The Human Truth Foundation

Egypt (Arab Republic of Egypt)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#atheism #egypt #USA

Egypt
Arab Republic of Egypt
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index110th best
CapitalCairo
Land Area 995 450km21
LocationAfrica, The Mediterranean, The Middle East
Population98.4m2
Life Expectancy71.33yrs (2017)3
GNI$10 064 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesEG, EGY, 8185
Internet Domain.eg6
CurrencyPound (EGP)7
Telephone+208

1. Overview

#egypt #tunisia #UK

The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty with the overthrow of the British-backed monarchy in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt's growing population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure. Egyptian youth and opposition groups, inspired by events in Tunisia leading to overthrow of the government there, organized non-violent demonstrations, marches, and labor strikes in Cairo and other cities throughout Egypt early in 2011. Protester grievances focused on police brutality, state emergency laws, lack of free speech and elections, high unemployment, rising food prices, inflation, and low minimum wages. Pledges by President MUBARAK for the formation of a new government and additional concessions failed to assuage protesters and resulted in an escalation of the number and intensity of demonstrations and clashes with police. In February 2011 MUBARAK resigned and national leadership was assumed by a Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF). The SCAF dissolved the Egyptian parliament, suspended the nation's constitution, and formed a committee to recommend constitutional changes to facilitate a political transition through democratic elections. Following some delays, elections for a new parliament took place between November 2011 and January 2012; however, the lower house of parliament was dissolved in June after a court ruling deemed its formation illegal. Presidential elections held in May and June witnessed the victory of Muslim Brotherhood candidate Mohammed MURSI, but elections to form a new lower house of parliament, scheduled spring 2013, have been put on hold by the Administrative Court in order to review legal arguments over the process used to approve the amended election law.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverPerhaps no other people in the world say `Welcome´ so frequently - and mean it every time. Egypt´s ancient civilisation still awes, but today's Egyptians are pretty amazing, too. With sand-covered tombs, austere pyramids and towering Pharaonic temples, Egypt brings out the explorer in all of us. Visit the Valley of the Kings in Luxor, where Tutankhamun´s tomb was unearthed, and see the glittering finds in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Hop off a Nile boat to visit a waterside temple, or trek into the desert to find the traces of Roman trading outposts. You never know - your donkey might stumble across yet another find, just as many previous discoveries were made.

Egypt is the most traveller-friendly country in the Middle East. This means you´ll enjoy decent places to sleep and English spoken to some degree everywhere. It also means that if you ever get into a jam, an Egyptian will likely be there to help you out. Then again, an Egyptian will also be there to sell you some papyrus or perfume - an undeniable reality of travel here. But the souvenir sales are a minor irritant when compared with the chance to connect with some of the world´s most generous people.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Egypt National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
108Botswana108
109Gabon109
110Paraguay110
111Egypt111
112Turkmenistan111
113Indonesia113
114Palestine114
115Vietnam115
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
101Jordan$10 111
102Dominica$10 096
103Bosnia & Herzegovina$10 091
104Egypt$10 064
105Indonesia$10 053
106St Lucia$9 791
107Namibia$9 770
108Georgia$8 856
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Denmark27.7
2Norway28.3
3Finland29.6
...
106Paraguay91.4
107St Lucia91.9
108Andorra92.3
109Egypt92.5
110Belize93.5
111Antigua & Barbuda93.5
112Nepal93.7
113Indonesia94.3
World Avg86.5
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Egypt's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Egypt's population is predicted to rise to 106.5 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 2.65. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
11Mexico126.2m
12Ethiopia109.2m
13Philippines106.7m
14Egypt98.4m
15Vietnam95.5m
16Congo, DR84.1m
17Germany83.1m
18Turkey82.3m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
106Libya71.76
107Moldova71.73
108Belarus71.46
109Egypt71.33
110Suriname71.28
111Ukraine71.13
112Azerbaijan70.90
113Kyrgyzstan70.79
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
106Botswana2.64
107Kyrgyzstan2.64
108Austria1.35
109Egypt2.65
110Singapore1.35
111Saudi Arabia2.67
112Portugal1.31
113Belize2.70
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
69Cape Verde10.0
70Philippines10.3
71Cambodia10.4
72Egypt10.5
73Libya10.5
74S. Africa10.5
75Bangladesh10.6
76Nepal10.8
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
168Algeria0.6%
169Mongolia0.6%
170Tunisia0.5%
171Egypt0.5%
172Guatemala0.5%
173Cambodia0.5%
174Honduras0.4%
175Solomon Islands0.4%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
117Colombia4.6%
118Sierra Leone4.6%
119Philippines4.6%
120Egypt4.4%
121Germany4.3%
122S. Korea4.3%
123Belgium4.2%
124Syria4.2%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#egypt #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Egypt is very poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world, and it has cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Egypt comes in the best 20 when it comes to speed of uptake of HR treaties19. It does better than average in its nominal commitment to Human Rights20. But unfortunately Egypt gets most other things wrong. Despite having over 118,000 girls in under-age marriages in 2017, the Supreme Constitutional Court ruled against a 2008 law that prohibits child marriage, and violence against women is far, far too common27. It does worse than average for commentary in Human Rights Watch reports21, eliminating modern slavery22 (still good for Africa), the year from which women could participate in democracy (still low for Africa), opposing gender inequality23 and in supporting press freedom24. And finally, it sits amongst the bottom 20 in its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice25 and in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms26. Independent newspapers and news websites that the government dislike face arbitrary restrictions, confiscation of equipment and their staff are harassed - Al-Borsa, Daily News Egypt, Masry al-Arabiya and Cairo Portal were all abused in 201727. "President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi [crushes] public dissent in Egypt"28 and security forces use torture to obtain confessions27.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Egypt's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #Egypt #health #life_expectancy #longevity #mental_health #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Health (2020)29,30
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank29,30
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
122Jamaica100.3
123Cape Verde100.3
124Colombia100.6
125Egypt100.6
126Guatemala100.6
127Comoros101.3
128Gambia101.3
129Uruguay102.1
130Guinea102.3
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives29. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea29.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe29, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia29.

Health:

Egypt does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Egypt comes in the best 20 in terms of its suicide rate31 (the lowest in Africa) and in its alcohol consumption rate32. It does better than average in terms of its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance33 and in its immunizations take-up34. Egypt does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in terms of its average life expectancy12 (still high for Africa), its adolescent birth rate23 (still low for Africa), its fertility rate15 (still good for Africa) and in its smoking rate35 (amongst the worst in Africa). The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% between 1976 and 2016.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
106Libya71.76
107Moldova71.73
108Belarus71.46
109Egypt71.33
110Suriname71.28
111Ukraine71.13
112Azerbaijan70.90
113Kyrgyzstan70.79
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)32
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita32
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
11Kiribati0.4
12Iraq0.4
13Brunei0.4
14Egypt0.4
15Djibouti0.5
16Niger0.5
17Sudan0.5
18Bhutan0.6
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
106Botswana2.64
107Kyrgyzstan2.64
108Austria1.35
109Egypt2.65
110Singapore1.35
111Saudi Arabia2.67
112Portugal1.31
113Belize2.70
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)35
Pos.Higher is worse35
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
136Spain1 265
135Iraq1 227
134Vietnam1 215
133Egypt1 188
132Albania1 177
131Canada1 154
130Uruguay1 135
129Lithuania1 124
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)31
Pos.
Per 100k31
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
4Jordan0.2
5Maldives0.7
6Azerbaijan1.3
7S. Africa1.8
8Bahamas2.5
9Peru2.9
10Kuwait3.6
11Armenia3.9
12Dominican Rep.4.6
World Avg20.93
q=91.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)33
Pos.Lower is better
Rank33
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
70Latvia70
71Liberia71
72Kazakhstan72
73Egypt73
74Burundi74
75Cameroon74
76Malta76
77Guatemala77
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)36
Pos.Lower is better
%36
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
157Uruguay62.9
158Chile63.1
159Venezuela63.4
160Egypt63.5
161Andorra63.7
162UK63.7
163Fiji63.8
164Canada64.1
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)23
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100023
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
110Colombia50.2
111St Vincent & Grenadines51.0
112Cambodia51.6
113Egypt51.9
114St Lucia53.9
115Eritrea54.3
116Papua New Guinea54.8
117Uruguay56.1
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)34
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %34
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
88Argentina93.7
89Bulgaria93.7
90Serbia93.5
91Egypt93.4
92Cape Verde93.4
93Burundi93.3
94Chile93.3
95Georgia93.1
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Egypt's Modernity and Learning

#education #intelligence #modernity #politics #religion #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)37
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank37
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
76Ecuador64.7
77Thailand65.2
78Armenia65.3
79Egypt65.4
80St Lucia66.6
81Bahrain67.1
82Kuwait67.1
83Kyrgyzstan67.6
84Fiji68.0
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2938
2Israel4.1138
3Japan3.5838
...
46Serbia0.7339
47Hong Kong0.7340
48Tunisia0.6840
49Egypt0.6839
50Belarus0.6739
51Mali0.6641
52Bulgaria0.6539
53Ethiopia0.6139
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)42
Pos.Higher is better42
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
82Mauritius66.9%
83Oman66.4%
84Jamaica66.3%
85Egypt65.3%
86Argentina64.8%
87Greece64.8%
88Guyana63.3%
89Ghana63.1%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)43
Pos.Higher is better
Years43
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
93Armenia13.2
94Jamaica13.1
95Belize13.1
96Egypt13.1
97Morocco13.1
98Dominica13.0
99Trinidad & Tobago13.0
100Indonesia12.9
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)33
Pos.Lower is better
Rank33
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
57Guinea-Bissau57
58Central African Rep.58
59Kenya59
60Egypt60
61Japan61
62Malta62
63Ghana63
64Samoa64
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Religiosity (2009)44
Pos.Lower is better
%44
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
99Malaysia96
100Afghanistan97
101Comoros97
102Egypt97
103Morocco97
104Thailand97
105Mauritania98
106Djibouti98
World Avg75.1
q=114.
IQ (2006)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
94Lebanon82
95Dominican Rep.82
96Madagascar82
97Egypt81
98Honduras81
99Nicaragua81
100El Salvador80
101Guatemala79
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
126Mongolia36%
127India35%
128Kyrgyzstan34%
129Egypt33%
130Cuba32%
131Micronesia31%
132Vanuatu31%
133Syria30%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
Freedom On The Internet (2012)47
Pos.Lower is better47
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
31Zimbabwe54
32Sri Lanka55
33Kazakhstan58
34Egypt59
35Thailand61
36Pakistan63
37Belarus69
38Bahrain71
World Avg46.7
q=47.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)48
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio48
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
53Spain0.6
54St Kitts & Nevis0.6
55Nauru0.5
56Egypt0.4
57Mexico0.4
58Bhutan0.4
59China0.3
60Iceland0.3
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
49
Pos.Lower is better49
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
126Algeria109
127Slovakia110.5
128Ecuador111
129Egypt112.25
130Croatia113
131Chad113.75
132Madagascar114
133Benin114.25
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Corruption (2012-2016)50
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score50
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
101Armenia35.0
102Gabon35.0
103Albania34.4
104Egypt34.2
105Argentina34.2
106Niger34.2
107Indonesia34.2
108Djibouti34.0
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)51
Pos.Higher is better51
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
119Namibia4.4
120Cambodia4.4
121Burkina Faso4.4
122Egypt4.4
123Mozambique4.4
124Kenya4.4
125Zambia4.4
126Mauritania4.4
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)33
Pos.Lower is better
Rank33
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
120Honduras120
121Tanzania121
122Zimbabwe122
123Egypt123
124Burkina Faso124
125Dominican Rep.125
126Oman126
127Mozambique127
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)33
Pos.Lower is better
Rank33
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
131Kazakhstan131
132Bangladesh132
133Indonesia133
134Egypt134
135Uruguay135
136Namibia136
137Yemen137
138Cambodia138
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)52
Pos.Lower is better52
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
108Belarus2.21
109Uzbekistan2.22
110El Salvador2.22
111Egypt2.22
112Jamaica2.22
113Benin2.23
114Armenia2.24
115Niger2.24
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)33
Pos.Lower is better
Rank33
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
4Egypt4
5Nigeria5
6Uruguay6
7Indonesia7
8Brunei8
9Moldova9
10Morocco10
11Oman11
12Tanzania12
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)33
Pos.Lower is better
Rank33
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
117Saudi Arabia117
118Lesotho118
119Oman119
120Egypt120
121Colombia121
122Honduras122
123Guinea123
124Congo, (Brazzaville)124
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)53
Pos.Lower is better
Score53
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
137Central African Rep.6.62
138Mali6.65
139Libya6.77
140Egypt6.79
141Congo, DR7.04
142Philippines7.14
143Yemen7.26
144India7.52
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)54
Pos.Higher is better
%54
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
4Kuwait81.2
5Dominican Rep.79.5
6Egypt65.9
7Vietnam65.6
8Ireland62.2
9Tunisia61.9
10Cuba56.9
11Cape Verde55.7
12Rwanda50.9
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)55
Pos.Higher is better55
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
63Armenia62.1
64Peru61.9
65Montenegro61.3
66Egypt61.2
67Lebanon61.1
68Macedonia61.1
69Brazil60.7
70Sri Lanka60.6
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)56
Pos.Higher is better56
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
...
26Portugal12.35
27Botswana12.35
28Ecuador11.90
29Egypt11.76
30El Salvador11.76
31Romania11.49
32Austria11.24
33Germany11.24
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
57Bangladesh1994 Aug 01
58Luxembourg1994 Aug 07
59Georgia1994 Aug 31
60Egypt1994 Aug 31
61UK1994 Sep 01
62Chad1994 Sep 05
63Gambia1994 Sep 08
64Micronesia1994 Sep 18
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #poverty #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)57
Pos.Higher is worse57
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
97Solomon Islands12.10
96Palestine12.00
95Panama12.00
94Egypt11.60
93Ecuador11.50
92N. Korea11.50
91Kyrgyzstan11.30
90St Vincent & Grenadines11.30
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)58
Pos.Lower is better
%58
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
26Croatia31.1
27S. Korea31.6
28Germany31.7
29Egypt31.8
30Ireland31.8
31Lebanon31.8
32Montenegro31.9
33Japan32.1
World Avg38.1
q=152.
Multidimensional Poverty (2018)59
Pos.Lower is better
Severity59
1Armenia.001
2Ukraine.001
3Serbia.001
...
28Jamaica.018
29Paraguay.019
30Vietnam.019
31Egypt.019
32Colombia.020
33Philippines.024
34Mexico.025
35S. Africa.025
World Avg.154
q=101.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #egypt #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)44
Pos.Lower is better
%44
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
99Malaysia96
100Afghanistan97
101Comoros97
102Egypt97
103Morocco97
104Thailand97
105Mauritania98
106Djibouti98
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)60
Pos.Higher is better
%60
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
114Kenya0
115Ethiopia0
116Afghanistan0
117Egypt0
118Liberia0
119Libya0
120Ivory Coast0
121Pakistan0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below61:

Christian5.1%
Muslim94.9%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%62.

When it comes to religious freedom and persecution, sociologists Grim & Finke place Egypt into the worst category, along with just 13 other countries. In this category, severe restrictions on religious freedom and freedom of belief stem simultaneously from top-down pressure from government and institutionalized religion, and from bottom-up grassroots movements that often go even further than the government in harrassing those who do not believe the right things (2011)63.The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012)64, in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Egypt states:

The constitution and other laws and policies protect freedom of religion or belief. However, Article 98(f) of the country's penal code, as amended by law 147/2006, states that "whoever makes use of religion in propagating, either by words, in writing, or in any other means, extreme ideas for the purpose of inciting strife, ridiculing or insulting a heavenly religion or a sect following it, or damaging national unity" should be punished with between six months and five years imprisonment, and/or a fine between five hundred and one thousand pounds. The constitutional situation remains unclear and fluid with continuing political upheaval following the democratic revolution. There has been a marked increase in blasphemy charges in the past year directed at atheist and Coptic Christians, especially since the YouTube video "Innocence of Muslims" (produced by Coptic emigrants from Egypt) was publicized in the country.

Cases of Discrimination

On February 22nd, 2007 An Egyptian court sentenced a blogger, Abdel Kareem Soliman, to four years' prison for insulting Islam and the president. Soliman's trial was the first time that a blogger had been prosecuted in Egypt. He had used his web log to criticise the country's top Islamic institution, al-Azhar university and President Hosni Mubarak, whom he called a dictator.

On Oct. 27, 2007, blogger Kareem Amer was sentenced for Facebook posts deemed offensive to Islam, along with being seditious toward Hosni Mubarak. He was released on Nov. 17, 2010, upon which he was re-detained by security forces and allegedly tortured.

On Oct. 12, 2011, a court gave Ayman Yusef Mansur, 24, a three-year prison sentence with hard labor because he allegedly intentionally insulted the dignity of the Islamic religion with criticism on Facebook. The court did not make available what exactly Mansur posted on Facebook to draw the sentence.

In February 2012, a Christian school secretary named Makram Diab was sentenced to six years in prison for "insulting the Prophet Muhammad." A mob of 2,500 Muslims rallied outside the courthouse and demanded Diab be sentenced to death. Diab was apparently convicted on the testimony of Muslim colleagues, who stated he had made offensive remarks.

On 4 April 2012, An Egyptian court sentenced 17-year-old Christian boy, Gamal Abdou Massoud, to three years in jail for publishing cartoons on his Facebook page that "mocked" Islam and the Prophet Mohammad. Massoud was also accused of distributing some of his cartoons to his school friends in a village in the southern city of Assiut, home to a large Christian population. The child's court in Assiut sentenced Gamal Abdou Massoud to three years in prison "after he insulted Islam and published and distributed pictures that insulted Islam and its Prophet," the court said in a statement seen by Reuters. The cartoons, published by Massoud in December, had already prompted some Muslims to attack Christians, with several Christian houses burned and several people injured in the violence.

September 2012 also saw riots across Egypt over the YouTube video "Innocence of Muslims", which offended Muslims with its portrayal of the Prophet Mohammad. As a result, in November an Egyptian court convicted, in absentia, seven Coptic Christians, allegedly involved in the production of the movie, for "insulting the Islamic religion through participating in producing and offering a movie that insults Islam and its prophet." At the same time, the court convicted an American Christian pastor, Terry Jones, for burning the Qur'an on YouTube. All eight were sentenced to death, but they are all living abroad in countries that are not expected to extradite them to Egypt.

On September 14, 2012, during the riots over the "Innocence of Muslims", Alber Saber was arrested after a mob formed outside his home and demanded his arrest for insulting religion. Saber is a twenty-seven-year-old prominent activist for secular democracy in Egypt. Raised in a Coptic Christian household, Saber is an atheist who reportedly operates the Egyptian Atheists page on Facebook and has been a vocal critic of fundamentalist Islam. Saber was reportedly beaten after a prison guard announced his charges to others in Saber's cell. He faces between six months and five years in prison and/or a fine between five hundred and one thousand pounds. His trial is currently ongoing.

In late July 2012 a Coptic Christian teacher, Bishoy Kamel, 32, was arrested in the southern governorate of Sohag over an accusation that he posted images "insulting" to Islam on his Facebook page. Police were reported by al-Ahram newspaper as saying Kamel could be charged with blasphemy and would face up to five years in prison if convicted. The images he allegedly posted were cartoons depicting the Prophet Mohamed and Egypt's new President Mohamed Morsi. Mohamed Safwat, who filed the charges against Kamel, reportedly argued that that the teacher had also "insulted members of his own family." Kamel admitted to managing the Facebook page under investigation but denied the charges, claiming his account had been hacked. In September 2012 Kamel was sentenced to six years in prison for blasphemy

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)65

Freedom of Religion and Belief: Discriminatory laws serve to restrict Christian churches from operating27, and there is frequently violence against churches. When attacks occur, the government has sponsored "customary reconciliation" sessions rather than conduct criminal investigations and prosecutions against Muslims27.

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