The Human Truth Foundation

Thailand (Kingdom of Thailand)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #intelligence #morals #research #science #thailand #the_environment

Thailand
Kingdom of Thailand
StatusIndependent State
CapitalBangkok
Land Area 510 890km21
LocationAsia
Population69.9m (2011)2
Life Expectancy74.62yrs (2017)3
GNI$14 519 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesTH, THA, 7645
Internet Domain.th6
CurrencyBaht (THB)7
Telephone+668

1. Overview

A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century. Known as Siam until 1939, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country never to have been taken over by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to a constitutional monarchy. In alliance with Japan during World War II, Thailand became a US treaty ally in 1954 after sending troops to Korea and later fighting alongside the United States in Vietnam. Thailand since 2005 has experienced several rounds of political turmoil including a military coup in 2006 that ousted then Prime Minister THAKSIN Chinnawat, followed by large-scale street protests by competing political factions in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Demonstrations in 2010 culminated with clashes between security forces and pro-THAKSIN protesters, elements of which were armed, and resulted in at least 92 deaths and an estimated $1.5 billion in arson-related property losses. THAKSIN's youngest sister, YINGLAK Chinnawat, in 2011 led the Puea Thai Party to an electoral win and assumed control of the government. YINGLAK's leadership was almost immediately challenged by historic flooding in late 2011 that had large swathes of the country underwater and threatened to inundate Bangkok itself. Throughout 2012 the Puea Thai-led government struggled with the opposition Democrat Party to fulfill some of its main election promises, including constitutional reform and political reconciliation. Since January 2004, thousands have been killed and wounded in violence associated with the ethno-nationalist insurgency in Thailand's southern Malay-Muslim majority provinces.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverFriendly and fun-loving, exotic and tropical, cultured and historic, Thailand radiates a golden hue from its gaudy temples and tropical beaches to the ever-comforting Thai smile. Lustrous Thailand radiates a hospitality that makes it one of the most accessibly exotic destinations on earth. Its natural landscape is part of the allure: the blonde beaches are lapped at by cerulean seas, while the northern mountains cascade into the misty horizon. In between are emerald-coloured rice fields and busy, prosperous cities built around sacred temples. It is a bountiful land where the markets are piled high with pyramids of colourful fruits and the rót khen (vendor cart) is an integral piece of a city´s infrastructure.

You´ll suffer few travelling hardships, save for a few pushy touts, in this land of comfort and convenience. Bangkok reigns as an Asian superstar, Chiang Mai excels in liveability and the tropical islands are up all night to party. It is relatively cheap to hop around by plane and the kingdom provides a gateway to everywhere else in the region. Though the fiery curries and simple stir-fries might delay your departure.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

Prime Minister Gen. Prayuth Chan-ocha, in his concurrent position as NCPO chairman, [wields] absolute power without oversight or accountability. The 2017 constitution, promulgated in March, endorses the continuance of this power, thereby guaranteeing that both the NCPO and officials operating under its orders cannot be held accountable for their rights violations. An unelected Senate and other elements of the new constitution lay the foundations for prolonged military control even if the junta fulfills its promise to hold elections in November 2018.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)11

2. Thailand National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)12
Pos.Lower is better
Rank12
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
85Ukraine84
86Jordan86
87Peru87
88Thailand87
89Ecuador89
90China90
91Fiji91
92St Lucia92
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13
Pos.Higher is better
Points13
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
72Uzbekistan55.8
73Seychelles55.4
74Philippines55.2
75Thailand55.2
76Montenegro54.9
77Tajikistan54.9
78Peru54.9
79Georgia54.7
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population #Thailand

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)14
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10014
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
135Macedonia27.7
136Luxembourg28.3
137Armenia28.7
138Thailand29.2
139Ireland29.2
140Russia29.5
141Georgia29.7
142Montenegro30.0
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)15
Pos.
%15
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
167Malawi1.4
168Congo, DR1.3
169N. Korea1.3
170Thailand1.2
171UAE1.2
172Mongolia1.2
173Kenya1.1
174Indonesia1.1
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)16
Pos.2.0 is best16
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
68Cambodia2.45
69Bulgaria1.54
70Bahrain2.46
71Thailand1.54
72Greece1.54
73Georgia1.53
74Switzerland1.53
75Mongolia2.48
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)15
Pos.
%15
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
133Malawi1.8
134Sudan1.7
135Japan1.7
136Thailand1.7
137Sri Lanka1.7
138Senegal1.6
139Guyana1.5
140Tanzania1.5
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)17
Pos.Higher is better
Years17
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
76Romania74.84
77Peru74.81
78Brazil74.75
79Thailand74.62
80Mauritius74.60
81Kuwait74.55
82Saudi Arabia74.44
83Venezuela74.39
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)18
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth18
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
16Germany82.0m
17Iran75.6m
18Turkey74.5m
19Thailand69.9m
20Congo, DR69.6m
21France63.5m
22UK62.8m
23Italy61.0m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Thailand's population is predicted to rise to 73.32 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.54. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #thailand #tolerance

Thailand is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Thailand comes in the top 20 in fighting anti-semitic opinions19. It does better than average in LGBT equality20 and in opposing gender inequality21. But unfortunately Thailand gets most other things wrong. It does worse than average in commentary from Human Rights Watch22, fighting corruption23, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms24, its Global Peace Index rating25, supporting press freedom26, eliminating modern slavery27 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights28. Military Prime Minister Gen. Prayuth Chan-ocha wields "absolute power without oversight or accountability" and he and his officials "cannot be held accountable for their rights violations"11. Civil rights are suffering and critics of the government are being suppressed and silenced and some protests have been violently dispersed. Thailand's fishing industry has become infamous for using modern slavery techniques to acquire and keep workers via human trafficking and debt bondage techniques29.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)30
Pos.Lower is better
%30
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
101Comoros97
102Egypt97
103Morocco97
104Thailand97
105Mauritania98
106Djibouti98
107Somaliland98
108Burundi98
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)31
Pos.Higher is better31
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
92Botswana0
93Syria0
94Sierra Leone0
95Thailand0
96Togo0
97Benin0
98Tunisia0
99Uganda0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below32:

Christian0.9%
Muslim5.5%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist93.2%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.3%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Buddhist (official) 94.6%, Muslim 4.6%, Christian 0.7%, other 0.1% (2000 census)33.

Links:

6. The Internet

#internet #politics #Thailand #the_internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)34
Pos.Lower is better34
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
32Sri Lanka55
33Kazakhstan58
34Egypt59
35Thailand61
36Pakistan63
37Belarus69
38Bahrain71
39Saudi Arabia71
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)35
Pos.Higher is better35
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
113Philippines44%
114Jamaica43%
115Ecuador43%
116Thailand43%
117Mauritius43%
118Cape Verde43%
119Suriname42%
120Bolivia41%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)36
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio36
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
35Singapore4.0
36Sweden3.8
37Poland3.6
38Thailand3.3
39Denmark3.1
40Bosnia & Herzegovina3.1
41Sri Lanka2.9
42Latvia2.2
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #Thailand #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)21
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100021
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
96Georgia39.7
97Barbados40.7
98Vanuatu43.1
99Thailand44.6
100Antigua & Barbuda44.8
101Fiji44.8
102S. Africa45.5
103Cuba45.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)37
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita37
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
112Malta7.0
113Albania7.0
114Iceland7.1
115Thailand7.1
116Sao Tome & Principe7.1
117Dominica7.1
118Bosnia & Herzegovina7.1
119Japan7.2
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
34Macedonia34
35India35
36Fiji36
37Thailand37
38Pakistan38
39Portugal39
40Brazil40
41Iceland41
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)39
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %39
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
17Antigua & Barbuda98.0
18Cuba97.9
19Belgium97.8
20Thailand97.8
21Mauritius97.6
22Fiji97.6
23Kuwait97.5
24Morocco97.5
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)40
Pos.Lower is better40
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
111Sweden 831
112Laos 836
113Iran 869
114Thailand 895
115Turkmenistan 925
116Chile 930
117Ireland 954
118Australia 956
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)41
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k41
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
40Ecuador14.1
41Spain15.3
42Argentina15.6
43Thailand15.8
44Australia16.4
45El Salvador16.5
46Kyrgyzstan17.7
47Netherlands18.6
World Avg20.93
q=91.

8. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
42
Pos.Lower is better42
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
27Denmark25.5
28Malaysia27.5
29Finland28.25
30Thailand28.75
31Uzbekistan29
32Libya29
33Puerto Rico29
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
104Swaziland104
105Albania105
106Madagascar106
107Thailand107
108Yemen108
109Brazil109
110Nicaragua110
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
51Chile51
52Bahamas52
53UAE53
54Thailand54
55Macedonia55
56Mauritania56
57India57
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
18Japan18
19Chile19
20Kazakhstan20
21Thailand21
22Algeria22
23Guatemala23
24Ecuador24
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
20Luxembourg20
21Ireland21
22Costa Rica22
23Thailand23
24Poland24
25S. Africa25
26Chile26
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)38
Pos.Lower is better
Rank38
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
106Bolivia106
107Ghana107
108Mexico108
109Thailand109
110Ecuador110
111Malawi111
112Laos112
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
66Puerto Rico0.44
67Jordan0.43
68Mozambique0.42
69Thailand0.39
70Tanzania0.38
71Romania0.38
72Montenegro0.38
73Chile0.38
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
26Brazil6.8
27El Salvador6.7
28Cyprus6.7
29Thailand6.7
30Saudi Arabia6.7
31Germany6.7
32Trinidad & Tobago6.7
33Kuwait6.6
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)17
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $17
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
73Venezuela$15 129
74Barbados$14 952
75Botswana$14 663
76Thailand$14 519
77Libya$14 303
78Brazil$14 145
79Turkmenistan$14 026
80Costa Rica$14 006
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)44
Pos.Higher is better44
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
118Grenada50.9
119Tanzania50.8
120China50.7
121Thailand49.9
122Micronesia49.8
123Libya49.8
124Ghana49.7
125Timor-Leste (E. Timor)49.5
q=180.
IQ (2006)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
49Malaysia92
50Greece92
51Brunei91
52Thailand91
53Lithuania91
54Cambodia91
55Albania90
56Croatia90
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2019 Jan 01
http://www.humantruth.info/thailand.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #charity #christianity #demographics #economics #equality #freedom #god #happiness #health #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mental_health #morals #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #religion #research #science #smoking #suicide #Thailand #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #vaccines

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 14.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/th.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Thailand".^
  11. Human Rights Watch (2018). p546-553.^^
  12. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  13. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  14. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  16. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  17. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  18. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  19. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^
  20. Sources:^
  21. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  22. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^
  23. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  24. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  25. ^
  26. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  27. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  28. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  29. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p48.^
  30. Gallup (2009) .^
  31. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)45.^
  32. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  33. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  34. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  35. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  36. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  37. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  38. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  39. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  40. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  41. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  42. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  43. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  44. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  45. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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