evacuated to Morocco and subsequently to Burkina Faso. A transitional government led by Gen. Sekouba KONATE held democratic elections in 2010 and Alpha CONDE was elected president in the country's first free and fair elections since independence. CONDE in July 2011 survived an attack on his residence allegedly perpetrated by the military. In October 2012, he announced a cabinet reshuffle that removed three members of the military from their positions, making the current administration Guinea's first all-civilian government.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverNeglected infrastructure makes travelling here a challenge, but Guinea is a country of untapped potential, both for the traveller and for its resilient inhabitants. Imagine you´re travelling on a smooth highway, and then get tempted by a tiny, dusty turn-off into rugged terrain, where surprising beauty and treacherous vistas define the route. Guinea is that turn-off.

Guinea could be a West African paradise. With a strong self-reliant streak and with almost half of the world´s bauxite reserves, post-colonial Guinea had all the ingredients for success. As a traveller destination, its future looked similarly assured with a vibrant capital, world-class musical scene and beautiful scenery in the interior. Sadly it hasn´t quite worked out that way. Decades of dictatorial rule have left Guinea´s long-suffering people still dreaming of a prosperous future that should have begun decades ago.

Yet, this is a country blessed with amazing landscapes. Nature lovers can lose themselves on long hikes past plunging waterfalls, proud hills and tiny villages, or track ele-phants through virgin rainforest. And while Guinea is not famed for its beaches, those it does have are stunning, and often deserted.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Guinea National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
180Sierra Leone179
181Mozambique181
182S. Sudan181
183Guinea183
184Burundi184
185Burkina Faso185
186Chad186
187Niger187
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
164Guinea-Bissau43.8
165Zambia43.7
166Algeria43.5
167Guinea42.8
168Palau42.8
169Eritrea42.6
170Swaziland42.4
171S. Sudan42.3
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #Guinea #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
24Burundi05.9
25Liberia05.9
26Iraq06.0
27Guinea06.1
28Guinea-Bissau06.1
29Lesotho06.1
30Kenya06.1
31S. Sudan06.2
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
106Ivory Coast5.4
107Switzerland5.4
108Malaysia5.3
109Guinea5.2
110Turkmenistan5.0
111Mozambique5.0
112Senegal5.0
113Iraq4.9
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
160Guinea-Bissau4.92
161Yemen4.98
162Equatorial Guinea5.02
163Guinea5.08
164Liberia5.08
165Benin5.12
166Angola5.19
167Rwanda5.30
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
86Turkmenistan4.0
87Georgia4.0
88Lithuania4.0
89Guinea3.8
90Congo, (Brazzaville)3.8
91Malta3.8
92Hungary3.7
93S. Africa3.7
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
166Gambia60.46
167Togo60.18
168Benin59.76
169Guinea59.22
170Uganda59.21
171Zimbabwe59.20
172Congo, DR59.06
173Burkina Faso59.01
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
78Portugal10.7m
79S. Sudan10.7m
80Czechia10.6m
81Guinea10.5m
82Haiti10.3m
83Bolivia10.2m
84Dominican Rep.10.2m
85Hungary9.9m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Guinea's population is predicted to rise to 15.95 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 5.08. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #Guinea #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
148Bangladesh25.8
149Papua New Guinea25.6
150Laos25.4
151Guinea25.0
152Central African Rep.23.8
153Tajikistan23.6
154Congo, (Brazzaville)22.8
155Congo, DR21.6
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
89China2.06
90Dominican Rep.2.07
91Bangladesh2.07
92Guinea2.07
93Papua New Guinea2.08
94Trinidad & Tobago2.08
95Angola2.11
96Cameroon2.11
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
78Turkmenistan17
79Turkey17
80Morocco17
81Guinea17
82Russia17
83Armenia17
84Egypt16
85Togo16
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)21
Pos.Lower is better
Rank21
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
146Chad146
147Pakistan146
148Zimbabwe148
149Guinea149
150Angola150
151Congo, DR151
152Algeria152
153Myanmar (Burma)153
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)22
Pos.Lower is better22
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
82Togo2845
83Greece2846
84Kosovo2847
85Guinea2849
86Bulgaria2858
87Madagascar2862
88Gabon2869
89Timor-Leste (E. Timor)2872
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)23
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims23
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
137Philippines0.77
138Libya0.77
139Nigeria0.77
140Guinea0.78
141Greece0.79
142Congo, (Brazzaville)0.80
143Macedonia0.87
144Swaziland0.88
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory24. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends25. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life26. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves27.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery28. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity29. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.30. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi23, Eritrea23, Indonesia31) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery32.

5. Gender Equality

#Guinea #politics #women

Year Women Can Vote33
Pos.Lower is better
Year33
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
118Chad1958
119Nigeria1958
120Burkina Faso1958
121Guinea1958
122Madagascar1959
123Tunisia1959
124Tanzania1959
125Tonga1960
World Avg1930
q=189.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Guinea and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)34
Pos.Higher is better34
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
107Malaysia0
108Haiti0
109Iraq0
110Guinea0
111Ghana0
112Jordan0
113Gambia0
114Kenya0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below35:

Christian10.9%
Muslim84.4%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion2.7%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated1.8%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Muslim 85%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs 7%36.

Links:

7. The Internet

#Guinea #internet #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)37
Pos.Higher is better37
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
194Myanmar (Burma)3%
195Sierra Leone2%
196Niger2%
197Guinea2%
198Somalia2%
199Burundi2%
200Timor-Leste (E. Timor)1%
201Eritrea1%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #Guinea #health #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)38
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100038
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
178Chad133.5
179Ivory Coast135.5
180Malawi136.2
181Mozambique139.7
182Guinea140.6
183Angola164.3
184Mali174.6
185Niger202.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)39
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita39
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
13Senegal0.6
14Timor-Leste (E. Timor)0.6
15Indonesia0.6
16Guinea0.7
17Afghanistan0.7
18Jordan0.7
19Myanmar (Burma)0.7
20Bhutan0.7
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
57Slovenia57
58Morocco58
59Cyprus59
60Guinea60
61Sierra Leone61
62Honduras62
63Lebanon63
64Lithuania64
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)41
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %41
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
183Papua New Guinea66.3
184Haiti65.7
185Vanuatu65.5
186Guinea63.3
187Syria62.4
188Ukraine55.2
189Chad52.5
190Nigeria50.0
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)42
Pos.Lower is better42
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
4Uganda 41
5Rwanda 53
6Samoa 54
7Congo, DR 74
8Ethiopia 76
9Vanuatu 76
10Guyana 77
11Suriname 79
12Malawi 80
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
75Spain64
76Sudan64
77Tajikistan64.5
78Guinea65.75
79Cameroon66
80Suriname66
81Korea, S.66.33
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
93Trinidad & Tobago93
94Malawi94
95Mexico95
96Guinea96
97St Vincent & Grenadines97
98Zimbabwe98
99Panama99
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
129Sierra Leone129
130Bangladesh130
131Kazakhstan131
132Guinea132
133Timor-Leste (E. Timor)133
134Mali134
135Chad135
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
119Angola119
120Ivory Coast120
121Kyrgyzstan121
122Guinea122
123Israel123
124Malta124
125Burundi125
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
120Egypt120
121Colombia121
122Honduras122
123Guinea123
124Congo, (Brazzaville)124
125Swaziland125
126Madagascar126
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
91Guinea-Bissau91
92Burundi92
93Mozambique93
94Guinea94
95Ivory Coast95
96Peru96
97Libya97
q=163.
Life Satisfaction (2011)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
130Egypt4.1
131Tanzania4.1
132Sierra Leone4.1
133Guinea4.0
134Congo, DR4.0
135Rwanda4.0
136Burkina Faso4.0
137Comoros3.9
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
184Togo$1 262
185Mozambique$1 098
186Malawi$1 073
187Guinea$1 058
188Niger$0 889
189Burundi$0 691
190Liberia$0 683
191Congo, DR$0 680
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
131Bhutan47.2
132Vietnam47.0
133Indonesia46.9
134Guinea46.6
135Mozambique46.4
136Uzbekistan45.9
137Chad45.3
138Myanmar (Burma)45.3
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)46
Pos.Higher is better
Score46
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
183Kuwait-37
184Algeria-37
185Tunisia-39
186Guinea-39
187Cameroon-39
188Senegal-39
189Libya-42
190Morocco-42
q=196.
IQ (2006)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
124Burkina Faso68
125Somalia68
126Angola68
127Guinea67
128Liberia67
129Haiti67
130Gambia66
131Zimbabwe66
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/guinea.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #god #Guinea #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #slavery #smoking #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gv.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Guinea".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. ^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  25. McCall (1979). P180.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  27. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  31. Klein (2004) .^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  33. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  34. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)47.^
  35. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  36. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  37. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  38. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^
  39. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  40. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  41. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  42. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  43. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  44. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  45. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  46. Sources:^
  47. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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