The Human Truth Foundation

Norway

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #humanism #intelligence #morals #norway #research #scandinavia #science #the_environment

Norway
Kingdom of Norway
StatusIndependent State
CapitalOslo
Land Area 304 250km21
LocationEurope, Scandinavia
Population5.0m (2011)2
Life Expectancy81.71yrs (2017)3
GNI$67 614 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesNO, NOR, 5785
Internet Domain.no6
CurrencyKrone (NOK)7
Telephone+478

1. Overview

#christianity #denmark #germany #sweden

Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994. Conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country's extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverNorway is a once-in-a-lifetime destination and the essence of its appeal is remarkably simple: this is one of the most beautiful countries on earth. The drama of Norway´s natural world is difficult to overstate. Impossibly steep-sided fjords of extraordinary beauty cut gashes from a jagged coastline deep into the interior. The fjords´ fame is wholly merited, but this is also a land of glaciers, grand and glorious, snaking down from icefields that rank among Europe´s largest. Elsewhere, the mountainous terrain of Norway´s interior resembles the ramparts of so many natural fortresses, and yields to rocky coastal islands that rise improbably from the waters like apparitions. And then, of course, there´s the primeval appeal of the Arctic…

The counterpoint to so much natural beauty is found in the country´s vibrant cultural life, which celebrates local traditions and draws in the best from around the world. Norwegian cities are cosmopolitan and brimfull of architecture that showcases the famous Scandinavian flair for design through the ages. At the same time, a busy calendar of festivals, many of international renown, are worth planning your trip around.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Norway National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
4Germany4
5Denmark5
6Singapore5
7Netherlands7
8Ireland8
9Iceland9
10Canada10
11USA10
12Hong Kong12
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
4Norway82.7
5Netherlands82.6
6Belgium82.2
7Switzerland82.0
8Germany81.7
9Ireland80.5
10UK80.5
11New Zealand80.4
12Iceland80.3
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #Norway #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
145Australia31.3
146Slovakia31.6
147Albania31.8
148Norway32.2
149Iceland32.5
150Serbia32.7
151Hungary32.9
152Romania33.6
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
124Syria4.2
125Burundi4.2
126Panama4.0
127Norway3.8
128Bahrain3.7
129Gambia3.7
130Chile3.7
131Peru3.7
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
4France1.99
5Turkey2.04
6Australia1.96
7Uruguay2.05
8Norway1.95
9Myanmar (Burma)1.95
10Indonesia2.07
11Sweden1.93
12Tunisia1.93
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
53Armenia10.5
54Libya10.4
55Greece10.1
56Norway10.0
57Syria9.8
58Bahamas9.7
59St Kitts & Nevis9.6
60Denmark8.8
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
14New Zealand82.03
15Chile81.96
16Luxembourg81.88
17Norway81.71
18Netherlands81.71
19Austria81.58
20Andorra81.46
21Portugal81.18
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
114Finland5.4m
115Singapore5.3m
116Turkmenistan5.2m
117Norway5.0m
118Costa Rica4.8m
119Ireland4.6m
120Central African Rep.4.6m
121New Zealand4.5m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Norway's population is predicted to rise to 5.574 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.95. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #Norway #peace #politics #slavery

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
12Canada14
13New Zealand14
14Australia14
15Norway15
16Ghana15
17Finland15
18Brazil16
19Singapore16
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)19
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score19
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
4Sweden88.2
5Norway86.0
6Switzerland85.8
7Singapore85.2
8Netherlands83.4
9Canada82.2
10Luxembourg81.6
11Australia80.8
12Germany79.6
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)20
Pos.Lower is better20
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
15Germany1.42
16Portugal1.47
17Hungary1.48
18Norway1.48
19Bhutan1.48
20Malaysia1.49
21Mauritius1.49
22Australia1.49
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)21
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties21
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
42Romania20
43Bulgaria20
44Burkina Faso20
45Norway20
46Portugal20
47Poland20
48Korea, S.20
49Panama20
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)22
Pos.Lower is better
Rank22
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
10Netherlands10
11Luxembourg11
12Austria11
13Norway13
14Germany13
15Sweden15
16Malta16
17Belgium17
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)23
Pos.Lower is better23
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
4Luxembourg668
5Andorra682
6Denmark708
7Liechtenstein735
8New Zealand838
9Iceland849
10Sweden923
11Estonia926
12Austria940
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)24
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims24
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
25Brazil0.18
26Jordan0.18
27Netherlands0.18
28Norway0.18
29Saudi Arabia0.19
30Bahrain0.19
31Korea, S.0.19
32Germany0.20
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory25. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends26. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life27. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves28.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery29. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity30. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.31. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi24, Eritrea24, Indonesia32) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery33.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #Norway #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better34
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
4Sweden0.05
5Iceland0.05
6Norway0.05
7Slovenia0.05
8Finland0.06
9Germany0.07
10Korea, S.0.07
11Singapore0.07
12Belgium0.07
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote35
Pos.Lower is better
Year35
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
4Norway1913
5Denmark1915
6Iceland1915
7Russia1917
8Latvia1918
9Estonia1918
10Kyrgyzstan1918
11Austria1919
12Slovakia1919
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Norway is notable for its equality between the sexes and this has been a feature of the country's culture for quite some time.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)36
Pos.Higher is better36
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
13Slovenia35
14Bulgaria34
15Hungary32
16Norway31
17Korea, S.30
18Finland28
19Russia27
20Australia25
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below37:

Christian84.7%
Muslim3.7%
Hindu0.5%
Buddhist0.6%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated10.1%

By adding up the Pew Forum data for the major monotheistic religions we can see that these make up 88.5% of the population. Yet there are simply too many who disbelieve in God for this to be true (31%). This is due to the so-called 'Census Effect', whereby many put down a religion for cultural reasons rather than because it reflects their beliefs. In highly Christian countries, as many as half of those who say they're a Christian lack any connection to a Church, and do not hold Christian beliefs (such as believing in God!).

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Church of Norway (Evangelical Lutheran - official) 85.7%, Pentecostal 1%, Roman Catholic 1%, other Christian 2.4%, Muslim 1.8%, other 8.1% (2004)38.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012)39, in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Norway states:

The constitution and other laws and policies protect freedom of religion or belief. However, the Evangelical Lutheran Church (ELC), the state church, enjoys some benefits not available to other religious and humanist groups, even though 2012 saw a move towards greater separation between state and church. The state supports the church financially. Other religion or belief communities may register with the government to receive state financial support, which is provided to all registered life-stance groups in proportion to their formally registered membership. The largest such group after the state church is the Norwegian Humanist Association, a non-religious life-stance organization with around 80,000 members.

The Christian Knowledge and Religious and Ethical Information (CKREE) course for grades 1 through 10 (generally ages 6 to 16) reviews world religions and philosophy while promoting tolerance and respect for all religious beliefs. Citing the country's Christian history (and the stated importance of Christianity to society), the CKREE course devotes an extensive amount of time to studying Christianity, but the course includes discussion of other religions. This course is mandatory; there are no exceptions for children of other religious groups, or Humanists or other non-religious students. Students may be exempted from participating in or performing specific religious acts, such as church services or prayer.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)40

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #Norway #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)41
Pos.Higher is better41
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
4Bermuda97%
5Andorra97%
6Denmark96%
7Liechtenstein96%
8Luxembourg95%
9Netherlands94%
10Sweden93%
11Monaco93%
12UK93%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)42
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio42
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
15Ecuador18.2
16Estonia17.6
17Malaysia16.5
18Norway14.7
19Australia14.6
20Trinidad & Tobago14.5
21Finland14.1
22Brazil13.9
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #mental_health #Norway #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100034
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
9Japan4.1
10Cyprus5.0
11Sweden5.7
12Norway5.9
13Luxembourg5.9
14Italy6.0
15Iceland6.1
16Libya6.2
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)43
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita43
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
124Uruguay7.6
125Tanzania7.7
126Georgia7.7
127Norway7.7
128Palau7.9
129Niue8.0
130Panama8.0
131Guyana8.1
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
4UK4
5Norway5
6Switzerland6
7Germany7
8Canada8
9Netherlands9
10USA10
11Luxembourg11
12Finland12
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)45
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %45
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
74Singapore94.6
75UK94.6
76Solomon Islands94.5
77Norway94.3
78Bolivia94.2
79UAE94.0
80Bangladesh94.0
81Tanzania94.0
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)46
Pos.Lower is better46
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
86Tajikistan 533
87S. Africa 537
88Iceland 551
89Norway 556
90Gabon 559
91Venezuela 565
92Uzbekistan 573
93Oman 577
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)47
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k47
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
56Iceland23.5
57New Zealand23.6
58Ireland23.7
59Norway23.8
60Denmark23.9
61Germany23.9
62Cuba24.5
63Romania24.5
World Avg20.93
q=91.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
48
Pos.Lower is better48
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
11Netherlands10
12UAE12
13Bahrain13
14Norway13.33
15Malta14
16Indonesia14.75
17Iceland16
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
46Belarus46
47Moldova47
48Montenegro48
49Norway49
50Fiji50
51Dominica51
52Malaysia52
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
19Hungary19
20Slovakia20
21Poland21
22Norway22
23Lithuania23
24St Lucia24
25Canada25
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
48UK48
49Timor-Leste (E. Timor)49
50Ireland50
51Norway51
52Finland52
53France53
54Australia54
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
4Sweden4
5Malta5
6Australia6
7Norway7
8Finland8
9Denmark9
10Switzerland10
11Canada11
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
4Netherlands4
5Switzerland5
6Serbia6
7Belgium7
8Norway8
9Finland9
10Croatia10
11Georgia11
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
17Czechia2.00
18Netherlands1.97
19Iceland1.89
20Norway1.70
21UK1.70
22Canada1.61
23Ireland1.52
24Estonia1.43
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)49
Pos.Higher is better49
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
4Venezuela7.5
5Sweden7.5
6Switzerland7.5
7Austria7.5
8Canada7.4
9Australia7.4
10Israel7.4
11Finland7.4
12Costa Rica7.3
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
4Liechtenstein$75 065
5Brunei$72 843
6Norway$67 614
7UAE$66 203
8Luxembourg$62 471
9Switzerland$56 364
10Hong Kong$54 265
11USA$53 245
12Saudi Arabia$51 320
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)50
Pos.Higher is better50
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
11Iceland78.6
12Spain78.4
13Germany78.4
14Norway77.5
15Belgium77.4
16Italy77.0
17New Zealand76.0
18Netherlands75.5
q=180.
Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
12Canada14
13New Zealand14
14Australia14
15Norway15
16Ghana15
17Finland15
18Brazil16
19Singapore16
q=101.
LGBT Equality (2017)51
Pos.Higher is better
Score51
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
4Brazil81
5Spain79
6France78
7S. Africa78
8Uruguay77
9Norway72
10Denmark72
11Iceland72
12UK72
q=196.
IQ (2006)52
Pos.Higher is better52
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
9Switzerland101
10Mongolia101
11Netherlands100
12Norway100
13Austria100
14UK100
15New Zealand99
16Poland99
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/norway.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #antisemitism #belief #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #denmark #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #germany #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #humanism #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #mental_health #misogyny #morals #Norway #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #research #scandinavia #science #slavery #smoking #suicide #sweden #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/no.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Norway".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  19. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  20. ^
  21. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  22. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  23. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  24. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  25. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  26. McCall (1979). P180.^
  27. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  28. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  31. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  32. Klein (2004) .^
  33. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  34. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  35. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  36. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)52.^
  37. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  38. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  39. IHEU (2012) .^
  40. IHEU (2012) .Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  41. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  42. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  43. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  44. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  45. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  46. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  47. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  48. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  49. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  50. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  51. Sources:^
  52. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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