Albania (Republic of Albania)

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Albania
Republic of Albania
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index50th best
CapitalTirana
Land Area1 27 400 km2
LocationEurope, Mediterranean, The Balkans
Population23.227 million
Life Expectancy377.063yrs (2012)
GNI3$7 822
ISO3166-1 Codes4AL, ALB, 8
Internet Domain5.al
Currency6Lek (ALL)
Telephone7+355

1. Overview

Albania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912, but was conquered by Italy in 1939. Communist partisans took over the country in 1944. Albania allied itself first with the USSR (until 1960), and then with China (to 1978). In the early 1990s, Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven challenging as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, dilapidated infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks, and combative political opponents. Albania has made progress in its democratic development since first holding multiparty elections in 1991, but deficiencies remain. International observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since the restoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid schemes in 1997; however, each of Albania's post-Communist elections have been marred by claims of electoral fraud. The 2009 general elections resulted in a coalition government, the first such in the country's history. Albania joined NATO in April 2009 and is a potential candidate for EU accession. Although Albania's economy continues to grow, the country is still one of the poorest in Europe, hampered by a large informal economy and an inadequate energy and transportation infrastructure.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)8

2. Albania National and Social Development

UN's Human Development Index
Country2012
score
Average
1980-2010
1Norway95.587.3
2Australia93.888.9
3USA93.787.8
...
67Trinidad & Tobago76.070.2
68Antigua & Barbuda76.076.3
69Kazakhstan75.469.8
70Albania74.969.5
71Venezuela74.866.0
72St Kitts & Nevis74.573.5
73Lebanon74.573.7
74Dominica74.571.1
75Georgia74.572.9
76Iran74.257.9
77Peru74.164.5
78Ukraine74.070.0
79Macedonia74.072.6
Data Source
Social and Moral Development
CountryScore
1Sweden89.1
2Iceland87.6
3Denmark87.2
...
47Brunei67.2
48Croatia67.2
49Greece67.1
50Albania66.6
51Mauritius66.6
52Bulgaria66.1
53Argentina66.0
54Cyprus65.9
55Serbia65.8
56Dominica65.7
57Malta65.4
58Chile65.3
59Grenada64.6
60Suriname64.4
Data Source

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others. The values in the chart are factored by 100.

The Social and Moral Development Index is a formulaic aggregation of many factors. It concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2013).

3. Population and Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy (at birth)
1Japan83.6
2Hong Kong83
3Switzerland82.5
...
42Dominica77.6
43Uruguay77.2
44Mexico77.1
45Albania77.1
46Maldives77.1
47Barbados77
48Croatia76.8
49UAE76.7
Data Source
Fertility Rate
1Korea, N.2.0
2Brunei2.0
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.0
...
74Switzerland1.5
75Mongolia2.5
76Russia1.5
77Albania1.5
78Latvia1.5
79Czech Rep.1.5
80Spain1.5
81Croatia1.5
Data Source
Population (m=millions)
CountryPeoplePer km2
1China1 353.6m145
2India1 258.35m423
3USA 315.79m35
...
131Moldova3.519m107
132Uruguay3.391m19
133Lithuania3.292m53
134Albania3.227m118
135Armenia3.109m109
136Oman2.904m9
137Kuwait2.892m162
Data Source

Albania's population is predicted to rise to 3.29 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.51. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Female Vote and Stand
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
18Ukraine1919
19Austria1919
20Canada1920
21Albania1920
22USA1920
23Azerbaijan1921
24Lithuania1921
25Sweden1921
Gender Equality
1Netherlands0.04
2Sweden0.05
3Denmark0.06
...
38Bulgaria0.22
39Malta0.24
40UAE0.24
41Albania0.25
42Malaysia0.26
43Hungary0.26
44USA0.26
45Bahrain0.26
Data Source

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Albania is on the way towards ending gender inequality but women are still in an unfavourable position much of the time.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#Buddhism #Christianity #Hinduism #Islam #Judaism

Disbelief In God
1Vietnam81%
2Japan65%
3Sweden64%
...
40China12%
41USA10%
42Trinidad & Tobago9%
43Albania8%
44Cambodia7%
45Kyrgyzstan7%
46Croatia7%
47Dominican Rep.7%
Data Source
How Many Are Religious?
1Estonia16%
2Sweden17%
3Denmark19%
...
8Vietnam30%
9Belarus34%
10Russia34%
11Albania39%
12Latvia39%
13Luxembourg39%
14Hungary39%
15Germany40%
Data Source

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below9:

Christian18%
Muslim80.3%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated1.4%

By adding up the Pew Forum data for the major monotheistic religions we can see that these make up 98.4% of the population. Yet there are simply too many who disbelieve in God for this to be true (8%). This is due to the so-called 'Census Effect', whereby many put down a religion for cultural reasons rather than because it reflects their beliefs. In highly Christian countries, as many as half of those who say they're a Christian lack any connection to a Church, and do not hold Christian beliefs (such as believing in God!).

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 98.7% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 39% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%. Note: percentages are estimates; there are no available current statistics on religious affiliation; all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice10.

Links:

6. The Internet

Internet Users in Population
1Iceland95.64
2Norway93.28
3Netherlands90.70
...
56Azerbaijan46.68
57Bulgaria45.99
58Chile45.00
59Albania44.99
60Ukraine44.59
61Greece44.57
62Armenia44.00
63Russia43.37
Data Source

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

Links:

7. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Economic Freedom
1Hong Kong9.0
2Singapore8.8
3New Zealand8.4
...
44Costa Rica7.4
45Poland7.3
46Bulgaria7.3
47Albania7.3
48Rwanda7.3
49Israel7.3
50Uruguay7.3
51Nicaragua7.3
Data Source
Global Peace Index
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
64Serbia1.92
65Bosnia & Herzegovina1.92
66Moldova1.93
67Albania1.93
68Macedonia1.93
69Guyana1.94
70Cuba1.95
71Ukraine1.95
Data Source
Average IQ
1Singapore108
2Korea, S.106
3Taiwan105
...
53Chile90
54Croatia90
55Kyrgyzstan90
56Albania90
57Laos89
58Costa Rica89
59Ecuador88
60Mexico88
Data Source
Human Rights Treaties
1Argentina24
2Ecuador23
3Germany23
...
33Norway20
34Czech Rep.20
35New Zealand20
36Albania20
37Korea, S.20
38Cyprus20
39Portugal20
40Panama20
Data Source
Press Freedom Index
1Finland99.0
2Netherlands99.0
3Norway99.0
...
98Mali99.3
99Georgia99.3
100Lebanon99.3
101Albania99.3
102Maldives99.3
103Uganda99.3
104Peru99.3
105Kyrgyzstan99.3
Data Source
R & D Spending
Country% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.2911
2Israel4.1111
3Japan3.5811
...
98Kyrgyzstan0.1612
99Sri Lanka0.1613
100Bolivia0.1614
101Albania0.1515
102Namibia0.1413
103Georgia0.1316
104Gambia0.1312
105Tajikistan0.1217
Gross National Income
1Qatar$87 478
2Liechtenstein$84 880
3Kuwait$52 793
...
88Tunisia$8 103
89St Lucia$7 971
90China$7 945
91Albania$7 822
92Turkmenistan$7 782
93Thailand$7 722
94Bosnia & Herzegovina$7 713
95Maldives$7 478
Data Source
Happiness
1Denmark7.8
2Netherlands7.6
3Norway7.6
...
69Greece5.4
70Russia5.4
71Lithuania5.4
72Albania5.3
73Turkey5.3
74Pakistan5.3
75Belarus5.2
76Lebanon5.2
Data Source
Environmental Performance
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
21Japan72.5
22Czech Rep.71.6
23Panama71.4
24Albania71.4
25Spain70.6
26Belize69.9
27Antigua & Barbuda69.8
28Singapore69.6
Data Source
Gay Equality
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
55Lithuania30
56Chile30
57Nepal30
58Albania30
59Serbia30
60Montenegro30
61Thailand30
62Micronesia30
Data Source

By Vexen Crabtree 2013 May 01
http://www.humantruth.info/albania.html
Parent page: Vexing International Issues

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2013) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2013). Accessed 2016 Nov 01.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg article "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

OECD
(2016) Research and development (R&D) - Gross domestic spending on R&D. Data from data.oecd.org. Accessed 2016 Sep 28.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.

World Bank
Research and Development and a Percent of GDP PPP. Data from databank.worldbank.org. Accessed 2016 Sep 29.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011).^
  3. UN (2013).^
  4. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  5. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  6. According to ISO4217.^
  7. According to ITU-T.^
  8. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/al.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  9. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  10. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  11. OECD (2016) data for year 2014.^
  12. World Bank data for year 2011.^
  13. World Bank data for year 2010.^
  14. World Bank data for year 2009.^
  15. World Bank data for year 2008.^
  16. World Bank data for year 2014.^
  17. World Bank data for year 2013.^

© 2016 Vexen Crabtree. All rights reserved.