The Human Truth Foundation

Bosnia & Herzegovina

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#bosnia_&_herzegovina #charity #climate_change #economics #happiness #morals #research #science #the_environment

Bosnia & Herzegovina
StatusIndependent State
CapitalSarajevo
Land Area 51 000km21
LocationEurope, Mediterranean, The Balkans
Population3.7m (2011)2
Life Expectancy76.63yrs (2017)3
GNI$10 091 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesBA, BIH, 705
Internet Domain.ba6
CurrencyMarka (BAM)7
Telephone+3878

1. Overview

Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multi-ethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments are responsible for overseeing most government functions. Additionally, the Dayton Accords established the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council (PIC) at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called "Bonn Powers." An original NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops assembled in 1995 was succeeded over time by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). In 2004, European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR. Currently EUFOR deploys around 600 troops in theater in a policing capacity.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverThis craggily beautiful land retains scars from the 1990s civil war, but today visitors will remember Bosnia and Hercegovina for its spontaneous welcome and its intriguing cultural melange. The Bosnians described their country as a `heart-shaped land´ and looking at a map reveals that such a description is not too wide of the mark geographically. Over centuries this rugged domain at the centre of the Balkans has been the scene of intense commingling of peoples, traditions and cultures, a fact belied by the factional strife of the 1990s. Political tensions still linger after those fratricidal wars, but Bosnians of all stripes look to a brighter and better future. Major drawcards for travellers are the reincarnated antique centres of Sarajevo and Mostar, where rebuilt historical buildings counterpoint fashionable bars and cafes. Elsewhere Socialist-era architectural monstrosities are surprisingly rare blots on predominantly rural landscapes. Many Bosnian towns are lovably small, wrapped around medieval castles and surrounded by mountain ridges or cascading river canyons. Few places in Europe offer better rafting or such accessible, inexpensive skiing.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Bosnia & Herzegovina National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
78Azerbaijan78
79Brazil79
80Grenada79
81Bosnia & Herzegovina81
82Macedonia82
83Algeria83
84Armenia84
85Ukraine84
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark83.6
2Finland83.1
3Sweden82.6
...
64Panama57.9
65Macedonia57.6
66Mexico57.3
67Bosnia & Herzegovina57.3
68Georgia57.2
69Brunei57.2
70Qatar57.2
71Armenia57.1
World Avg55.4
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#birth_control #Bosnia_&_Herzegovina #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
163Sweden37.0
164Bulgaria37.0
165Denmark37.1
166Bosnia & Herzegovina37.3
167S. Korea37.6
168Estonia37.9
169Belgium38.1
170Switzerland38.3
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
10Albania45.4%
11Barbados41.0%
12Suriname39.0%
13Bosnia & Herzegovina38.9%
14Palau38.8%
15St Vincent & Grenadines37.7%
16Cape Verde37.6%
17Jamaica36.1%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
113Belize2.70
114Malta1.28
115Syria2.81
116Bosnia & Herzegovina1.13
117Paraguay2.87
118Hong Kong1.12
119Israel2.91
120Jordan2.93
World Avg2.81
q=180.

The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5%
2Monaco71.6%
3UAE70.0%
...
151Maldives1.0%
152Cameroon1.0%
153Tonga0.8%
154Bosnia & Herzegovina0.7%
155Burundi0.7%
156Nigeria0.7%
157Nicaragua0.7%
158Algeria0.7%
World Avg9.2%
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
49Oman76.97
50Maldives76.96
51Bahrain76.72
52Bosnia & Herzegovina76.63
53Argentina76.46
54Slovakia76.41
55Montenegro76.40
56Antigua & Barbuda76.24
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.
Population17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
125Palestine4.3m
126Liberia4.2m
127Congo, (Brazzaville)4.2m
128Bosnia & Herzegovina3.7m
129Panama3.6m
130Mauritania3.6m
131Moldova3.5m
132Uruguay3.4m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Bosnia & Herzegovina's population is predicted to fall to 3 473 000 by 2030. Developed countries with falling populations face a pension's crises, whereby an incresingly ageing population must be cared for by fewer and fewer workers. Economic stability can be maintained by increasing foreign workers from younger countries. This country has a fertility rate of 1.13. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#Bosnia_&_Herzegovina #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Bosnia & Herzegovina does relatively well in ensuring human rights and freedom, compared to many other countries. Bosnia & Herzegovina comes in the best 20 in its nominal commitment to Human Rights18. It does better than average in terms of opposing gender inequality19 (but bad for Europe), LGBT equality20 (but bad for Europe), fighting anti-semitic opinions21, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms22 (but bad for Europe), its Global Peace Index rating23 (but bad for Europe), supporting press freedom24 (but bad for Europe), eliminating modern slavery25, fighting corruption26 (but bad for Europe) and in the year from which women could participate in democracy27 (but high for Europe). Bosnia & Herzegovina does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in commentary in Human Rights Watch reports28 (one of the lowest in Europe). Things aren't perfect, and the country made little progress by 201729 on issues raised by the ECtHR in 2009, with constitutional discrimination continuing against Jews, Roma and other minorities29. There is too much intimidation of journalists29 and LGBT folk face hate speech, harassment and some needless inequalities30.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Peace Versus Instability

#Bosnia_&_Herzegovina #extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Peacekeeping and Security (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
146Croatia146
147UAE147
148Central African Rep.148
149Bosnia & Herzegovina149
150Seychelles150
151Sierra Leone151
152Afghanistan152
153Lebanon153
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
32Bulgaria32
33S. Korea33
34Mauritius34
35Bosnia & Herzegovina35
36Romania36
37Uruguay37
38Liberia38
39Turkey39
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Global Peace Index (2012)23
Pos.Lower is better23
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
62Jordan1.90
63Indonesia1.91
64Serbia1.92
65Bosnia & Herzegovina1.92
66Moldova1.93
67Albania1.93
68Macedonia1.94
69Guyana1.94
World Avg2.02
q=157.

"The 2012 Global Peace Index is the sixth edition of the world's leading study on global levels of peacefulness. The GPI ranks 158 nations using 23 qualitative and quantitative indicators from highly respected sources, which gauge three broad themes: the level of safety and security in society; the extent of domestic or international conflict; and the degree of militarisation. By generating new information on the state of peace at the national and global level, the Institute for Economics and Peace hopes to make a valuable contribution to better understanding how civil society, researchers, policymakers, and government can create a more peaceful society"23. The most peaceable countries in the world are Iceland, New Zealand and Denmark23 and the worst are Somalia, Afghanistan and Sudan23.

Impact of Terrorism (2019)32
Pos.Lower is better
Score32
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
60Guatemala1.33
61Georgia1.34
62Papua New Guinea1.36
63Bosnia & Herzegovina1.39
64Kyrgyzstan1.47
65Ghana1.56
66Kazakhstan1.57
67Austria1.66
World Avg2.78
q=150.

6. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)33
Pos.Lower is better
%33
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
42Poland75
43Cyprus75
44Macedonia76
45Bosnia & Herzegovina77
46Venezuela79
47Costa Rica79
48Turkmenistan80
49Georgia81
World Avg75.1
q=114.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below34:

Christian52.3%
Muslim45.2%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated2.5%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 97.9% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 77% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%35.

Links:

7. The Internet

#Bosnia_&_Herzegovina #internet #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)36
Pos.Higher is better36
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
73Albania63%
74Palestine63%
75Montenegro62%
76Bosnia & Herzegovina62%
77Azerbaijan61%
78Belarus61%
79St Vincent & Grenadines60%
80St Lucia59%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)37
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio37
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
37Poland3.6
38Thailand3.3
39Denmark3.1
40Bosnia & Herzegovina3.1
41Sri Lanka2.9
42Latvia2.2
43Israel1.8
44Italy1.7
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #Bosnia_&_Herzegovina #genetics #health #obesity #organ_donation #public_health #smoking #sociology #UK

Bosnia & Herzegovina is a pretty unhealthy country. Bosnia & Herzegovina does better than average in terms of its adolescent birth rate19 and in the prevalence of overweight adults38 (amongst the lowest in Europe). But that's it. Bosnia & Herzegovina has problems. It does worse than average in its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance31, its alcohol consumption rate39 (still good for Europe) and in its immunizations take-up40. And finally, it sits amongst the bottom 20 for number of organ donors41 (amongst the lowest in Europe) and in its smoking rate42. The number of overweight adults has increased by 14% during the past 40 years.

Alcohol Consumption (2016)39
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita39
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
94Kyrgyzstan6.2
95Guyana6.3
96Peru6.3
97Bosnia & Herzegovina6.4
98Angola6.4
99Mexico6.5
100Philippines6.6
101Cambodia6.7
World Avg6.2
q=189.

There is nothing wrong with drinking modest and sensible amounts of alcohol but fitness, physical health, mental health and long-term health all suffer as a result of medium- or heavy- drinking43 and the health risks to the baby when pregnant mothers drink44 are well-known. Aside from the effects on the individual, alcohol misuse impacts on entire economies45 via increased health service costs, policing costs and lost days' work. Worldwide, alcohol misuse is "among the top five risk factors for disease, disability and death" and is a "cause of more than 200 disease and injury conditions in individuals, most notably alcohol dependence, liver cirrhosis, cancers and injuries"46. "In 2012... 5.9% of all global deaths, were attributable to alcohol consumption"47. Deaths from chronic alcohol misuse have been rising for decades, and so has violence, abuse, vandalism and crime all associated with alcohol over-use. The aggression and crime associated with alcohol in some Western countries infringes on the human rights of those who want nothing to do with such behaviour. Many of the social effects of alcohol are psychological and cultural; i.e., people don't have to behave criminally or destructively whilst drunk - it is a culturally learned behaviour. Experiments have shown that behaviour can be controlled: Those who do not wish to behave badly whilst drunk, will not do so.

Organ Donors (At Death) (2017)41
Pos.Higher is better
pmp41
1Spain46.9048
2Portugal34.0148
3Belgium33.6248
...
61Trinidad & Tobago1.47
62Dominican Rep.1.40
63Malaysia1.10
64Bosnia & Herzegovina0.90
65Bolivia0.90
66Japan0.88
67UAE0.32
68India0.30
World Avg13.03
q=70.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
92Tunisia92
93Bahrain93
94Philippines94
95Bosnia & Herzegovina95
96Namibia96
97Guyana97
98Colombia98
99Vietnam99
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Overweight Adults (2016)38
Pos.Lower is better
%38
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
82St Kitts & Nevis52.3
83Barbados52.4
84Papua New Guinea52.9
85Bosnia & Herzegovina53.3
86Paraguay53.5
87Kazakhstan53.6
88Azerbaijan53.6
89S. Africa53.8
World Avg49.0
q=191.

About one third of the global population is overweight or obese49. Most Western countries are facing an obesity epidemic. Our cultures are having to change to compensate for widespread ill-health. It is costing our health systems a massive amount of money, and is having negative effects on national economies. The situation has persisted for a suitable length of time for our very perceptions to change; opinions on "normal weights" for people and "average sizes" for clothes has shot up50. Over 2 in 3 adults in the UK are overweight50 and this costs the NHS £5.1 billion per year51 and "costs Britain's economy £47bn a year; more than war, terrorism or armed violence"52. We are forgetting how to be healthy.

The causes are not genetic. Most people who say obesity "runs in their family" are wrong. The rate of increase in obesity is many, many times too fast to be accounted for by a change in inherited genes53. Our culture and lifestyle choices are to blame. The causes of the modern obesity epidemic are processed foods, low levels of physical exercise, over-indulgence, poor choices in food products, poor knowledge of nutrition. Most of this is made much worse by well-funded advertising campaigns by food manufacturers selling cheaper mass-produced food. Even some so-called "health foods" contain well over recommended limits of fat, salt and sugar54.

Smoking Rates (2014)42
Pos.Lower is better42
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
170Azerbaijan2 114
171Kazakhstan2 157
172Czechia2 194
173Bosnia & Herzegovina2 233
174China2 250
175Luxembourg2 284
176Belgium2 353
177Slovenia2 637
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. Children's Health

#Bosnia_&_Herzegovina #health #parenting #population #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)19
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100019
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
24Oman8.1
25Belgium8.2
26Spain8.4
27Bosnia & Herzegovina8.6
28Saudi Arabia8.8
29France8.9
30Croatia9.5
31Israel9.7
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)40
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %40
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
130Kiribati88.4
131Netherlands88.1
132Paraguay88.1
133Bosnia & Herzegovina88.0
134Sierra Leone87.7
135Suriname87.2
136Ecuador86.8
137Cambodia86.5
World Avg88.3
q=194.

10. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
55
Pos.Lower is better55
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
122Estonia103.25
123Moldova103.5
124Congo, (Brazzaville)104.75
125Bosnia & Herzegovina107
126Algeria109
127Slovakia110.5
128Ecuador111
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
13Latvia13
14Bulgaria14
15Iceland15
16Bosnia & Herzegovina16
17Sweden17
18Lithuania18
19Macedonia19
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
66Lebanon66
67USA67
68Guyana68
69Bosnia & Herzegovina69
70Tonga70
71Trinidad & Tobago71
72Botswana72
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
146Croatia146
147UAE147
148Central African Rep.148
149Bosnia & Herzegovina149
150Seychelles150
151Sierra Leone151
152Afghanistan152
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
32Bulgaria32
33S. Korea33
34Mauritius34
35Bosnia & Herzegovina35
36Romania36
37Uruguay37
38Liberia38
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
42Malta42
43Morocco43
44Fiji44
45Bosnia & Herzegovina45
46Poland46
47Japan47
48Armenia48
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2956
2Israel4.1156
3Japan3.5856
...
74Ghana0.3857
75Moldova0.3558
76Ecuador0.3459
77Bosnia & Herzegovina0.3358
78Iran0.3157
79Nepal0.3057
80Kuwait0.3058
81Pakistan0.2958
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)60
Pos.Higher is better60
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
103Dominican Rep.4.7
104Tunisia4.7
105Azerbaijan4.7
106Bosnia & Herzegovina4.7
107S. Africa4.7
108India4.6
109Serbia4.5
110Congo, (Brazzaville)4.5
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
100Tunisia$10 249
101Jordan$10 111
102Dominica$10 096
103Bosnia & Herzegovina$10 091
104Egypt$10 064
105Indonesia$10 053
106St Lucia$9 791
107Namibia$9 770
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)61
Pos.Higher is better61
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
155Sierra Leone42.5
156Gambia42.4
157Congo, (Brazzaville)42.4
158Bosnia & Herzegovina41.8
159Togo41.8
160Liberia41.6
161Cameroon40.8
162Swaziland40.3
q=180.