The Human Truth Foundation

Madagascar (Republic of Madagascar)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #morals #research #science #the_environment

Madagascar
Republic of Madagascar
StatusIndependent State
CapitalAntananarivo
Land Area 581 540km21
LocationAfrica
Population21.9m (2011)2
Life Expectancy65.52yrs (2017)3
GNI$1 320 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesMG, MDG, 4505
Internet Domain.mg6
CurrencyAriary (MGA)7
Telephone+2618

1. Overview

Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a French colony in 1896 but regained independence in 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997, in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, was returned to the presidency. The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing secession of half of the country. In April 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner. RAVALOMANANA achieved a second term following a landslide victory in the generally free and fair presidential elections of 2006. In early 2009, protests over increasing restrictions on opposition press and activities resulted in RAVALOMANANA handing over power to the military, which then conferred the presidency on the mayor of Antananarivo, Andry RAJOELINA, in what amounted to a coup d'etat. Numerous attempts have been made by regional and international organizations to resolve the subsequent political gridlock by forming a power-sharing government. Madagascar's independent electoral commission and the UN originally planned to hold a presidential election in early May 2013, but postponed the election until late July 2013, due to logistical delays.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverLemurs, baobabs, rainforest, beaches, desert, trekking and diving: Madagascar is a dream destination for nature and outdoor lovers, and half the fun is getting to all these incredible attractions.Madagascar is unique: 5% of all known animal and plant species can be found here, and here alone. The remarkable fauna and flora is matched by epic landscapes of an incredible diversity: you can go from rainforest to desert in just 300km. Few places on earth offer such an intense kaleidoscope of nature.

With 5000km of coastline, 450km of barrier reef and 250 islands, no stay in Madagascar would be complete without a few days on the island´s shores. Divers will revel in the choice of sites, from underwater `cathedrals´ to shipwrecks, and will relish the chance to see rays, whale sharks, reef sharks and many other kinds of sharks. Snorkellers will be awed by the sheer grace of turtles and marvel at the rainbow of colours displayed by corals and fish.

There is much history to discover, too, from the 12 sacred hills of Antananarivo to the pirate cemetery of Ile Sainte Marie and the vestige of Madagascar´s industrial revolution in Mantasoa.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Madagascar National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
155Papua New Guinea154
156Solomon Islands156
157Mauritania157
158Madagascar158
159Rwanda159
160Comoros160
161Lesotho160
162Senegal162
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
159Lesotho44.2
160Togo44.1
161Cambodia44.1
162Madagascar44.1
163Cameroon43.8
164Guinea-Bissau43.8
165Zambia43.7
166Algeria43.5
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
33Sao Tome & Principe06.2
34Comoros06.3
35Mozambique06.4
36Madagascar06.4
37Papua New Guinea06.4
38Ghana06.5
39Palestine06.5
40Ethiopia06.6
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
185Qatar0.7
186Nigeria0.6
187Maldives0.6
188China0.6
189Japan0.6
190Oman0.5
191Madagascar0.4
192Montenegro0.0
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
149Mauritania4.40
150Congo, (Brazzaville)4.46
151Central African Rep.4.46
152Madagascar4.52
153Iraq4.57
154Kenya4.64
155Senegal4.65
156Gambia4.73
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
181Iraq0.3
182Somalia0.2
183Colombia0.2
184Madagascar0.2
185Myanmar (Burma)0.2
186Korea, N.0.2
187Morocco0.2
188Cuba0.1
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
140Kiribati66.23
141Myanmar (Burma)66.12
142Turkmenistan65.73
143Madagascar65.52
144Tanzania65.51
145Namibia65.06
146Gabon64.94
147Rwanda64.75
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
49Korea, N.24.6m
50Mozambique24.5m
51Australia22.9m
52Madagascar21.9m
53Romania21.4m
54Sri Lanka21.2m
55Syria21.1m
56Ivory Coast20.6m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Madagascar's population is predicted to rise to 35.33 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 4.52. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
131Honduras28.8
132Nepal28.6
133Azerbaijan28.6
134Madagascar28.4
135Lebanon28.2
136Russia28.2
137Kazakhstan28.0
138Nicaragua27.6
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
96Cameroon2.11
97Uganda2.12
98Tajikistan2.12
99Madagascar2.12
100Liberia2.13
101Mali2.13
102Sri Lanka2.15
103Congo, (Brazzaville)2.15
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
117China14
118Mauritius14
119Botswana14
120Madagascar14
121Syria14
122Sudan14
123Cameroon14
124Uzbekistan14
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)21
Pos.Lower is better
Rank21
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
62Fiji61
63Dominican Rep.63
64Cambodia64
65Madagascar65
66Brunei66
67Serbia67
68Guatemala68
69Moldova69
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)22
Pos.Lower is better22
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
84Kosovo2847
85Guinea2849
86Bulgaria2858
87Madagascar2862
88Gabon2869
89Timor-Leste (E. Timor)2872
90Paraguay2878
91Guinea-Bissau2894
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)23
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims23
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
130Syria0.73
131Liberia0.74
132Guinea-Bissau0.75
133Madagascar0.75
134Malawi0.75
135Uganda0.76
136Timor-Leste (E. Timor)0.77
137Philippines0.77
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory24. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends25. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life26. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves27.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery28. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity29. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.30. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi23, Eritrea23, Indonesia31) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery32.

Madagascar practices conscription, which involves a mandatory period of service in the military. But the Walk Free Foundation reports that this sometimes becomes slave labour as some 'concscripts' are assigned to lengthy and arduous work which is clearly non-military in nature33 such as public infrastructure and civil construction work.

5. Gender Equality

#politics #women

Year Women Can Vote34
Pos.Lower is better
Year34
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
119Nigeria1958
120Burkina Faso1958
121Guinea1958
122Madagascar1959
123Tunisia1959
124Tanzania1959
125Tonga1960
126Cyprus1960
World Avg1930
q=189.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Madagascar and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)35
Pos.Higher is better35
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
125Cameroon0
126Philippines0
127Kuwait0
128Madagascar0
129Nigeria0
130Malawi0
131Chad0
132Nepal0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below36:

Christian85.3%
Muslim3%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion4.5%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated6.9%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%37.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)38
Pos.Higher is better38
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
186Benin6%
187Tanzania5%
188Central African Rep.5%
189Madagascar4%
190Ethiopia4%
191Congo, DR4%
192Guinea-Bissau4%
193Chad3%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)39
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100039
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
170Nigeria110.6
171Uganda111.9
172Gambia113.0
173Madagascar116.2
174Congo, (Brazzaville)117.7
175Sierra Leone118.2
176Tanzania118.6
177Congo, DR122.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)40
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita40
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
35Tuvalu1.5
36Tonga1.6
37Solomon Islands1.7
38Madagascar1.8
39Singapore2.0
40Turkey2.0
41Bahrain2.1
42Benin2.1
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
133Grenada133
134Montenegro134
135Iraq135
136Madagascar136
137Congo, (Brazzaville)137
138Albania138
139Ghana139
140Chad140
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)42
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %42
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
174Liberia72.6
175S. Africa72.5
176Angola71.9
177Madagascar71.9
178Iraq70.7
179Afghanistan70.6
180Niger69.7
181Samoa68.1
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
42Guatemala 190
43Ecuador 191
44Myanmar (Burma) 206
45Madagascar 206
46Burkina Faso 213
47Maldives 215
48Panama 224
49Grenada 224
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
44
Pos.Lower is better44
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
129Egypt112.25
130Croatia113
131Chad113.75
132Madagascar114
133Benin114.25
134Niger115
135Angola115
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
103Cape Verde103
104Swaziland104
105Albania105
106Madagascar106
107Thailand107
108Yemen108
109Brazil109
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
94Papua New Guinea94
95Belarus95
96Mongolia96
97Madagascar97
98Bolivia98
99El Salvador99
100Nicaragua100
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
22Algeria22
23Guatemala23
24Ecuador24
25Madagascar25
26Sri Lanka26
27Netherlands27
28Mongolia28
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
123Guinea123
124Congo, (Brazzaville)124
125Swaziland125
126Madagascar126
127Benin127
128Yemen128
129Pakistan129
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
100Argentina100
101Seychelles101
102Australia102
103Madagascar103
104Dominica104
105Iceland105
106Bolivia106
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
104Gambia0.13
105Tajikistan0.12
106Burundi0.12
107Madagascar0.11
108Philippines0.11
109Myanmar (Burma)0.11
110Peru0.10
111Paraguay0.09
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
112Sudan4.4
113Cameroon4.4
114Ethiopia4.4
115Madagascar4.4
116Armenia4.4
117Kenya4.4
118Djibouti4.4
119Tajikistan4.3
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
180Eritrea$1 490
181Guinea-Bissau$1 369
182Comoros$1 335
183Madagascar$1 320
184Togo$1 262
185Mozambique$1 098
186Malawi$1 073
187Guinea$1 058
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
172Niger35.7
173Lesotho33.8
174Haiti33.7
175Madagascar33.7
176Nepal31.4
177India30.6
178Congo, DR30.4
179Bangladesh29.6
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)47
Pos.Higher is better
Score47
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
113Korea, N.8
114Rwanda7
115Congo, (Brazzaville)5
116Madagascar5
117Chad5
118Indonesia1
119Ivory Coast1
120Russia1
q=196.
IQ (2006)48
Pos.Higher is better48
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
93Bangladesh82
94Lebanon82
95Dominican Rep.82
96Madagascar82
97Egypt81
98Honduras81
99Nicaragua81
100El Salvador80
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2018 Aug 17
http://www.humantruth.info/madagascar.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

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#alcohol #belief #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #research #science #slavery #smoking #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ma.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Madagascar".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. ^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  25. McCall (1979). P180.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  27. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  31. Klein (2004) .^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  33. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P44.^
  34. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  35. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)48.^
  36. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  37. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  38. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  39. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^
  40. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  41. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  42. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  43. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  44. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  45. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  46. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  47. Sources:^
  48. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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