The Human Truth Foundation

Albania (Republic of Albania)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #morals #research #science #the_environment

Albania
Republic of Albania
StatusIndependent State
CapitalTirana
Land Area 27 400km21
LocationEurope, Mediterranean, The Balkans
Population3.2m (2011)2
Life Expectancy77.97yrs (2017)3
GNI$10 252 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesAL, ALB, 85
Internet Domain.al6
CurrencyLek (ALL)7
Telephone+3558

1. Overview

Albania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912, but was conquered by Italy in 1939. Communist partisans took over the country in 1944. Albania allied itself first with the USSR (until 1960), and then with China (to 1978). In the early 1990s, Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven challenging as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, dilapidated infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks, and combative political opponents. Albania has made progress in its democratic development since first holding multiparty elections in 1991, but deficiencies remain. International observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since the restoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid schemes in 1997; however, each of Albania's post-Communist elections have been marred by claims of electoral fraud. The 2009 general elections resulted in a coalition government, the first such in the country's history. Albania joined NATO in April 2009 and is a potential candidate for EU accession. Although Albania's economy continues to grow, the country is still one of the poorest in Europe, hampered by a large informal economy and an inadequate energy and transportation infrastructure.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverWith stunning mountain scenery, a thriving, multicoloured capital city and beaches to rival anywhere else in the Mediterranean, Albania has become the sleeper hit of the Balkans. [...] Albania has natural beauty in such abundance that you might wonder why it´s taken 20 years for the country to take off as a tourist destination since the demise of a particularly insular strain of communism in 1991. [Albanians have] just got on with embracing life in a languid and chaotically post-communist way. Albania offers a remarkable array of unique attractions, largely due to this very isolation: ancient mountain codes of behaviours, forgotten archaeological sites and villages where time seems to have stood still are all on the menu. Lively, colourful Tirana is the beating heart of Albania, where this tiny nation´s hopes and dreams coalesce into a vibrant whirl of traffic, brash consumerism and unfettered fun.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Albania National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
72Venezuela71
73Sri Lanka73
74St Kitts & Nevis74
75Albania75
76Lebanon76
77Mexico77
78Azerbaijan78
79Brazil79
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
55Bhutan58.6
56UAE58.5
57Brazil58.5
58Albania58.0
59Turkey57.5
60Mexico57.4
61Uzbekistan57.3
62Jamaica57.2
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
144Ukraine30.8
145Australia31.3
146Slovakia31.6
147Albania31.8
148Norway32.2
149Iceland32.5
150Serbia32.7
151Hungary32.9
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
7Monaco56.3
8Antigua & Barbuda47.6
9Tonga45.4
10Albania45.4
11Barbados41.0
12Suriname39.0
13Bosnia & Herzegovina38.9
14Palau38.8
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
74Switzerland1.53
75Mongolia2.48
76Russia1.52
77Albania1.51
78Latvia1.50
79Czechia1.50
80Spain1.50
81Croatia1.49
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
104Zimbabwe2.9
105Ecuador2.9
106Iran2.8
107Albania2.8
108Togo2.7
109Marshall Islands2.7
110Trinidad & Tobago2.6
111Benin2.5
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
37Brunei79.02
38Czechia78.78
39Qatar78.32
40Albania77.97
41Dominica77.85
42Panama77.76
43Poland77.62
44Croatia77.50
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
131Moldova3.5m
132Uruguay3.4m
133Lithuania3.3m
134Albania3.2m
135Armenia3.1m
136Oman2.9m
137Kuwait2.9m
138Mongolia2.8m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Albania's population is predicted to rise to 3.29 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.51. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
100Algeria35.2
101Armenia35.0
102Gabon35.0
103Albania34.4
104Egypt34.2
105Argentina34.2
106Niger34.2
107Indonesia34.2
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
64Serbia1.92
65Bosnia & Herzegovina1.92
66Moldova1.93
67Albania1.93
68Macedonia1.94
69Guyana1.94
70Cuba1.95
71Ukraine1.95
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
29Hungary20
30Czechia20
31Georgia20
32Albania20
33Cyprus20
34Namibia20
35Ukraine20
36Macedonia20
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)21
Pos.Lower is better
Rank21
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
47Mongolia47
48Bahamas48
49Greece48
50Albania50
51Seychelles51
52Israel52
53Peru53
54Bosnia & Herzegovina54
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)22
Pos.Lower is better22
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
98Mali3003
99Georgia3009
100Lebanon3015
101Albania3088
102Maldives3110
103Uganda3169
104Peru3187
105Kyrgyzstan3220
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)23
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims23
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
123Togo0.68
124Cameroon0.69
125Kenya0.69
126Albania0.69
127Malaysia0.69
128Djibouti0.71
129Angola0.72
130Syria0.73
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory24. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends25. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life26. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves27.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery28. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity29. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.30. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi23, Eritrea23, Indonesia31) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery32.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better33
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
48Bahrain0.23
49Hungary0.25
50Saudi Arabia0.26
51Albania0.27
52Russia0.27
53Mongolia0.28
54Oman0.28
55Uruguay0.28
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote34
Pos.Lower is better
Year34
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
19Poland1919
20Canada1920
21USA1920
22Albania1920
23Lithuania1921
24Sweden1921
25Azerbaijan1921
26Armenia1921
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Albania is on the way towards ending gender inequality but women are still in an unfavourable position much of the time.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)35
Pos.Lower is better
%35
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
11Latvia39
12Luxembourg39
13Hungary39
14Albania39
15Germany40
16Switzerland41
17Uruguay41
18Lithuania42
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)36
Pos.Higher is better36
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
40Uruguay12
41USA10
42Trinidad & Tobago9
43Albania8
44Dominican Rep.7
45Croatia7
46Kyrgyzstan7
47Cambodia7
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below37:

Christian18%
Muslim80.3%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated1.4%

By adding up the Pew Forum data for the major monotheistic religions we can see that these make up 98.4% of the population. Yet there are simply too many who disbelieve in God for this to be true (8%). This is due to the so-called 'Census Effect', whereby many put down a religion for cultural reasons rather than because it reflects their beliefs. In highly Christian countries, as many as half of those who say they're a Christian lack any connection to a Church, and do not hold Christian beliefs (such as believing in God!).

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 98.7% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 39% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%. Note: percentages are estimates; there are no available current statistics on religious affiliation; all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice38.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)39
Pos.Higher is better39
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
70Greece65%
71Saudi Arabia65%
72French Polynesia64%
73Albania63%
74Palestine63%
75Montenegro62%
76Bosnia & Herzegovina62%
77Azerbaijan61%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)40
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio40
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
122Swaziland0.0
123Mongolia0.0
124Samoa0.0
125Albania0.0
126Micronesia0.0
127Algeria0.0
128Djibouti0.0
129Guyana0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)33
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100033
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
63Brunei21.0
64Bhutan21.4
65Djibouti21.5
66Albania21.7
67Moldova22.6
68USA22.6
69Armenia23.0
70Jordan23.2
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)41
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita41
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
110Bahamas6.9
111Dominican Rep.6.9
112Malta7.0
113Albania7.0
114Iceland7.1
115Thailand7.1
116Sao Tome & Principe7.1
117Dominica7.1
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)42
Pos.Lower is better
Rank42
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
135Iraq135
136Madagascar136
137Congo, (Brazzaville)137
138Albania138
139Ghana139
140Chad140
141Rwanda141
142Mali142
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)43
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %43
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
29St Vincent & Grenadines97.2
30Dominica97.1
31Kazakhstan97.1
32Albania97.1
33Andorra97.1
34Russia97.0
35Guyana97.0
36Slovakia97.0
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)44
Pos.Lower is better44
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
129Lithuania1 124
130Uruguay1 135
131Canada1 154
132Albania1 177
133Egypt1 188
134Vietnam1 215
135Iraq1 227
136Spain1 265
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)45
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k45
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
21Barbados7.3
22Belize7.3
23Bahrain7.5
24Albania8
25Mexico8.5
26Israel8.5
27Georgia8.8
28Seychelles8.9
World Avg20.93
q=91.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
46
Pos.Lower is better46
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
111Romania99.75
112Cambodia99.75
113Ukraine100
114Albania101.25
115Latvia101.25
116El Salvador101.25
117Mauritania101.25
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)42
Pos.Lower is better
Rank42
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
102Peru102
103Cape Verde103
104Swaziland104
105Albania105
106Madagascar106
107Thailand107
108Yemen108
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)42
Pos.Lower is better
Rank42
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
75Turkey75
76Kyrgyzstan76
77Togo77
78Albania78
79Brunei79
80Suriname80
81Fiji81
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)42
Pos.Lower is better
Rank42
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
77Iceland77
78Turkey78
79Georgia79
80Albania80
81Gabon81
82Russia82
83Iran83
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)42
Pos.Lower is better
Rank42
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
71Guatemala71
72Estonia72
73Guinea-Bissau73
74Albania74
75Botswana75
76Lebanon76
77Bahrain77
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)42
Pos.Lower is better
Rank42
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
12Philippines12
13Austria13
14Germany14
15Albania15
16Togo16
17France17
18Singapore18
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
98Bolivia0.16
99Kyrgyzstan0.16
100Sri Lanka0.16
101Albania0.15
102Namibia0.14
103Georgia0.13
104Gambia0.13
105Tajikistan0.12
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
70Greece5.4
71Lithuania5.4
72Turkey5.3
73Albania5.3
74Pakistan5.3
75Lebanon5.2
76Indonesia5.2
77Portugal5.2
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
96Mongolia$10 449
97Maldives$10 383
98St Vincent & Grenadines$10 372
99Albania$10 252
100Tunisia$10 249
101Jordan$10 111
102Dominica$10 096
103Bosnia & Herzegovina$10 091
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)48
Pos.Higher is better48
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
37Latvia66.1
38Turkmenistan66.1
39Seychelles66.0
40Albania65.5
41Croatia65.5
42Colombia65.2
43Hungary65.0
44Belarus65.0
q=180.
LGBT Equality (2017)49
Pos.Higher is better
Score49
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
36USA44
37Monaco40
38Poland40
39Albania40
40Switzerland40
41Serbia40
42Cyprus40
43Italy40
q=196.
IQ (2006)50
Pos.Higher is better50
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
52Thailand91
53Lithuania91
54Cambodia91
55Albania90
56Croatia90
57Kyrgyzstan90
58Chile90
59Costa Rica89
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 13
http://www.humantruth.info/albania.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #mental_health #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #research #science #slavery #smoking #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

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Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

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Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/al.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Albania".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  19. ^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  21. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  22. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  23. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  25. McCall (1979). P180.^
  26. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  27. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  28. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  31. Klein (2004) .^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  33. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  34. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  35. Gallup (2009) .^
  36. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)50.^
  37. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  38. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  39. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  40. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  41. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  42. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  43. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  44. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  45. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  46. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  47. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  48. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  49. Sources:^
  50. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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