The Human Truth Foundation

Austria (Republic of Austria)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#Austria

Austria
Republic of Austria
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index8th best
CapitalVienna
Land Area 82 409 km21
LocationEurope
Population8.429 million (2011)2
Life Expectancy81.58yrs (2017)3
GNI$43 609 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesAT, AUT, 405
Internet Domain.at6
CurrencyEuro (EUR)7
Telephone+438

1. Overview

Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995 have altered the meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the EU Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

2. Austria National and Social Development

UN HDI (2016)10
CountryRank10
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
21France21
22Belgium22
23Finland23
24Austria24
25Slovenia25
26Italy26
27Spain27
28Czech Rep.28
29Greece29
30Brunei30
31Estonia30
32Andorra32
33Malta33
34Qatar33
35Cyprus33
36Poland36
Social and Moral Development
CountryScore
1Sweden88.2
2Iceland88.1
3Denmark85.9
4Norway85.8
5Finland84.6
6New Zealand83.4
7Netherlands82.6
8Austria81.4
9Australia81.1
10Switzerland80.4
11Germany80.2
12Canada80.1
13UK79.8
14Belgium79.5
15Luxembourg79.3
16Hong Kong78.9
17Ireland78.2
18Japan76.5
Data Source

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index is a formulaic aggregation of many factors. It concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).

3. Population and Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy (2015)11
CountryYears11
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
16Luxembourg81.88
17Norway81.71
18Netherlands81.71
19Austria81.58
20Andorra81.46
21Portugal81.18
22Germany81.09
23Greece81.07
Fertility Rate
1Korea, N.2.0
2Brunei2.0
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.0
...
105Slovakia1.4
106Botswana2.6
107Kyrgyzstan2.6
108Austria1.3
109Egypt2.7
110Singapore1.3
111Saudi Arabia2.7
112Portugal1.3
Data Source
Population (m=millions)
CountryPeoplePer km2
1China1 353.6m145
2India1 258.35m423
3USA 315.79m35
...
90Azerbaijan9.421m114
91Benin9.352m83
92Burundi8.749m341
93Austria8.429m102
94UAE8.106m97
95Honduras7.912m71
96Switzerland7.734m193
Data Source

Austria's population is predicted to rise to 8.59 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.35.

The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Female Vote and Stand
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
16Belarus1919
17Luxembourg1919
18Ukraine1919
19Austria1919
20Canada1920
21Albania1920
22USA1920
23Azerbaijan1921
Gender Inequality (2015)12
CountryValue12
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
11Singapore0.07
12Belgium0.07
13Luxembourg0.07
14Austria0.08
15Spain0.08
16Italy0.08
17Portugal0.09
18Canada0.10

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Disbelief In God
1Vietnam81%
2Japan65%
3Sweden64%
...
24Mongolia20%
25Latvia20%
26Ukraine20%
27Austria18%
28Switzerland17%
29Belarus17%
30Slovakia17%
31Iceland16%
Data Source

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below13:

Christian80.4%
Muslim5.4%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.2%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.2%
Unaffiliated13.5%

By adding up the Pew Forum data for the major monotheistic religions we can see that these make up 86% of the population. Yet there are simply too many who disbelieve in God for this to be true (18%). This is due to the so-called 'Census Effect', whereby many put down a religion for cultural reasons rather than because it reflects their beliefs. In highly Christian countries, as many as half of those who say they're a Christian lack any connection to a Church, and do not hold Christian beliefs (such as believing in God!).

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%, Muslim 4.2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 2%, none 12% (2001 census)14.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012), in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Austria states:

The constitution and other laws and policies protect freedom of religion or belief. There are some restrictions on speech that might offend religious feelings. Section 188 of the Austrian Criminal Code, called 'Vilification of Religious Teachings', criminalizes "Anyone who publicly disparages a person or thing that is the object of worship of a domestic church or religious society, or a doctrine, [or other] behavior is likely to attract legitimate offense..."15

Cases of Discrimination

On Dec. 11, 2009, Catholic clerics in Vienna sued the cartoonist Manfred Deix for two drawings on the website NEWS.at which depict God and the EU prohibition against crucifixes in schools, respectively.

On Jan. 22, 2009, the Austrian politician Susanne Winter was sentenced at a court in Graz to pay a $24,000 fine for "humiliating a religion" by saying, among other things, that Muhammad was a pedophile.

On Dec. 11, 2010, 63-year-old Helmut G. was convicted for offending his Muslim neighbor by yodeling while lawn mowing. The neighbor claimed Helmet was trying to mock and imitate the Muezzin, the Muslim call to prayer.

On Jan. 15, 2011, Elizabeth Sabaditsch-Wolf was convicted of offending religion because she exclaimed, about the Prophet Muhammad's nine-year-old wife, "If that is not pedophilia, what is it?"

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)16

Links:

6. The Internet

Internet Users in Population
1Iceland95.64
2Norway93.28
3Netherlands90.70
...
24USA74.25
25Estonia74.16
26Belgium73.73
27Austria72.73
28Hong Kong71.85
29Latvia71.51
30Singapore71.13
31Barbados70.03
Data Source

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

Links:

7. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Alcohol Consumption (2010)17
CountryPer Capita17
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
152Canada10.2
153Estonia10.3
154Kazakhstan10.3
155Austria10.3
156Greece10.3
157St Lucia10.4
158Switzerland10.7
159Namibia10.8
Anti-Semite Opinions18
Country%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
38Belgium27
39Germany27
40Slovenia27
41Austria28
42Latvia28
43Montenegro29
44Spain29
45Venezuela30
Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
19
CountryValue19
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
18Bhutan17.5
19Kenya17.75
20Jamaica20.5
21Austria21.25
22Kuwait21.5
23Hong Kong21.5
24Germany22.75
Personal, Civil and Economic Freedom (2014)20
CountryRank20
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
8Australia6
9Finland9
10Netherlands10
11Austria11
12Luxembourg11
13Germany13
14Norway13
15Sweden15
Global Peace Index
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
4Canada1.32
5Japan1.33
6Austria1.33
7Ireland1.33
8Slovenia1.33
9Finland1.35
10Switzerland1.35
11Belgium1.38
12Qatar1.39
Data Source
Average IQ
1Singapore108
2Korea, S.106
3Taiwan105
...
8Mongolia101
9Switzerland101
10Norway100
11Austria100
12Netherlands100
13UK100
14Germany99
15Poland99
Data Source
Human Rights Treaties
1Argentina24
2Ecuador23
3Germany23
...
11Costa Rica23
12Paraguay23
13Peru23
14Austria22
15Denmark22
16Croatia22
17Italy22
18Belgium22
Data Source
Press Freedom Index
1Finland99.0
2Netherlands99.0
3Norway99.0
...
9Iceland99.0
10Sweden99.0
11Estonia99.0
12Austria99.0
13Jamaica99.0
14Switzerland99.0
15Ireland99.0
16Czech Rep.99.0
Data Source
R & D Spending
Country% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.2921
2Israel4.1121
3Japan3.5821
4Finland3.1721
5Sweden3.1621
6Denmark3.0521
7Taiwan3.0121
8Austria3.0022
9Switzerland2.9623
10Germany2.8421
11USA2.7424
12Belgium2.4621
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)11
CountryPPP $11
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
17Germany$45 000
18Denmark$44 519
19Ireland$43 798
20Austria$43 609
21Australia$42 822
22Canada$42 582
23Belgium$41 243
24Finland$38 868
Happiness
1Denmark7.8
2Netherlands7.6
3Norway7.6
4Sweden7.5
5Switzerland7.5
6Venezuela7.5
7Austria7.5
8Australia7.4
9Finland7.4
10Canada7.4
11Israel7.4
12Costa Rica7.3
Data Source
Environmental Performance
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
4Sweden86.0
5Norway81.1
6Mauritius80.6
7France78.2
8Cuba78.1
9Austria78.1
10Colombia76.8
11Malta76.3
12Finland74.7
Data Source
Gay Equality
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
41Colombia65
42Ecuador55
43Romania50
44Austria45
45Greece45
46Ireland45
47Bulgaria40
48Israel40
Data Source

Current edition: 2013 May 01
http://www.humantruth.info/austria.html
Parent page: The Human Truth Foundation

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#Austria #buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

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References: (What's this?)

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Mar 24.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

OECD
(2016) Research and development (R&D) - Gross domestic spending on R&D. Data from data.oecd.org. Accessed 2016 Sep 28.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016..

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/..

World Bank
Research and Development and a Percent of GDP PPP. Data from databank.worldbank.org. Accessed 2016 Sep 29.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017) Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017) Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/au.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. UN (2017) Table 1. Lower is better.^
  11. UN (2017) Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  12. UN (2017) Table 5. Lower is better.^
  13. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  14. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  15. caslon.com.au/blasphemyprofile9.htm. In IHEU 2012.^
  16. IHEU (2012) . Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  17. WHO (2014) Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  18. ADL (2014) . Lower is better.^
  19. Charities Aid Foundation . Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  20. Fraser Institute, the (2016) . Covers data for 2014.^
  21. OECD (2016) data for year 2014.^
  22. OECD (2016) data for year 2015.^
  23. World Bank data for year 2012.^
  24. OECD (2016) data for year 2013.^

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