The Human Truth Foundation

Jordan (Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #intelligence #jordan #morals #research #science #the_environment

Jordan
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
StatusIndependent State
CapitalAmman
Land Area 88 780km21
LocationAsia, Middle East
Population6.5m (2011)2
Life Expectancy74.18yrs (2017)3
GNI$10 111 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesJO, JOR, 4005
Internet Domain.jo6
CurrencyDinar (JOD)7
Telephone+9628

1. Overview

#islam #israel #UK #USA

Following World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the UK received a mandate to govern much of the Middle East. Britain separated out a semi-autonomous region of Transjordan from Palestine in the early 1920s, and the area gained its independence in 1946; it adopted the name of The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in 1950. The country's long-time ruler was King HUSSEIN (1953-99). A pragmatic leader, he successfully navigated competing pressures from the major powers (US, USSR, and UK), various Arab states, Israel, and a large internal Palestinian population. Jordan lost the West Bank to Israel in the 1967 war and defeated Palestinian rebels who attempted to overthrow the monarchy in 1970. King HUSSEIN in 1988 permanently relinquished Jordanian claims to the West Bank - called "The 1988 Disengagement Decision." In 1989, he reinstituted parliamentary elections and initiated a gradual political liberalization and legalized political parties in 1992. In 1994, he signed a peace treaty with Israel. King ABDALLAH II, King HUSSEIN's eldest son, assumed the throne following his father's death in February 1999. Since then, he has consolidated his power and implemented some economic and political reforms. Jordan acceded to the World Trade Organization in 2000, and began to participate in the European Free Trade Association in 2001. In 2003, Jordan staunchly supported the Coalition ouster of SADDAM Husayn in Iraq and, following the outbreak of insurgent violence in Iraq, absorbed thousands of displaced Iraqis. Municipal elections were held in July 2007 under a system in which 20% of seats in all municipal councils were reserved by quota for women. Beginning in January 2011 in the wake of unrest in Tunisia and Egypt, as many as several thousand Jordanians staged weekly demonstrations and marches in Amman and other cities throughout Jordan to push for political reforms and to protest against government corruption, rising prices, rampant poverty, and high unemployment. In response, King ABDALLAH replaced his prime minister four times and formed two commissions - one to propose specific reforms to Jordan's electoral and political party laws and the other to consider limited constitutional amendments. In a televised speech in June 2011, King ABDULLAH announced plans to work toward transferring authority for appointing future prime ministers and cabinet ministers to parliament; in a subsequent announcement, he outlined a revised political parties law intended to encourage greater political participation. Protesters and opposition elements generally acknowledged those measures as steps in the right direction, but many continue to push for greater limits on the king's authority and to fight against government corruption. A royal decree issued in September 2011 approved constitutional amendments passed by the parliament aimed at strengthening a more independent judiciary and established a constitutional court and independent election commission to oversee municipal and parliamentary elections. In October 2011, King ABDALLAH dismissed the Jordanian cabinet and replaced the prime minister in response to widespread public dissatisfaction with government performance and escalating criticism of the premier because of public concerns over his reported involvement in corruption. Parliamentary elections held in January 2013 were overseen by the newly established Independent Electoral Commission and resulted in the election of 150 members to the Lower House of Parliament.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverAt the crossroads of history for more than 2000 years, the kingdom of Jordan is a treasure trove of world-class heritage sites and spectacular desert scenery. Jordan has welcomed high volumes of visitors since camel caravans plied the legendary King´s Highway transporting frankincense in exchange for spices. Nabataean tradesmen, Roman legionnaires, Muslim armies and zealous Crusaders have all passed through the land we now call Jordan, leaving spectacular monuments behind. In turn, these monuments have provoked a modern wave of visitors who, since the early 19th century, have been fascinated to discover this potent past or who have gone in search of the origins of their faith.

Thanks to its diversity and small size, Jordan repays even the shortest visit with world-class sights and activities. Petra, the ancient Nabataean city locked in the heart of Jordan´s sandstone escarpments, is the jewel in the crown of the country´s many antiquities, but it is far from the only reason to visit. Apart from the many other spectacular historical and biblical sites, the country offers striking desert landscapes, a salty sea at the lowest point on earth, and rural towns that keep continuity with the traditions of the past.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Jordan National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
83Algeria83
84Armenia84
85Ukraine84
86Jordan86
87Peru87
88Thailand87
89Ecuador89
90China90
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
84Ecuador53.5
85Kuwait53.5
86Kyrgyzstan53.4
87Jordan53.3
88Bahamas53.3
89Cuba53.0
90Morocco52.8
91Oman52.8
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #Jordan #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
50Botswana07.7
51UAE07.7
52Oman07.8
53Jordan08.0
54Laos08.1
55Timor-Leste (E. Timor)08.2
56Belize08.3
57Gabon08.5
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
54Nicaragua12.5
55Latvia12.3
56Luxembourg11.8
57Jordan11.3
58Kyrgyzstan11.2
59Tajikistan11.2
60Cuba10.9
61Mauritius10.9
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
117Paraguay2.87
118Hong Kong1.12
119Israel2.91
120Jordan2.93
121Honduras3.02
122Philippines3.06
123Lesotho3.08
124Namibia3.08
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
4Kuwait68.8
5Andorra64.4
6Jordan45.9
7Palestine43.6
8Singapore40.7
9Israel40.4
10Bahrain39.1
11Hong Kong38.8
12San Marino37.0
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
85Bulgaria74.32
86Morocco74.31
87Colombia74.23
88Jordan74.18
89St Kitts & Nevis73.98
90Samoa73.67
91Dominican Rep.73.65
92Grenada73.56
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
101Tajikistan7.1m
102Paraguay6.7m
103Libya6.5m
104Jordan6.5m
105Laos6.4m
106Togo6.3m
107El Salvador6.3m
108Sierra Leone6.1m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Jordan's population is predicted to rise to 8.415 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 2.93. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #freedom #human_rights #jordan #politics #tolerance

Jordan is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Jordan does better than average in eliminating modern slavery18, fighting corruption19 and in its Global Peace Index rating20. In 2017, sweeping reforms to the judiciary and justice system were proposed and parliament passed a disabilities law that prohibits discrimination against disabled people21. But unfortunately Jordan gets most other things wrong. It does worse than average in commentary from Human Rights Watch22, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms23, LGBT equality24, opposing gender inequality25, its nominal commitment to Human Rights26 and in supporting press freedom27. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in fighting anti-semitic opinions28. "In 2017, Jordan continued to violate human rights, including restrictions on free expression, free assembly, and women´s rights"21. Jordan does not accept basic human rights regarding religion; only Islam is acceptable21.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #jordan #judaism #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)29
Pos.Higher is better29
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
109Iraq0
110Guinea0
111Ghana0
112Jordan0
113Gambia0
114Kenya0
115Ethiopia0
116Afghanistan0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below30:

Christian2.2%
Muslim97.2%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.4%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Sunni Muslim 92% (official), Christian 6% (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), other 2% (several small Shia Muslim and Druze populations) (2001 est.)31.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: Jordan does not accept basic human rights regarding religion and belief21. There is no official way to be non-religious, it is illegal to promote religions other than Islam, converting away from Islam is illegal, and, blasphemy laws are used to prevent any meaningful religious discussion except glorification of Islam21. Muslims must abide by a particular interpretation of Sharia law21.

Links:

6. The Internet

#internet #Jordan #politics #the_internet

Freedom On The Internet (2012)32
Pos.Lower is better32
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
21Indonesia42
22Libya43
23Malaysia43
24Jordan45
25Turkey46
26Tunisia46
27Venezuela48
28Azerbaijan50
World Avg46.7
q=47.
Internet Users (2016)33
Pos.Higher is better33
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
104Fiji47%
105Tonga47%
106Nigeria46%
107Jordan46%
108Panama45%
109Mexico45%
110Kenya45%
111Belize45%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)34
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio34
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
169Cuba0.0
170St Vincent & Grenadines0.0
171Montenegro0.0
172Libya0.0
173Jamaica0.0
174Fiji0.0
175Jordan0.0
176Barbados0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #Jordan #mental_health #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)25
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100025
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
67Moldova22.6
68USA22.6
69Armenia23.0
70Jordan23.2
71Russia23.4
72New Zealand23.6
73Ukraine24.1
74India24.5
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)35
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita35
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
15Indonesia0.6
16Guinea0.7
17Afghanistan0.7
18Jordan0.7
19Myanmar (Burma)0.7
20Bhutan0.7
21Oman0.9
22Morocco0.9
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
15Saudi Arabia15
16Belgium16
17New Zealand17
18Jordan18
19S. Korea19
20Kuwait20
21Japan21
22Spain22
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)37
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %37
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
36Slovakia97.0
37Kyrgyzstan96.7
38Brazil96.7
39Jordan96.6
40Brunei96.6
41Spain96.5
42Poland96.5
43Libya96.4
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)38
Pos.Lower is better38
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
163Hungary1 759
164Estonia1 775
165Ukraine1 854
166Jordan1 855
167Austria1 988
168S. Korea2 073
169Greece2 086
170Azerbaijan2 114
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)39
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100k39
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
4Jordan0.2
5Maldives0.7
6Azerbaijan1.3
7S. Africa1.8
8Bahamas2.5
9Peru2.9
10Kuwait3.6
11Armenia3.9
12Dominican Rep.4.6
World Avg20.93
q=91.

8. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
40
Pos.Lower is better40
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
115Latvia101.25
116El Salvador101.25
117Mauritania101.25
118Jordan102
119Japan102
120Hungary102
121Azerbaijan102.25
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
62Malta62
63Ghana63
64Samoa64
65Jordan65
66Namibia66
67India67
68Lebanon68
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
88Indonesia88
89Cambodia89
90Peru90
91Jordan91
92Haiti92
93Tunisia93
94Papua New Guinea94
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
28Mongolia28
29Rwanda29
30Paraguay30
31Jordan31
32India32
33New Zealand33
34Malaysia34
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
108Cape Verde108
109China109
110Kazakhstan110
111Jordan111
112Libya112
113Belize113
114Morocco114
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)36
Pos.Lower is better
Rank36
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
21Portugal21
22Moldova22
23Hungary23
24Jordan24
25Mauritius25
26Zimbabwe26
27Canada27
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
64Cuba0.47
65Macedonia0.44
66Puerto Rico0.44
67Jordan0.43
68Mozambique0.42
69Thailand0.39
70Tanzania0.38
71Romania0.38
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)41
Pos.Higher is better41
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
56Paraguay5.8
57Turkmenistan5.8
58Nicaragua5.7
59Jordan5.7
60Poland5.6
61Ghana5.6
62Peru5.6
63Croatia5.6
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
98St Vincent & Grenadines$10 372
99Albania$10 252
100Tunisia$10 249
101Jordan$10 111
102Dominica$10 096
103Bosnia & Herzegovina$10 091
104Egypt$10 064
105Indonesia$10 053
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
59Azerbaijan62.3
60S. Korea62.3
61Kuwait62.3
62Jordan62.2
63Armenia62.1
64Peru61.9
65Montenegro61.3
66Egypt61.2
q=180.
IQ (2006)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
75Cuba85
76Venezuela84
77Colombia84
78Jordan84
79Afghanistan84
80UAE84
81Iran84
82Pakistan84
q=138.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2018 Dec 30
http://www.humantruth.info/jordan.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #belief #buddhism #charity #christianity #demographics #economics #equality #freedom #god #happiness #health #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #intelligence #internet #islam #israel #Jordan #judaism #life_expectancy #mental_health #morals #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #religion #research #science #smoking #suicide #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #UK #USA #vaccines

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
(2009) Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations. Richard Lynn, John Harvey and Helmuth Nyborg. Published in Intelligence (2009 Jan/Feb) vol. 37 issue 1 pages 11-15. Online at www.sciencedirect.com, accessed 2009 Sep 15.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/jo.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Jordan".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  19. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  20. ^
  21. Human Rights Watch (2018). p305-310.^^
  22. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^
  23. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  24. Sources:^
  25. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  26. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  27. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  28. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^
  29. Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009)43.^
  30. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  31. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  32. Freedom House publication "Freedom on the Net 2012" at www.freedomhouse.org/.../FOTN%202012%20-%20Tables%20and%20Charts%20FINAL.pdf accessed 2013 Feb 05.^
  33. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  34. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  35. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  36. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  37. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  38. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  39. UN (2013). World Health Organisation statistics. Suicide Rates Per 100k.^
  40. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  41. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  42. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  43. Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg (2009) .^

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