The Human Truth Foundation

Moldova (Republic of Moldova)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #moldova #morals #research #science #the_environment

Moldova
Republic of Moldova
StatusIndependent State
CapitalChisinau
Land Area 32 854km21
LocationEurope
Population3.5m (2011)2
Life Expectancy71.73yrs (2017)3
GNI$5 026 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesMD, MDA, 4985
Internet Domain.md6
CurrencyLeu (MDL)7
Telephone+3738

1. Overview

#romania #russia #ukraine

Part of Romania during the interwar period, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although the country has been independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru River supporting a Transnistrian separatist region composed of a Slavic majority population (mostly Ukrainians and Russians), but with a sizeable ethnic Moldovan minority. One of the poorest nations in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist, Vladimir VORONIN, as its president in 2001. VORONIN served as Moldova's president until he resigned in September 2009, following the opposition's gain of a narrow majority in July parliamentary elections and the Communist Party's (PCRM) subsequent inability to attract the three-fifths of parliamentary votes required to elect a president. Four Moldovan opposition parties formed a new coalition, the Alliance for European Integration (AEI), which has acted as Moldova's governing coalition since. Moldova experienced significant political uncertainty between 2009 and early 2012, holding three general elections and numerous presidential ballots in parliament, all of which failed to secure a president. Following November 2010 parliamentary elections, a reconstituted AEI-coalition consisting of three of the four original AEI parties formed a government, and in March 2012 was finally able to elect an independent as president.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverLong-forgotten and little-known, Moldova struggles to throw off its post-communist trappings and reputation as one of the poorest nations in Europe. Only vaguely known in Europe and all but anonymous to the rest of the world, Moldova remains a mysterious and misunderstood land: part Romanian, part Russian, all Soviet. Once at the very edge of the USSR, Moldova has gone it alone since the early ´90s. Independence has been economically painful and Moldova has been racked by civil war between the central government and the secessionist Russian-speaking region known as Transdniestr, which continues to exist as a state within a state today.Moldova gets a tiny number of tourists and isn´t particularly well set up for travellers, but this is one of its greatest charms. Its out-of-the-way aspect makes travel in Moldova a challenge and an adventure, but the unhurried and timeless way of life, where there is always time to chat in the shade of summer´s fruit trees, are part of its appeal.

Sights may be few and far between in the gently undulating landscape, but look no further for adventure: this is Eastern Europe´s last unknown land.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Moldova National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
104Samoa104
105Maldives105
106Uzbekistan105
107Moldova107
108Botswana108
109Gabon109
110Paraguay110
111Egypt111
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
63Fiji57.2
64Macedonia57.0
65Bosnia & Herzegovina57.0
66Moldova57.0
67Brunei56.9
68Qatar56.9
69Mongolia56.9
70Trinidad & Tobago56.8
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #Moldova #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
126Costa Rica22.6
127Israel22.9
128Sri Lanka23.7
129Moldova24.7
130China25.3
131Mauritius25.9
132Uruguay26.8
133Cyprus26.9
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
23St Lucia23.3
24Macedonia21.9
25Sao Tome & Principe21.9
26Moldova21.5
27Fiji21.3
28Portugal20.8
29Lesotho20.5
30El Salvador20.5
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
88Slovenia1.47
89Italy1.47
90Cyprus1.46
91Moldova1.46
92Cuba1.45
93India2.55
94Germany1.44
95Laos2.58
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
41Seychelles12.8
42Grenada12.1
43Ukraine11.6
44Moldova11.4
45Belarus11.4
46Iceland11.3
47UK11.2
48Ivory Coast11.2
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
104Guatemala72.06
105Bangladesh71.99
106Libya71.76
107Moldova71.73
108Belarus71.46
109Egypt71.33
110Suriname71.28
111Ukraine71.13
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
128Bosnia & Herzegovina3.7m
129Panama3.6m
130Mauritania3.6m
131Moldova3.5m
132Uruguay3.4m
133Lithuania3.3m
134Albania3.2m
135Armenia3.1m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Moldova's population is predicted to fall to 3 147 000 by 2030. Developed countries with falling populations face a pension's crises, whereby an incresingly ageing population must be cared for by fewer and fewer workers. Economic stability can be maintained by increasing foreign workers from younger countries. This country has a fertility rate of 1.46. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #Moldova #peace #politics #slavery

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
43Montenegro29
44Spain29
45Venezuela30
46Moldova30
47Russia30
48Bolivia30
49Georgia32
50Kazakhstan32
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)19
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score19
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
109Bolivia34.0
110Malawi33.8
111Kosovo33.8
112Moldova33.8
113Ethiopia33.2
114Mexico32.8
115Ecuador32.6
116Belarus32.6
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)20
Pos.Lower is better20
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
63Indonesia1.91
64Serbia1.92
65Bosnia & Herzegovina1.92
66Moldova1.93
67Albania1.93
68Macedonia1.94
69Guyana1.94
70Cuba1.95
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)21
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties21
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
64Greece19
65Ireland19
66Lithuania18
67Moldova18
68Kyrgyzstan18
69Philippines18
70Algeria18
71Malta18
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)22
Pos.Lower is better
Rank22
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
66Brunei66
67Serbia67
68Guatemala68
69Moldova69
70Namibia69
71Bolivia71
72Indonesia72
73Turkey73
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)23
Pos.Lower is better23
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
51S. Africa2456
52Japan2517
53Argentina2567
54Moldova2601
55Hungary2609
56Italy2611
57Hong Kong2616
58Senegal2619
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)24
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims24
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
100Armenia0.53
101Mozambique0.54
102Russia0.55
103Moldova0.55
104Egypt0.55
105Benin0.55
106Venezuela0.56
107Haiti0.56
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory25. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends26. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life27. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves28.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery29. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity30. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.31. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi24, Eritrea24, Indonesia32) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery33.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #Moldova #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better34
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
44Malta0.22
45Bulgaria0.22
46UAE0.23
47Moldova0.23
48Bahrain0.23
49Hungary0.25
50Saudi Arabia0.26
51Albania0.27
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote35
Pos.Lower is better
Year35
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
181Namibia1989
182Samoa1990
183Kazakhstan1993
184Moldova1994
185Oman1994
186Qatar2003
187Kuwait2005
188Saudi Arabia0
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Moldova is on the way towards ending gender inequality but women are still in an unfavourable position much of the time.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)36
Pos.Lower is better
%36
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
35Montenegro71
36Greece71
37Italy72
38Moldova72
39Kyrgyzstan72
40Armenia73
41Mexico73
42Poland75
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)37
Pos.Higher is better37
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
45Croatia7
46Kyrgyzstan7
47Cambodia7
48Moldova6
49Italy6
50Laos5
51Ireland5
52Mozambique5
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below38:

Christian97.4%
Muslim0.6%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.6%
Unaffiliated1.4%

By adding up the Pew Forum data for the major monotheistic religions we can see that these make up 98.6% of the population. Yet there are simply too many who disbelieve in God for this to be true (6%). This is due to the so-called 'Census Effect', whereby many put down a religion for cultural reasons rather than because it reflects their beliefs. In highly Christian countries, as many as half of those who say they're a Christian lack any connection to a Church, and do not hold Christian beliefs (such as believing in God!).

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 98.9% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 72% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Eastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5% (2000)39.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #it_security #Moldova #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)40
Pos.Higher is better40
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
99Armenia50%
100Iran49%
101Tunisia48%
102Moldova48%
103Paraguay47%
104Fiji47%
105Tonga47%
106Nigeria46%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)41
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio41
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
60Iceland0.3
61Turkey0.3
62Uruguay0.3
63Moldova0.3
64UAE0.3
65Seychelles0.2
66Puerto Rico0.2
67Indonesia0.2
World Avg3.82
q=176.
IT Security (2013)42
Pos.Lower is better42
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
27Chile0.66
28Guinea-Bissau0.67
29Uzbekistan0.69
30Moldova0.71
31Zambia0.76
32Kenya0.77
33Cameroon0.77
34Burkina Faso0.79
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #mental_health #Moldova #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100034
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
64Bhutan21.4
65Djibouti21.5
66Albania21.7
67Moldova22.6
68USA22.6
69Armenia23.0
70Jordan23.2
71Russia23.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)43
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita43
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
184Hungary13.3
185Andorra13.8
186Ukraine13.9
187Romania14.4
188Russia15.1
189Lithuania15.4
190Moldova16.8
191Belarus17.5
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
84Indonesia84
85Bolivia85
86Kyrgyzstan86
87Moldova87
88Syria88
89Azerbaijan89
90Uganda90
91Chile91
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)45
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %45
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
111Lesotho91.7
112Malawi91.7
113Mexico91.6
114Moldova91.5
115Iceland91.5
116Trinidad & Tobago91.4
117Jamaica90.9
118Burkina Faso90.6
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)46
Pos.Lower is better46
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
125USA1 083
126Finland1 083
127Portugal1 113
128Moldova1 114
129Lithuania1 124
130Uruguay1 135
131Canada1 154
132Albania1 177
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)47
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k47
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
71Austria30.9
72Uruguay32.3
73France33.2
74Moldova35.7
75Switzerland36.2
76Croatia36.4
77Estonia37.9
78Serbia38.1
World Avg20.93
q=91.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
48
Pos.Lower is better48
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
120Hungary102
121Azerbaijan102.25
122Estonia103.25
123Moldova103.5
124Congo, (Brazzaville)104.75
125Bosnia & Herzegovina107
126Algeria109
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
44Korea, S.44
45Morocco45
46Belarus46
47Moldova47
48Montenegro48
49Norway49
50Fiji50
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
43St Vincent & Grenadines43
44Cyprus44
45Japan45
46Moldova46
47Greece47
48Australia48
49Seychelles49
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
4Egypt4
5Nigeria5
6Uruguay6
7Indonesia7
8Brunei8
9Moldova9
10Morocco10
11Oman11
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
61Philippines61
62Indonesia62
63Uganda63
64Moldova64
65Mozambique65
66Burkina Faso66
67Kyrgyzstan66
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)44
Pos.Lower is better
Rank44
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
19Malaysia19
20Nicaragua20
21Portugal21
22Moldova22
23Hungary23
24Jordan24
25Mauritius25
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
72Montenegro0.38
73Chile0.38
74Ghana0.38
75Moldova0.35
76Ecuador0.34
77Bosnia & Herzegovina0.33
78Iran0.31
79Nepal0.30
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)49
Pos.Higher is better49
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
49Honduras5.9
50Slovakia5.9
51Ecuador5.8
52Moldova5.8
53Malaysia5.8
54Bolivia5.8
55Vietnam5.8
56Paraguay5.8
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
135Palestine$5 256
136Laos$5 049
137Pakistan$5 031
138Moldova$5 026
139Myanmar (Burma)$4 943
140Nicaragua$4 747
141Honduras$4 466
142Marshall Islands$4 412
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)50
Pos.Higher is better50
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
109Ukraine52.9
110Guatemala52.3
111Maldives52.1
112Moldova52.0
113Botswana51.7
114Honduras51.5
115Sudan51.5
116Oman51.3
q=180.
Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
43Montenegro29
44Spain29
45Venezuela30
46Moldova30
47Russia30
48Bolivia30
49Georgia32
50Kazakhstan32
q=101.
LGBT Equality (2017)51
Pos.Higher is better
Score51
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
70Liechtenstein25
71Macedonia25
72Cape Verde25
73Moldova25
74Turkey25
75Latvia25
76Dominican Rep.25
77Seychelles25
q=196.
IQ (2006)52
Pos.Higher is better52
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
32Ukraine97
33Russia97
34Belarus97
35Moldova96
36Uruguay96
37Slovenia96
38Slovakia96
39Portugal95
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/moldova.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #antisemitism #belief #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #it_security #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #mental_health #misogyny #moldova #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #research #romania #russia #science #slavery #smoking #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #ukraine #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/md.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Moldova".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  19. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  20. ^
  21. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  22. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  23. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  24. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  25. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  26. McCall (1979). P180.^
  27. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  28. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  31. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  32. Klein (2004) .^
  33. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  34. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  35. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  36. Gallup (2009) .^
  37. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)52.^
  38. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  39. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  40. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  41. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  42. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.4. Malware and Email Spam" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  43. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  44. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  45. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  46. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  47. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  48. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  49. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  50. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  51. Sources:^
  52. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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