The Human Truth Foundation

Bosnia & Herzegovina

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#bosnia_&_herzegovina

Bosnia & Herzegovina
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index61st best
CapitalSarajevo
Land Area 51 000km21
LocationEurope, The Balkans, The Mediterranean
Population3.7m (2011)2
Life Expectancy76.63yrs (2017)3
GNI$10 091 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesBA, BIH, 705
Internet Domain.ba6
CurrencyMarka (BAM)7
Telephone+3878

1. Overview

Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multi-ethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments are responsible for overseeing most government functions. Additionally, the Dayton Accords established the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council (PIC) at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called "Bonn Powers." An original NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops assembled in 1995 was succeeded over time by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). In 2004, European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR. Currently EUFOR deploys around 600 troops in theater in a policing capacity.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverThis craggily beautiful land retains scars from the 1990s civil war, but today visitors will remember Bosnia and Hercegovina for its spontaneous welcome and its intriguing cultural melange. The Bosnians described their country as a `heart-shaped land´ and looking at a map reveals that such a description is not too wide of the mark geographically. Over centuries this rugged domain at the centre of the Balkans has been the scene of intense commingling of peoples, traditions and cultures, a fact belied by the factional strife of the 1990s. Political tensions still linger after those fratricidal wars, but Bosnians of all stripes look to a brighter and better future. Major drawcards for travellers are the reincarnated antique centres of Sarajevo and Mostar, where rebuilt historical buildings counterpoint fashionable bars and cafes. Elsewhere Socialist-era architectural monstrosities are surprisingly rare blots on predominantly rural landscapes. Many Bosnian towns are lovably small, wrapped around medieval castles and surrounded by mountain ridges or cascading river canyons. Few places in Europe offer better rafting or such accessible, inexpensive skiing.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Bosnia & Herzegovina National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
78Azerbaijan78
79Brazil79
80Grenada79
81Bosnia & Herzegovina81
82Macedonia82
83Algeria83
84Armenia84
85Ukraine84
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
100Tunisia$10 249
101Jordan$10 111
102Dominica$10 096
103Bosnia & Herzegovina$10 091
104Egypt$10 064
105Indonesia$10 053
106St Lucia$9 791
107Namibia$9 770
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Denmark28.3
2Norway29.1
3Finland29.7
...
57Georgia75.3
58S. Africa75.8
59Barbados75.9
60Bosnia & Herzegovina76.3
61Macedonia76.3
62Cuba76.7
63Mongolia76.7
64Peru77.1
World Avg86.9
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Bosnia & Herzegovina's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #overpopulation #population

Population:

Bosnia & Herzegovina's population is predicted to fall to 3 473 000 by 2030. Developed countries with falling populations face a pension's crises, whereby an incresingly ageing population must be cared for by fewer and fewer workers. Economic stability can be maintained by increasing foreign workers from younger countries. This country has a fertility rate of 1.13. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2012)15
Pos.
Population15
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
125Palestine4.3m
126Liberia4.2m
127Congo, (Brazzaville)4.2m
128Bosnia & Herzegovina3.7m
129Panama3.6m
130Mauritania3.6m
131Moldova3.5m
132Uruguay3.4m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
49Oman76.97
50Maldives76.96
51Bahrain76.72
52Bosnia & Herzegovina76.63
53Argentina76.46
54Slovakia76.41
55Montenegro76.40
56Antigua & Barbuda76.24
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)16
Pos.2.0 is best16
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
113Belize2.70
114Malta1.28
115Syria2.81
116Bosnia & Herzegovina1.13
117Paraguay2.87
118Hong Kong1.12
119Israel2.91
120Jordan2.93
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)17
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10017
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
163Sweden37.0
164Bulgaria37.0
165Denmark37.1
166Bosnia & Herzegovina37.3
167S. Korea37.6
168Estonia37.9
169Belgium38.1
170Switzerland38.3
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Qatar86.5%
2Monaco71.6%
3UAE70.0%
...
151Maldives1.0%
152Cameroon1.0%
153Tonga0.8%
154Bosnia & Herzegovina0.7%
155Burundi0.7%
156Nigeria0.7%
157Nicaragua0.7%
158Algeria0.7%
World Avg9.2%
q=192.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
10Albania45.4%
11Barbados41.0%
12Suriname39.0%
13Bosnia & Herzegovina38.9%
14Palau38.8%
15St Vincent & Grenadines37.7%
16Cape Verde37.6%
17Jamaica36.1%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#Bosnia_&_Herzegovina #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Bosnia & Herzegovina does relatively well in ensuring human rights and freedom, compared to many other countries. Bosnia & Herzegovina comes in the best 20 in its nominal commitment to Human Rights19. It does better than average when it comes to opposing gender inequality20 (but high for Europe), its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice21, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms22 (but high for Europe), supporting press freedom23 (but high for Europe), eliminating modern slavery24 and in the year from which women could participate in democracy (but high for Europe). Bosnia & Herzegovina does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in commentary in Human Rights Watch reports25 (one of the lowest in Europe). Things aren't perfect, and the country made little progress by 201726 on issues raised by the ECtHR in 2009, with constitutional discrimination continuing against Jews, Roma and other minorities26. There is too much intimidation of journalists26 and LGBT folk face hate speech, harassment and some needless inequalities27.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Bosnia & Herzegovina's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #Bosnia_&_Herzegovina #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Health (2020)28,29
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank28,29
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
60Vietnam83.0
61Czechia83.0
62Canada83.1
63Bosnia & Herzegovina83.1
64St Lucia84.4
65Solomon Islands84.7
66Turkmenistan85.1
67Australia85.3
68Estonia85.3
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives28. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea28.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia.

Health:

Bosnia & Herzegovina does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Bosnia & Herzegovina does the second-best for its fertility rate16. It does better than average for its adolescent birth rate20 and in its average life expectancy12 (but low for Europe). Bosnia & Herzegovina does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in terms of its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance30, its alcohol consumption rate31 (still good for Europe) and in its immunizations take-up32. And finally, it falls into the worst 20 in terms of its smoking rate33. The number of overweight adults has increased by 14% between 1976 and 2016.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
49Oman76.97
50Maldives76.96
51Bahrain76.72
52Bosnia & Herzegovina76.63
53Argentina76.46
54Slovakia76.41
55Montenegro76.40
56Antigua & Barbuda76.24
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)31
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita31
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
94Kyrgyzstan6.2
95Guyana6.3
96Peru6.3
97Bosnia & Herzegovina6.4
98Angola6.4
99Mexico6.5
100Philippines6.6
101Cambodia6.7
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)16
Pos.2.0 is best16
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
113Belize2.70
114Malta1.28
115Syria2.81
116Bosnia & Herzegovina1.13
117Paraguay2.87
118Hong Kong1.12
119Israel2.91
120Jordan2.93
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)33
Pos.Higher is worse33
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
176Belgium2 353
175Luxembourg2 284
174China2 250
173Bosnia & Herzegovina2 233
172Czechia2 194
171Kazakhstan2 157
170Azerbaijan2 114
169Greece2 086
World Avg 819
q=182.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
92Tunisia92
93Bahrain93
94Philippines94
95Bosnia & Herzegovina95
96Namibia96
97Guyana97
98Colombia98
99Vietnam99
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)34
Pos.Lower is better
%34
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
82St Kitts & Nevis52.3
83Barbados52.4
84Papua New Guinea52.9
85Bosnia & Herzegovina53.3
86Paraguay53.5
87Kazakhstan53.6
88Azerbaijan53.6
89S. Africa53.8
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)20
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100020
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
24Oman8.1
25Belgium8.2
26Spain8.4
27Bosnia & Herzegovina8.6
28Saudi Arabia8.8
29France8.9
30Croatia9.5
31Israel9.7
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)32
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %32
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
130Kiribati88.4
131Netherlands88.1
132Paraguay88.1
133Bosnia & Herzegovina88.0
134Sierra Leone87.7
135Suriname87.2
136Ecuador86.8
137Cambodia86.5
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Bosnia & Herzegovina's Modernity and Learning

#education #modernity #religion #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)35
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank35
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
49Serbia46.6
50Cyprus47.1
51Barbados48.0
52Bosnia & Herzegovina48.1
53Macau50.8
54Mexico50.9
55Saudi Arabia52.2
56Macedonia53.1
57UAE53.8
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2936
2Israel4.1136
3Japan3.5836
...
74Ghana0.3837
75Moldova0.3538
76Ecuador0.3439
77Bosnia & Herzegovina0.3338
78Iran0.3137
79Nepal0.3037
80Kuwait0.3038
81Pakistan0.2938
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)40
Pos.Higher is better40
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
54Jordan84.0%
55France83.5%
56Sri Lanka82.8%
57Bosnia & Herzegovina81.2%
58Malaysia80.8%
59Cyprus80.3%
60Singapore79.6%
61Italy79.6%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)41
Pos.Higher is better
Years41
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
80China13.9
81St Lucia13.9
82Peru13.8
83Bosnia & Herzegovina13.8
84Kuwait13.8
85S. Africa13.7
86UAE13.6
87St Kitts & Nevis13.6
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
13Latvia13
14Bulgaria14
15Iceland15
16Bosnia & Herzegovina16
17Sweden17
18Lithuania18
19Macedonia19
20Australia20
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Religiosity (2009)42
Pos.Lower is better
%42
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
42Poland75
43Cyprus75
44Macedonia76
45Bosnia & Herzegovina77
46Venezuela79
47Costa Rica79
48Turkmenistan80
49Georgia81
World Avg75.1
q=114.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
73Albania63%
74Palestine63%
75Montenegro62%
76Bosnia & Herzegovina62%
77Azerbaijan61%
78Belarus61%
79St Vincent & Grenadines60%
80St Lucia59%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)44
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio44
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
37Poland3.6
38Thailand3.3
39Denmark3.1
40Bosnia & Herzegovina3.1
41Sri Lanka2.9
42Latvia2.2
43Israel1.8
44Italy1.7
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
45
Pos.Lower is better45
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
122Estonia103.25
123Moldova103.5
124Congo, (Brazzaville)104.75
125Bosnia & Herzegovina107
126Algeria109
127Slovakia110.5
128Ecuador111
129Egypt112.25
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Life Satisfaction (2011)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
103Dominican Rep.4.7
104Tunisia4.7
105Azerbaijan4.7
106Bosnia & Herzegovina4.7
107S. Africa4.7
108India4.6
109Serbia4.5
110Congo, (Brazzaville)4.5
World Avg5.4
q=150.
Corruption (2012-2016)47
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score47
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
77Brazil41.2
78Serbia40.8
79Tunisia40.2
80Bosnia & Herzegovina40.0
81Jamaica38.8
82Burkina Faso38.8
83China38.4
84El Salvador38.0
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)48
Pos.Higher is better48
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
90Jordan5.2
91Nigeria5.2
92Kyrgyzstan5.1
93Bosnia & Herzegovina5.1
94Mongolia5.1
95Vietnam5.1
96Indonesia5.1
97Bhutan5.1
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
66Lebanon66
67USA67
68Guyana68
69Bosnia & Herzegovina69
70Tonga70
71Trinidad & Tobago71
72Botswana72
73Dominica73
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
42Malta42
43Morocco43
44Fiji44
45Bosnia & Herzegovina45
46Poland46
47Japan47
48Armenia48
49UAE49
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)49
Pos.Lower is better49
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
62Jordan1.90
63Indonesia1.91
64Serbia1.92
65Bosnia & Herzegovina1.92
66Moldova1.93
67Albania1.93
68Macedonia1.94
69Guyana1.94
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
146Croatia146
147UAE147
148Central African Rep.148
149Bosnia & Herzegovina149
150Seychelles150
151Sierra Leone151
152Afghanistan152
153Lebanon153
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
32Bulgaria32
33S. Korea33
34Mauritius34
35Bosnia & Herzegovina35
36Romania36
37Uruguay37
38Liberia38
39Turkey39
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)50
Pos.Lower is better
Score50
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
60Guatemala1.33
61Georgia1.34
62Papua New Guinea1.36
63Bosnia & Herzegovina1.39
64Kyrgyzstan1.47
65Ghana1.56
66Kazakhstan1.57
67Austria1.66
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)51
Pos.Higher is better
%51
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
105Guyana-00.8
106Malaysia-00.8
107Armenia-00.9
108Bosnia & Herzegovina-01.5
109Congo, (Brazzaville)-01.7
110Central African Rep.-01.7
111Albania-02.2
112Sierra Leone-02.4
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)52
Pos.Higher is better52
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
155Sierra Leone42.5
156Gambia42.4
157Congo, (Brazzaville)42.4
158Bosnia & Herzegovina41.8
159Togo41.8
160Liberia41.6
161Cameroon40.8
162Swaziland40.3
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)53
Pos.Higher is better53
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
...
105Tanzania04.81
106Kyrgyzstan04.78
107Benin04.69
108Bosnia & Herzegovina04.52
109Russia04.52
110S. Africa04.48
111Bahrain04.10
112Ukraine03.28
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
182Saudi Arabia2002 Jan 01
183Serbia2002 May 30
184Kuwait2002 Oct 31
185Bosnia & Herzegovina2002 Nov 24
186Afghanistan2002 Dec 18
187Tuvalu2003 Mar 20
188Thailand2004 Jan 29
189Montenegro2006 Jun 03
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.

10. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)42
Pos.Lower is better
%42
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
42Poland75
43Cyprus75
44Macedonia76
45Bosnia & Herzegovina77
46Venezuela79
47Costa Rica79
48Turkmenistan80
49Georgia81
World Avg75.1
q=114.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below54:

Christian52.3%
Muslim45.2%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated2.5%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 97.9% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 77% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%55.

Links: