The Human Truth Foundation

Guyana (Co-operative Republic of Guyana)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#economics #guyana #happiness #homosexuality #the_environment

Guyana
Co-operative Republic of Guyana
StatusIndependent State
CapitalGeorgetown
Land Area 196 850km21
LocationSouth America, The Americas
Population0.8m (2011)2
Life Expectancy66.50yrs (2017)3
GNI$6 884 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesGY, GUY, 3285
Internet Domain.gy6
CurrencyDollar (GYD)7
Telephone+5928

1. Overview

#UK

Originally a Dutch colony in the 17th century, by 1815 Guyana had become a British possession. The abolition of slavery led to black settlement of urban areas and the importation of indentured servants from India to work the sugar plantations. The resulting ethnocultural divide has persisted and has led to turbulent politics. Guyana achieved independence from the UK in 1966, and since then it has been ruled mostly by socialist-oriented governments. In 1992, Cheddi JAGAN was elected president in what is considered the country's first free and fair election since independence. After his death five years later, his wife, Janet JAGAN, became president but resigned in 1999 due to poor health. Her successor, Bharrat JAGDEO, was reelected in 2001 and again in 2006. Donald RAMOTAR was elected president in 2011.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverFrom towering waterfalls and tropical jungle to caiman-filled rivers, few places on the planet offer raw adventure as authentic as densely forested Guyana. Although the country has a troubled history of political instability and interethnic tension, underneath the headlines of corruption and economic mismanagement is a joyful and motivated mix of people who are turning the country into one of the continent´s premier ecotourism destinations.

Georgetown, the country´s crumbling colonial capital, is distinctly Caribbean with a rocking nightlife, great places to eat and an edgy market. The interior of the country is more Amazonian with its Amerindian communities and unparalleled wildlife-viewing opportunities tucked quietly away from the capital´s hoopla. Meanwhile, the coast is some of the wildest and least developed on the continent. From sea-turtle nesting grounds along the country´s north coast to riding with vaqueros at a ranch in the south or standing in awe watching one of the world´s highest single-drop waterfalls, Guyana is well worth the mud, bumps and sweat it takes to experience it. If you love nature, this promises to be the trip of a lifetime.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Guyana National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
124Nicaragua124
125Guatemala125
126Namibia125
127Guyana127
128Micronesia127
129Tajikistan129
130Honduras130
131India131
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
132Dominica47.8
133Djibouti47.8
134Kiribati47.5
135Guyana47.5
136St Kitts & Nevis47.1
137Solomon Islands47.0
138Sao Tome & Principe46.9
139Haiti46.7
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #Guyana #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
93Samoa13.7
94Algeria14.0
95Malaysia14.5
96Guyana15.0
97Fiji15.3
98Mexico15.4
99Peru15.5
100Dominican Rep.15.6
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
4Grenada65.5
5St Kitts & Nevis61.1
6Guyana56.9
7Monaco56.3
8Antigua & Barbuda47.6
9Tonga45.4
10Albania45.4
11Barbados41.0
12Suriname39.0
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
32Qatar2.20
33Morocco2.20
34Brazil1.80
35Guyana2.21
36Netherlands1.79
37Vietnam1.77
38Lebanon1.77
39Mexico2.25
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
136Thailand1.7
137Sri Lanka1.7
138Senegal1.6
139Guyana1.5
140Tanzania1.5
141Bolivia1.5
142Bulgaria1.4
143Solomon Islands1.3
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
135Senegal66.93
136Laos66.60
137Sao Tome & Principe66.58
138Guyana66.50
139Pakistan66.37
140Kiribati66.23
141Myanmar (Burma)66.12
142Turkmenistan65.73
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
157Djibouti0.9m
158Fiji0.9m
159Comoros0.8m
160Guyana0.8m
161Bhutan0.8m
162Equatorial Guinea0.7m
163Montenegro0.6m
164Solomon Islands0.6m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Guyana's population is predicted to rise to 794 743 by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 2.21. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #Guyana #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
125Mozambique30.0
126Guatemala30.0
127Mauritania29.8
128Guyana29.6
129Pakistan29.2
130Gambia29.0
131Honduras28.8
132Nepal28.6
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
66Moldova1.93
67Albania1.93
68Macedonia1.94
69Guyana1.94
70Cuba1.95
71Ukraine1.95
72Tunisia1.96
73Cyprus1.96
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
149Barbados11
150Bahamas11
151Cuba11
152Guyana11
153Swaziland11
154Zimbabwe11
155Saudi Arabia10
156Laos10
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)21
Pos.Lower is better
Rank21
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
124Mali124
125Gambia125
126Cameroon126
127Guyana126
128Vietnam128
129Azerbaijan128
130Sri Lanka130
131Morocco131
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)22
Pos.Lower is better22
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
65Tonga2670
66Mauritania2676
67Bosnia & Herzegovina2686
68Guyana2708
69Tanzania2734
70Kenya2780
71Zambia2793
72Mozambique2801
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)23
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims23
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
48El Salvador0.25
49Portugal0.25
50Peru0.26
51Guyana0.26
52Jamaica0.26
53Mexico0.27
54Colombia0.27
55Algeria0.27
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory24. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends25. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life26. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves27.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery28. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity29. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.30. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi23, Eritrea23, Indonesia31) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery32.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #Guyana #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
114Guatemala0.49
115Nepal0.50
116Ethiopia0.50
117Guyana0.51
118Iran0.51
119Bangladesh0.52
120Senegal0.52
121Uganda0.52
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote34
Pos.Lower is better
Year34
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
92Ivory Coast1952
93Greece1952
94Lebanon1952
95Guyana1953
96Mexico1953
97Bhutan1953
98Syria1953
99Colombia1954
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Guyana and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting. Guyana is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below35:

Christian66%
Muslim6.4%
Hindu24.9%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.2%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated2%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Protestant 30.5% (Pentecostal 16.9%, Anglican 6.9%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Methodist 1.7%), Hindu 28.4%, Roman Catholic 8.1%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.1%, Muslim 7.2%, other Christian 17.7%, other 4.3%, none 4.3% (2002 census)36.

Links:

7. The Internet

#Guyana #internet #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)37
Pos.Higher is better37
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
119Suriname42%
120Bolivia41%
121Peru41%
122Guyana40%
123Grenada39%
124El Salvador38%
125Bhutan37%
126Mongolia36%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)38
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio38
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
126Micronesia0.0
127Algeria0.0
128Djibouti0.0
129Guyana0.0
130Namibia0.0
131Tonga0.0
132Myanmar (Burma)0.0
133Morocco0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #Guyana #health #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100033
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
151Benin83.2
152Iraq84.0
153Sao Tome & Principe84.3
154Guyana88.0
155Nicaragua88.8
156Guinea-Bissau89.5
157Zambia90.4
158Kenya90.9
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)39
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita39
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
128Palau7.9
129Niue8.0
130Panama8.0
131Guyana8.1
132Peru8.1
133St Kitts & Nevis8.2
134Botswana8.4
135Cameroon8.4
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
94Philippines94
95Bosnia & Herzegovina95
96Namibia96
97Guyana97
98Colombia98
99Vietnam99
100Lesotho100
101Tanzania101
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)41
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %41
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
32Albania97.1
33Andorra97.1
34Russia97.0
35Guyana97.0
36Slovakia97.0
37Kyrgyzstan96.7
38Brazil96.7
39Jordan96.6
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)42
Pos.Lower is better42
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
7Congo, DR 74
8Ethiopia 76
9Vanuatu 76
10Guyana 77
11Suriname 79
12Malawi 80
13Tonga 81
14Mozambique 82
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)43
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k43
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
84Japan49.4
85Hungary50.6
86Kazakhstan52.4
87Guyana52.4
88Belarus57.5
89Korea, S.62
90Russia63.4
91Lithuania71.7
World Avg20.93
q=91.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Intellectual Endeavours (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
155Paraguay155
156Tanzania156
157Equatorial Guinea157
158Guyana158
159Afghanistan159
160Indonesia160
161Bolivia161
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
65S. Africa65
66Lebanon66
67USA67
68Guyana68
69Bosnia & Herzegovina69
70Tonga70
71Trinidad & Tobago71
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
72USA72
73Cyprus73
74Jamaica74
75Guyana75
76Fiji76
77Iceland77
78Turkey78
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
151Zimbabwe151
152Grenada152
153Angola153
154Guyana154
155Congo, DR155
156Ivory Coast156
157St Lucia157
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
115Cape Verde115
116Russia116
117Angola117
118Guyana118
119Colombia119
120Congo, (Brazzaville)120
121Zambia121
q=163.
Life Satisfaction (2011)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
45Japan6.1
46Italy6.1
47Slovenia6.0
48Guyana6.0
49Honduras5.9
50Slovakia5.9
51Ecuador5.8
52Moldova5.8
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
119Morocco$7 195
120Bhutan$7 081
121Guatemala$7 063
122Guyana$6 884
123Angola$6 291
124Bolivia$6 155
125Cape Verde$6 049
126Uzbekistan$5 748
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
125Timor-Leste (E. Timor)49.5
126Senegal49.5
127Malawi49.2
128Guyana47.9
129Tajikistan47.9
130Kenya47.3
131Bhutan47.2
132Vietnam47.0
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)46
Pos.Higher is better
Score46
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
128Kiribati-5
129Jamaica-5
130Cook Islands-5
131Guyana-5
132St Lucia-9
133India-10
134Samoa-10
135Trinidad & Tobago-10
q=196.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/guyana.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #buddhism #burundi #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #Guyana #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #mental_health #misogyny #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #slavery #smoking #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #UK #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gy.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Guyana".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. ^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  25. McCall (1979). P180.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  27. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  31. Klein (2004) .^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  33. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  34. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  35. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  36. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  37. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  38. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  39. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  40. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  41. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  42. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  43. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  44. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  45. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  46. Sources:^

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