The Human Truth Foundation

China (People's Republic of China)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#china #confucianism #taoism

China
People's Republic of China
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index74th best
CapitalBeijing
Land Area9 327 490km21
LocationAsia
Population1.4b2
Life Expectancy75.96yrs (2017)3
GNI$13 345 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesCN, CHN, 1565
Internet Domain.cn6
CurrencyYuan Renminbi (CNY)7
Telephone+868

1. Overview

#china

For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO's successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight. Since the early 1990s, China has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverAntique yet up-to-the-minute, outwardly urban but quintessentially rural, conservative yet path-breaking, space-age but old-fashioned, China is a land of mesmerising contradictions.

China is modernising at a head-spinning pace, but slick skyscrapers and Lamborghini showrooms are little more than dazzling baubles. ... After three decades of full-throttle development and socialist iconoclasm, you won´t find history at every turn, but travel selectively in China and rich seams of antiquity pop into view amid tumble-down chunks of the Great Wall, temple-topped mountains, quaint villages and water towns.

Culinary exploration is also an enticing aspect of Middle Kingdom travel: wolf down Peking duck, size up a sizzling lamb kebab in Kaifeng or gobble down Lánzhōu noodles on the Silk Road. And don´t forget about what´s cooking along China´s frontier lands - always an excellent reason to get off the beaten path.

And China is vast. Off-the-scale massive. You simply have to get outside: island-hop in Hong Kong, gaze over the epic grasslands of Inner Mongolia or squint up at the mind-blowing peaks of the Himalayas.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. China National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
87Peru87
88Thailand87
89Ecuador89
90China90
91Fiji91
92St Lucia92
93Mongolia92
94Jamaica94
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
80Costa Rica$14 006
81Palau$13 771
82Algeria$13 533
83China$13 345
84Lebanon$13 312
85Colombia$12 762
86Dominican Rep.$12 756
87Macedonia$12 405
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
71Georgia77.7
72Sri Lanka77.7
73UAE77.9
74China78.3
75Thailand78.5
76S. Africa79.0
77Vietnam79.0
78Seychelles79.5
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. China's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

China's population is predicted to fall to 1 393 076 000 by 2030. Developed countries with falling populations face a pension's crises, whereby an incresingly ageing population must be cared for by fewer and fewer workers. Economic stability can be maintained by increasing foreign workers from younger countries. This country has a fertility rate of 1.57. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
4Indonesia267.7m
5Pakistan212.2m
6Brazil209.5m
7Nigeria195.9m
8Bangladesh161.4m
9Russia145.7m
10Japan127.2m
11Mexico126.2m
12Ethiopia109.2m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
55Montenegro76.40
56Antigua & Barbuda76.24
57Ecuador76.12
58China75.96
59Vietnam75.94
60Jamaica75.82
61Barbados75.77
62Iran75.58
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
62Panama2.42
63Peru2.43
64Barbados1.57
65China1.57
66Serbia1.56
67Libya2.44
68Cambodia2.45
69Bulgaria1.54
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
127Israel22.9
128Sri Lanka23.7
129Moldova24.7
130China25.3
131Mauritius25.9
132Uruguay26.8
133Cyprus26.9
134Chile27.0
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
188N. Korea0.2%
189Sri Lanka0.2%
190Myanmar (Burma)0.1%
191Madagascar0.1%
192Indonesia0.1%
193Cuba0.1%
194Vietnam0.1%
195China0.1%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
185Qatar0.7%
186Nigeria0.6%
187Maldives0.6%
188China0.6%
189Japan0.6%
190Oman0.5%
191Madagascar0.4%
192Montenegro0.0%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#australia #china #equality #freedom #germany #human_rights #politics #russia #syria #tolerance #USA

The concept of Human Rights has not been accepted by the Chinese government. Although outright draconian abuse only exists in terms of censorship and political limitations, there are many areas where human rights are more generically denied. Since President Xi Jinping took power in 2012, a "broad and sustained offensive on human rights" has ensued, according to Human Rights Watch's 2017 report19. Forced confessions and televised sham trials were used to harass and silence human rights supporters and "the government also tried to eliminate the country's few independent human rights news websites by jailing their founders"19. The government remains "hostile to women's rights activism" even though "women and girls in China continue to confront sexual abuse and harassment, employment discrimination, and domestic violence"20. China's censorship of Internet access is already one of the most draconian worldwide and these controls were made even stronger in 201719.

China does worse than average in commentary in Human Rights Watch reports21, LGBT equality22 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights23. And finally, it sits amongst the bottom 20 when it comes to supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms24 and in supporting press freedom25.

"Foreign governments did little in 2017 to push back against China's worsening rights record at home and abroad"19. China and Russia both worked together to prevent and delay investigations of widespread human rights abuses in Syria by the International Criminal Court26. Australia and Germany both applied some pressure, and although the USA followed suit, their efforts were undermined by their own President Trump's applause of President Xi.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. China's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #China #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Health (2020)27,28
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank27,28
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
8Bhutan58.6
9Brunei59.3
10Norway62.0
11China62.4
12Malaysia64.1
13Mauritius64.5
14Switzerland65.6
15Finland65.9
16Italy66.4
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives27. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea27.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe27, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia27.

Health:

China does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. China performs the best for its immunizations take-up29. It does better than average in its adolescent birth rate30, its fertility rate15, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance31 and in its average life expectancy12. China does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in its alcohol consumption rate32. And finally, it sits amongst the bottom 20 when it comes to its smoking rate33 (amongst the worst in Asia). The number of overweight adults has increased by 14% over the last 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
55Montenegro76.40
56Antigua & Barbuda76.24
57Ecuador76.12
58China75.96
59Vietnam75.94
60Jamaica75.82
61Barbados75.77
62Iran75.58
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)32
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita32
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
104Dominican Rep.6.9
105Antigua & Barbuda7.0
106Niue7.0
107China7.2
108Paraguay7.2
109Mongolia7.4
110Albania7.5
111Burundi7.5
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
62Panama2.42
63Peru2.43
64Barbados1.57
65China1.57
66Serbia1.56
67Libya2.44
68Cambodia2.45
69Bulgaria1.54
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)33
Pos.Higher is worse33
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
179Macedonia2 732
178Russia2 690
177Slovenia2 637
176Belgium2 353
175Luxembourg2 284
174China2 250
173Bosnia & Herzegovina2 233
172Czechia2 194
171Kazakhstan2 157
World Avg 819
q=182.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
45Mexico45
46Malaysia46
47Czechia47
48China48
49Singapore49
50Ecuador50
51Israel51
52Slovakia52
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)34
Pos.Lower is better
%34
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
50Singapore31.8
51Gambia31.9
52Ghana32.0
53China32.3
54Mauritius32.3
55N. Korea32.4
56Thailand32.6
57Cameroon33.6
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)30
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100030
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
19Maldives6.7
20Tunisia6.8
21Austria7.1
22China7.3
23Greece7.5
24Oman8.1
25Belgium8.2
26Spain8.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)29
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %29
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
4Niue98.8
5Mongolia98.7
6Czechia98.7
7Seychelles98.6
8S. Korea98.6
9Sri Lanka98.4
10St Lucia98.2
11Bahrain98.2
12Iran98.1
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. China's Modernity and Learning

#education #english #intelligence #it_security #maths #modernity #politics #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)35
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank35
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
64Moldova60.1
65Uzbekistan60.1
66Iran60.9
67China61.4
68Kazakhstan61.4
69Tunisia62.3
70Peru62.3
71Colombia62.4
72Georgia62.8
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2936
2Israel4.1136
3Japan3.5836
...
119Honduras0.0437
120Guatemala0.0438
121Bahrain0.0439
122Colombia0.0439
123Iraq0.0340
124El Salvador0.0338
125China0.0339
126Lesotho0.0140
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)41
Pos.Higher is better41
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
61Italy79.6%
62Hong Kong79.4%
63Chile79.3%
64China78.6%
65Belize78.6%
66Malta78.2%
67Fiji76.9%
68S. Africa76.5%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)42
Pos.Higher is better
Years42
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
77Dominican Rep.14.1
78Bolivia14.0
79Sri Lanka14.0
80China13.9
81St Lucia13.9
82Peru13.8
83Bosnia & Herzegovina13.8
84Kuwait13.8
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
67India67
68Lebanon68
69Senegal69
70China70
71Burundi71
72Tunisia72
73Timor-Leste (E. Timor)73
74Chile74
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Maths, Science & Reading (2015)43
Pos.Higher is better
Score43
1Singapore1655
2Hong Kong1598
3Japan1586
...
7Canada1571
8Finland1568
9S. Korea1557
10China154344
11Ireland1528
12Slovenia1528
13Germany1524
14Netherlands1524
World Avg1389
q=70.
IQ (2006)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
4Japan105
5Taiwan105
6China105
7Italy102
8Iceland101
9Switzerland101
10Mongolia101
11Netherlands100
12Norway100
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
91Serbia54%
92Maldives54%
93Georgia53%
94China52%
95Vietnam52%
96S. Africa52%
97Dominican Rep.52%
98Uzbekistan51%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
Freedom On The Internet (2012)47
Pos.Lower is better47
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
40Vietnam73
41Ethiopia75
42Myanmar (Burma)75
43Uzbekistan77
44Syria83
45China85
46Cuba86
47Iran90
World Avg46.7
q=47.
IT Security (2013)48
Pos.Lower is better48
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
69Rwanda1.50
70Tanzania1.50
71Maldives1.57
72China1.59
73Angola1.61
74Sri Lanka1.67
75Oman1.72
76Iraq1.84
World Avg0.98
q=81.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)49
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio49
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
56Egypt0.4
57Mexico0.4
58Bhutan0.4
59China0.3
60Iceland0.3
61Turkey0.3
62Uruguay0.3
63Moldova0.3
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
50
Pos.Lower is better50
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
149Armenia126.25
150Congo, DR126.5
151Turkey128
152Greece133
153Palestine135
154Yemen136.25
155China136.25
156Burundi145
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)51
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score51
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
80Bosnia & Herzegovina40.0
81Jamaica38.8
82Burkina Faso38.8
83China38.4
84El Salvador38.0
85Suriname38.0
86Mongolia38.0
87Liberia38.0
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)52
Pos.Higher is better52
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
83Dominican Rep.5.3
84Algeria5.3
85Morocco5.3
86China5.2
87Azerbaijan5.2
88Lebanon5.2
89Macedonia5.2
90Jordan5.2
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
108Lesotho108
109Georgia109
110Kuwait110
111China111
112Swaziland112
113Argentina113
114Qatar114
115Afghanistan115
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
110Ecuador110
111Malawi111
112Laos112
113China113
114S. Africa114
115Cape Verde115
116Russia116
117Angola117
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)53
Pos.Lower is better53
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
86Swaziland2.03
87Equatorial Guinea2.04
88USA2.06
89China2.06
90Dominican Rep.2.07
91Bangladesh2.07
92Guinea2.07
93Papua New Guinea2.08
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
37Germany37
38Togo38
39Argentina39
40China40
41Canada41
42Azerbaijan42
43Senegal43
44Switzerland44
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
106Namibia106
107Tunisia107
108Cape Verde108
109China109
110Kazakhstan110
111Jordan111
112Libya112
113Belize113
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)54
Pos.Lower is better
Score54
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
106Greece4.17
107Germany4.25
108Lebanon4.40
109China4.47
110S. Africa4.51
111Israel4.53
112Iran4.72
113Chad4.76
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)55
Pos.Higher is better
%55
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
13Bhutan34.7
14Azerbaijan34.6
15Spain33.2
16China32.6
17Montenegro32.1
18Syria32.1
19UAE31.7
20Samoa31.5
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)56
Pos.Higher is better56
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
117Zambia51.0
118Grenada50.9
119Tanzania50.8
120China50.7
121Thailand49.9
122Micronesia49.8
123Libya49.8
124Ghana49.7
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)57
Pos.Higher is better57
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
...
95Niger05.81
96Zambia05.71
97Canada05.56
98China05.52
99Nepal05.35
100Iran05.32
101Kenya05.24
102Kazakhstan05.10
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
4Vanuatu1993 Dec 29
5Papua New Guinea1993 Dec 29
6Mexico1993 Dec 29
7Armenia1993 Dec 29
8Ecuador1993 Dec 29
9Fiji1993 Dec 29
10Canada1993 Dec 29
11Monaco1993 Dec 29
12Maldives1993 Dec 29
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)58
Pos.Higher is better
%58
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
...
134Tunisia19.3%
135Czechia16.0%
136Estonia15.9%
137China15.1%
138Denmark14.9%
139Libya14.6%
140Iceland13.1%
141Uzbekistan11.3%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #poverty #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)59
Pos.Higher is worse59
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
71Armenia8.70
70Barbados8.70
69Argentina8.60
68China7.90
67Macedonia7.90
66Uruguay7.90
65Georgia7.90
64Thailand7.90
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)60
Pos.Lower is better
%60
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
87Myanmar (Burma)38.1
88Maldives38.4
89Burundi38.6
90China38.6
91Samoa38.7
92Israel38.9
93Tuvalu39.1
94Ethiopia39.1
World Avg38.1
q=152.
Multidimensional Poverty (2018)61
Pos.Lower is better
Severity61
1Armenia.001
2Ukraine.001
3Serbia.001
...
21Macedonia.010
22Guyana.014
23Dominican Rep..015
24China.016
25Brazil.01662
26Belize.017
27Ecuador.018
28Jamaica.018
World Avg.154
q=101.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#afterlife #belief #buddhism #china #christianity #god #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #universalism

Disbelief In God (2007)63
Pos.Higher is better
%63
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
36Lithuania13
37Singapore13
38Kazakhstan12
39China12
40Uruguay12
41USA10
42Trinidad & Tobago9
43Albania8
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and Chinese folk religion are the four main strands of religion in China; their beliefs and practices have intermingled and interchanged64,65, and most local communities combine bits of all of them66,67.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below68:

Christian5.1%
Muslim1.8%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist18.2%
Folk Religion21.9%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated52.2%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2%. note: officially atheist (2002 est.)69.

The Afterlife: Ipsos-NA in 2011 gathered some statistics on China70. Belief in heaven and hell is at just 12%. More people don't know what to believe (34%). Some believe that upon death, you simply cease to exist (31%). Also, 2% specifically believe in heaven but not in hell (which is nice - making them possible "universalists"). 8% believe in reincarnation.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: The Chinese government "restricts religious practice to five officially recognized religions in officially approved religious premises" and for (many) religious communities that it doesn't like, it "subjects members to police harassment, torture, arbitrary detention, and imprisonment""World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19. Chinese authorities in Tibetan "severely restrict religious freedom""World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19.

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