The Human Truth Foundation

Portugal (Portuguese Republic)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #intelligence #morals #portugal #research #science #the_environment

Portugal
Portuguese Republic
StatusIndependent State
CapitalLisbon
Land Area 91 470km21
LocationEurope
Population10.7m (2011)2
Life Expectancy81.18yrs (2017)3
GNI$26 104 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesPT, PRT, 6205
Internet Domain.pt6
CurrencyEuro (EUR)7
Telephone+3518

1. Overview

Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of its wealthiest colony of Brazil in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverMedieval castles, cobblestone villages, captivating cities and golden beaches: the Portugal experience can be many things. History, great food and idyllic scenery are just the beginning Celts, Romans, Visigoths, Moors and Christians all left their mark on the Iberian peninsula nation. Here, you can gaze upon 20,000-year-old stone carvings in the Vila Nova de Foz Côa, watch the sunset over mysterious megaliths outside évora or lose yourself in the elaborate corridors of Unesco World Heritage sites in Tomar, Belém, Alcobaça or Batalha. You can pack an itinerary visiting palaces set above mist-covered woodlands, craggy clifftop castles and stunningly preserved medieval town centres.

Outside the cities, Portugal´s beauty unfolds in all its startling variety. You can go hiking amid the granite peaks of Parque Nacional da Peneda-Gerês or take in the pristine scenery and historic villages of the little-explored Beiras. More than 800km of coast offers a multitude of places to soak up the splendour. Gaze out over dramatic end-of-the-world cliffs, surf stellar breaks off dune-covered beaches or laze peacefully on sandy islands fronting calm blue seas.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Portugal National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
38Chile38
39Saudi Arabia38
40Slovakia40
41Portugal41
42UAE42
43Hungary43
44Latvia44
45Croatia45
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
25Italy70.8
26Czechia70.8
27Korea, S.70.8
28Portugal70.0
29Hungary69.4
30Slovenia69.3
31Israel67.2
32Poland67.0
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population #Portugal

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
178Netherlands41.9
179Slovenia42.7
180Finland43.3
181Hong Kong43.7
182Portugal44.7
183Germany47.7
184Italy48.6
185Japan53.1
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
25Sao Tome & Principe21.9
26Moldova21.5
27Fiji21.3
28Portugal20.8
29Lesotho20.5
30El Salvador20.5
31Micronesia19.7
32Belarus18.4
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
109Egypt2.65
110Singapore1.35
111Saudi Arabia2.67
112Portugal1.31
113Belize2.70
114Malta1.28
115Syria2.81
116Bosnia & Herzegovina1.13
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
59St Kitts & Nevis9.6
60Denmark8.8
61Russia8.7
62Portugal8.6
63Malaysia8.4
64Dominica8.3
65Slovenia8.1
66St Vincent & Grenadines7.9
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
18Netherlands81.71
19Austria81.58
20Andorra81.46
21Portugal81.18
22Germany81.09
23Greece81.07
24Ireland81.05
25Finland81.01
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
75Cuba11.2m
76Belgium10.8m
77Tunisia10.7m
78Portugal10.7m
79S. Sudan10.7m
80Czechia10.6m
81Guinea10.5m
82Haiti10.3m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Portugal's population is predicted to fall to 10 309 000 by 2030. Developed countries with falling populations face a pension's crises, whereby an incresingly ageing population must be cared for by fewer and fewer workers. Economic stability can be maintained by increasing foreign workers from younger countries. This country has a fertility rate of 1.31. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #Portugal #slavery

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
25Ireland20
26Italy20
27China20
28Portugal21
29Ivory Coast22
30Estonia22
31Japan23
32Trinidad & Tobago24
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)19
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score19
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
29Qatar67.4
30Bhutan64.2
31Botswana63.0
32Portugal62.8
33Cyprus61.6
34St Vincent & Grenadines61.5
35Israel61.2
36Taiwan61.2
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)20
Pos.Lower is better20
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
13Czechia1.40
14Sweden1.42
15Germany1.42
16Portugal1.47
17Hungary1.48
18Norway1.48
19Bhutan1.48
20Malaysia1.49
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)21
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties21
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
43Bulgaria20
44Burkina Faso20
45Norway20
46Portugal20
47Poland20
48Korea, S.20
49Panama20
50New Zealand20
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)22
Pos.Lower is better
Rank22
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
16Malta16
17Belgium17
18Czechia18
19Portugal19
20Lithuania20
21Estonia21
22Poland21
23USA23
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)23
Pos.Lower is better23
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
25Cape Verde1433
26Australia1524
27Uruguay1592
28Portugal1675
29UK1689
30Ghana1727
31Suriname1819
32USA1822
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)24
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims24
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
46Italy0.24
47Morocco0.24
48El Salvador0.25
49Portugal0.25
50Peru0.26
51Guyana0.26
52Jamaica0.26
53Mexico0.27
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory25. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends26. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life27. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves28.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery29. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity30. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.31. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi24, Eritrea24, Indonesia32) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery33.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #politics #Portugal #women

Gender Inequality (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better34
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
14Austria0.08
15Spain0.08
16Italy0.08
17Portugal0.09
18Canada0.10
19France0.10
20Israel0.10
21Japan0.12
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote35
Pos.Lower is better
Year35
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
167Cape Verde1975
168Angola1975
169Mozambique1975
170Portugal1976
171Guinea-Bissau1977
172Zimbabwe1978
173Marshall Islands1979
174Palau1979
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Portugal is notable for its equality between the sexes, even though women were prevented equal voting and standing rights until quite late.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)36
Pos.Higher is better36
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
54Namibia4
55Iran4
56Mexico4
57Portugal4
58Romania4
59Argentina4
60Georgia4
61Uzbekistan4
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below37:

Christian93.8%
Muslim0.6%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.6%
Folk Religion0.5%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated4.4%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 84.5%, other Christian 2.2%, other 0.3%, unknown 9%, none 3.9% (2001 census)38.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #Portugal #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)39
Pos.Higher is better39
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
60Trinidad & Tobago69%
61Malaysia69%
62Greenland67%
63Portugal67%
64Brazil66%
65St Kitts & Nevis66%
66Dominica66%
67Italy66%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)40
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio40
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
4USA35.0
5Greece33.5
6Luxembourg32.4
7India26.8
8Portugal26.6
9Ireland26.1
10UK24.7
11Japan22.1
12France18.8
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #mental_health #parenting #population #Portugal #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100034
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
31Israel9.7
32Canada9.8
33Kuwait9.8
34Portugal9.9
35Czechia9.9
36Ireland10.4
37Algeria10.6
38Qatar10.7
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)41
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita41
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
178Poland12.5
179Grenada12.5
180Serbia12.6
181Portugal12.9
182Slovakia13.0
183Czechia13.0
184Hungary13.3
185Andorra13.8
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)42
Pos.Lower is better
Rank42
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
36Fiji36
37Thailand37
38Pakistan38
39Portugal39
40Brazil40
41Iceland41
42El Salvador42
43Russia43
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)43
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %43
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
52Nicaragua95.9
53Tunisia95.7
54Japan95.7
55Portugal95.7
56Qatar95.6
57Armenia95.6
58Uruguay95.6
59Bhutan95.6
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)44
Pos.Lower is better44
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
124Latvia1 041
125USA1 083
126Finland1 083
127Portugal1 113
128Moldova1 114
129Lithuania1 124
130Uruguay1 135
131Canada1 154
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)45
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k45
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
46Kyrgyzstan17.7
47Netherlands18.6
48Luxembourg19.3
49Portugal19.6
50Singapore20.6
51India20.8
52Trinidad & Tobago21.7
53USA22.2
World Avg20.93
q=91.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
46
Pos.Lower is better46
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
89Lebanon77.25
90Senegal79
91Kazakhstan79.75
92Portugal80.25
93France80.5
94Peru83.75
95Comoros84
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)42
Pos.Lower is better
Rank42
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
36Estonia36
37Luxembourg37
38USA38
39Portugal39
40Spain40
41Italy41
42Slovakia42
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)42
Pos.Lower is better
Rank42
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
9Czechia9
10Luxembourg10
11UK11
12Portugal12
13Finland13
14France14
15Germany15
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)42
Pos.Lower is better
Rank42
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
130Papua New Guinea130
131Syria131
132Belarus132
133Portugal133
134El Salvador134
135Macedonia135
136Armenia136
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)42
Pos.Lower is better
Rank42
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
25S. Africa25
26Chile26
27Panama27
28Portugal28
29USA29
30Singapore30
31Greece31
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)42
Pos.Lower is better
Rank42
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
18Singapore18
19Malaysia19
20Nicaragua20
21Portugal21
22Moldova22
23Hungary23
24Jordan24
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
24Estonia1.43
25Hungary1.37
26Italy1.29
27Portugal1.28
28Luxembourg1.26
29Spain1.22
30Russia1.19
31New Zealand1.17
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
74Pakistan5.3
75Lebanon5.2
76Indonesia5.2
77Portugal5.2
78Belarus5.2
79Algeria5.2
80Uzbekistan5.1
81Morocco5.1
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
40Trinidad & Tobago$28 049
41Slovakia$26 764
42Estonia$26 362
43Portugal$26 104
44Lithuania$26 006
45Greece$24 808
46Malaysia$24 620
47Poland$24 117
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)48
Pos.Higher is better48
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
23Taiwan72.8
24Cyprus72.6
25Canada72.2
26Portugal71.9
27USA71.2
28Slovakia70.6
29Lithuania69.3
30Bulgaria67.9
q=180.
Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
25Ireland20
26Italy20
27China20
28Portugal21
29Ivory Coast22
30Estonia22
31Japan23
32Trinidad & Tobago24
q=101.
LGBT Equality (2017)49
Pos.Higher is better
Score49
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
16Malta63
17Andorra63
18New Zealand63
19Portugal63
20Canada62
21Colombia58
22Finland57
23Austria56
q=196.
IQ (2006)50
Pos.Higher is better50
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3Korea, S.106
...
36Uruguay96
37Slovenia96
38Slovakia96
39Portugal95
40Israel95
41Kazakhstan94
42Vietnam94
43Armenia94
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/portugal.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #antisemitism #belief #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #god #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #intelligence #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #mental_health #misogyny #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #Portugal #religion #research #science #slavery #smoking #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/po.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Portugal".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  19. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  20. ^
  21. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  22. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  23. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  24. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  25. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  26. McCall (1979). P180.^
  27. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  28. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  31. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  32. Klein (2004) .^
  33. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  34. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  35. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  36. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)50.^
  37. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  38. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  39. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  40. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  41. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  42. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  43. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  44. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  45. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  46. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  47. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  48. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  49. Sources:^
  50. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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