The Human Truth Foundation

Sudan (Republic of the Sudan)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#islam #sudan

Sudan
Republic of the Sudan
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index173rd best
CapitalKhartoum
Land Area2 376 000km21
LocationAfrica
Population41.8m2
Life Expectancy63.73yrs (2017)3
GNI$3 846 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesSD, SDN, 7365
Internet Domain.sd6
CurrencyDinar (SDD)7
Telephone+2498

1. Overview

#chad #ethiopia #south_sudan #UK

Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but broke out again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than four million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than two million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Since southern independence Sudan has been combating rebels from the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states. A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, has displaced nearly two million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths. The UN took command of the Darfur peacekeeping operation from the African Union in December 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to stabilize the situation, which has become increasingly regional in scope and has brought instability to eastern Chad. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries primarily Ethiopia and Chad. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverThere is no country on earth that travellers are as apprehensive to visit as they are pained to leave. The Sudanese are as diverse as they are mysterious, as generous as they are welcoming. Wake at the break of day under the golden pyramids of godlike kings of old; traverse a searing desert to the place where two Nile rivers become one and watch a million blood red fish swarm through gardens of coral. Whichever way you look at it, there´s just no denying that among Sudan´s sweeping hills of sand lie treasures the rest of the world are only just beginning to understand.

Until July 2011 Sudan was the biggest country in Africa, but now, with South Sudan having broken away to form a new nation, maps of Africa are being redrawn. This redefining of national boundaries is making for huge changes, geographically, politically, financially and culturally, for the Sudanese. But for a traveller some things never change; Sudanese hospitality remains second to none, and for most people, travelling through Sudan is such an eye-opening and rewarding experience that many come away saying that Sudan was their favourite country in Africa.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Sudan National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
162Senegal162
163Uganda163
164Haiti163
165Sudan165
166Togo166
167Benin167
168Yemen168
169Afghanistan169
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
140Nicaragua$4 747
141Honduras$4 466
142Marshall Islands$4 412
143Sudan$3 846
144Ghana$3 839
145Mauritania$3 527
146Zambia$3 464
147Bangladesh$3 341
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
170Marshall Islands117.1
171Syria117.2
172Swaziland117.6
173Sudan118.2
174Comoros119.3
175Mauritania119.3
176Burundi120.9
177Papua New Guinea121.0
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Sudan's Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #population

Population:

Sudan's population is predicted to rise to 50.75 million by 2030.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
32Ukraine44.2m
33Uganda42.7m
34Algeria42.2m
35Sudan41.8m
36Iraq38.4m
37Poland37.9m
38Afghanistan37.2m
39Canada37.1m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
150Eritrea64.19
151Yemen64.05
152Malawi63.88
153Sudan63.73
154Comoros63.57
155Mauritania63.24
156Haiti63.12
157Congo, (Brazzaville)62.89
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)15
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10015
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
40Ethiopia06.6
41Swaziland06.6
42Central African Rep.06.8
43Sudan06.8
44Mauritania06.8
45Kuwait06.8
46Congo, (Brazzaville)07.0
47Solomon Islands07.0
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)16
Pos.
%16
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
131Central African Rep.1.9%
132Romania1.9%
133Japan1.8%
134Sudan1.8%
135Albania1.8%
136Pakistan1.7%
137Nepal1.7%
138Poland1.7%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)17
Pos.
%17
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
150Argentina2.4%
151Cambodia2.3%
152Uganda2.2%
153Sudan2.2%
154Chad2.1%
155Australia2.1%
156Serbia2.0%
157Venezuela1.8%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #sudan #tolerance

Sudan is amongst the worst places in the world at ensuring human rights and freedom, and it has severe cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Sudan does worse than average when it comes to its nominal commitment to Human Rights18 and in speed of uptake of HR treaties19. And finally, it sits amongst the bottom 20 when it comes to commentary in Human Rights Watch reports20 (one of the worst in Africa), opposing gender inequality21, supporting press freedom22 (one of the highest in Africa) and in LGBT equality23 (amongst the worst in Africa). "Sudan´s human rights record continued to be defined by government repression and violations of basic civil and political rights [and] disregard for obligations on civilian protection under international humanitarian law"24. There is no freedom of religion24,25, and religious persecution, based on Islam, occurs at the worst possible rate25; converting from Islam attracts the death penalty.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Sudan's Health

#alcohol #health #life_expectancy #longevity #obesity #parenting #population #smoking #Sudan #vaccines

Health (2020)26,27
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank26,27
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
88Grenada90.5
89Trinidad & Tobago90.6
90USA91.1
91Sudan91.7
92Libya91.9
93Costa Rica91.9
94Lebanon92.3
95Georgia92.4
96Rwanda92.4
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives26. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea26.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe26, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia26.

Health:

Sudan has some poor policies and cultural issues which cause some public health problems. Sudan comes in the best 20 in terms of its alcohol consumption rate28. It does better than average in its smoking rate29 (but high for Africa). And finally, it does worse than average for its immunizations take-up30, its adolescent birth rate21 (still low for Africa) and in its average life expectancy12 (still good for Africa). The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% over the past 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
150Eritrea64.19
151Yemen64.05
152Malawi63.88
153Sudan63.73
154Comoros63.57
155Mauritania63.24
156Haiti63.12
157Congo, (Brazzaville)62.89
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)28
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita28
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
14Egypt0.4
15Djibouti0.5
16Niger0.5
17Sudan0.5
18Bhutan0.6
19Morocco0.6
20Jordan0.7
21Senegal0.7
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Smoking Rates (2014)29
Pos.Higher is worse29
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
76Syria 459
75Botswana 449
74Costa Rica 432
73Sudan 428
72Swaziland 427
71Belize 400
70S. Sudan 398
69Yemen 388
World Avg 819
q=182.
Overweight Adults (2016)31
Pos.Lower is better
%31
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
38Somalia28.4
39Senegal28.4
40Pakistan28.4
41Sudan28.9
42Nigeria28.9
43Benin29.5
44Guinea-Bissau29.9
45S. Korea30.3
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)21
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100021
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
139Nepal71.9
140Cape Verde73.4
141Afghanistan74.0
142Sudan74.0
143Panama74.5
144Ecuador75.9
145Namibia76.8
146Senegal78.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)30
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %30
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
122Senegal89.5
123Peru89.3
124Ireland89.2
125Sudan89.2
126Honduras88.8
127Kenya88.5
128Costa Rica88.5
129Colombia88.4
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Sudan's Modernity and Learning

#education #it_security #modernity #religion #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)32
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank32
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
125Algeria89.6
126Guatemala89.9
127Senegal90.0
128Sudan90.9
129Paraguay91.3
130El Salvador91.3
131Laos91.7
132Antigua & Barbuda92.8
133Sao Tome & Principe92.8
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2933
2Israel4.1133
3Japan3.5833
...
82Zambia0.2834
83Botswana0.2535
84Armenia0.2436
85Sudan0.2337
86Uruguay0.2335
87Mongolia0.2336
88Bermuda0.2336
89Togo0.2235
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)38
Pos.Higher is better38
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
155Mozambique19.3%
156Mauritania18.8%
157Senegal17.6%
158Sudan17.5%
159Ethiopia17.1%
160Rwanda16.3%
161Tanzania14.3%
162Mali13.1%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)39
Pos.Higher is better
Years39
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
183Mauritania8.5
184Pakistan8.5
185Tanzania8.0
186Sudan7.7
187Mali7.6
188Central African Rep.7.6
189Chad7.5
190Djibouti6.5
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Religiosity (2009)40
Pos.Lower is better
%40
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
76Pakistan92
77Paraguay92
78Saudi Arabia93
79Sudan93
80Tunisia93
81Uganda93
82Palestine93
83Nepal93
World Avg75.1
q=114.

Technology and Information:

The Sudanese government persecuted and harasses its critics in every way it can.

The Sudanese government set up a Facebook group calling for a protest against the Sudanese government, naming a time and place, and simply arrested all those who attended.

"Media Studies: The Basics" by Julian McDougall (2012)41

Internet Users (2016)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
136Ghana28%
137Swaziland28%
138Guatemala27%
139Sudan26%
140Sao Tome & Principe26%
141Yemen25%
142Senegal23%
143Angola23%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IT Security (2013)43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
74Sri Lanka1.67
75Oman1.72
76Iraq1.84
77Bangladesh1.87
78Sudan1.98
79India2.10
80Russia2.42
81USA3.68
World Avg0.98
q=81.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)44
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio44
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
67Indonesia0.2
68S. Africa0.1
69Jersey0.1
70Sudan0.1
71Ukraine0.1
72Lithuania0.1
73Vanuatu0.1
74Iran0.1
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
45
Pos.Lower is better45
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
73Botswana63.75
74Ghana63.75
75Spain64
76Sudan64
77Tajikistan64.5
78Guinea65.75
79Cameroon66
80Suriname66
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)46
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score46
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
169Turkmenistan18.2
170Libya16.8
171Iraq16.6
172S. Sudan13.8
173Sudan12.2
174Afghanistan10.8
175N. Korea08.8
176Somalia08.4
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
134Niger4.2
135Uganda4.2
136Benin4.1
137Sudan4.1
138Ukraine4.1
139Togo4.0
140Guinea4.0
141Lesotho3.8
World Avg5.38
q=156.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)48
Pos.Lower is better48
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
150Central African Rep.2.87
151N. Korea2.93
152Russia2.94
153Congo, DR3.07
154Iraq3.19
155Sudan3.19
156Afghanistan3.25
157Somalia3.39
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)49
Pos.Lower is better
Score49
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
128Niger5.60
129USA5.69
130Kenya5.76
131Sudan5.81
132Colombia5.91
133Thailand6.03
134S. Sudan6.32
135Turkey6.53
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)50
Pos.Higher is better
%50
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
173El Salvador-29.7
174Nicaragua-31.0
175Zimbabwe-36.6
176Sudan-37.5
177N. Korea-38.7
178Niger-41.3
179Pakistan-41.7
180Honduras-43.6
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)51
Pos.Higher is better51
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
112Moldova52.0
113Botswana51.7
114Honduras51.5
115Sudan51.5
116Oman51.3
117Zambia51.0
118Grenada50.9
119Tanzania50.8
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
130Botswana1996 Jan 10
131Moldova1996 Jan 18
132Guinea-Bissau1996 Jan 25
133Sudan1996 Jan 28
134S. Africa1996 Jan 31
135Nicaragua1996 Feb 18
136Latvia1996 Mar 13
137Singapore1996 Mar 20
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)52
Pos.Higher is better
%52
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
...
44Honduras48.1%
45Iran47.9%
46Turkey47.4%
47Sudan46.9%
48Malaysia46.6%
49Mozambique46.5%
50Laos45.3%
51Slovenia45.1%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #poverty #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)53
Pos.Higher is worse53
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
159Burundi28.50
158Gambia28.50
157Afghanistan28.30
156Sudan27.40
155Uganda27.20
154Zambia26.50
153Tanzania25.30
152Malawi25.10
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)54
Pos.Lower is better
%54
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
57Vietnam35.3
58Burkina Faso35.3
59Liberia35.3
60Sudan35.4
61Italy35.4
62Portugal35.5
63Macedonia35.6
64India35.7
World Avg38.1
q=152.
Multidimensional Poverty (2018)55
Pos.Lower is better
Severity55
1Armenia.001
2Ukraine.001
3Serbia.001
...
78Uganda.269
79Afghanistan.272
80Tanzania.273
81Sudan.279
82Angola.282
83Gambia.286
84Senegal.288
85Nigeria.291
World Avg.154
q=101.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #sudan

Religiosity (2009)40
Pos.Lower is better
%40
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
76Pakistan92
77Paraguay92
78Saudi Arabia93
79Sudan93
80Tunisia93
81Uganda93
82Palestine93
83Nepal93
World Avg75.1
q=114.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below56:

Christian5.4%
Muslim90.7%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion2.8%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states simply: Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority57.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: There is no freedom of religion24,25, and religious persecution, based on Islam, occurs at the worst possible rate25; converting from Islam attracts the death penalty58 and blasphemy and "defamation of Islam" are serious crimes58. Marriage and other laws strongly favour Muslims at the expense of others58. No new Christian churches are permitted and officials and security forces are demolishing existing ones24.

Links: