The Human Truth Foundation

Oman (Sultanate of Oman)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#climate_change #economics #happiness #intelligence #oman #research #science #the_environment

Oman
Sultanate of Oman
StatusIndependent State
CapitalMuscat
Land Area 309 500km21
LocationAsia, Middle East
Population2.9m (2011)2
Life Expectancy76.97yrs (2017)3
GNI$34 402 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesOM, OMN, 5125
Internet Domain.om6
CurrencyRial (OMR)7
Telephone+9688

1. Overview

The inhabitants of the area of Oman have long prospered on Indian Ocean trade. In the late 18th century, a newly established sultanate in Muscat signed the first in a series of friendship treaties with Britain. Over time, Oman's dependence on British political and military advisors increased, but it never became a British colony. In 1970, QABOOS bin Said Al-Said overthrew his father, and he has since ruled as sultan. His extensive modernization program has opened the country to the outside world while preserving the longstanding close ties with the UK. Oman's moderate, independent foreign policy has sought to maintain good relations with all Middle Eastern countries. Inspired by the popular uprisings that swept the Middle East and North Africa beginning in January 2011, Omanis began staging marches and demonstrations to demand economic benefits, an end to corruption, and greater political rights. In response to protester demands, QABOOS in 2011 pledged to implement economic and political reforms, such as granting legislative and regulatory powers to the Majlis al-Shura and introducing unemployment benefits. In August 2012, the Sultan announced a royal directive mandating the speedy implementation of a national job creation plan for thousands of public and private sector jobs. As part of the government's efforts to decentralize authority and allow greater citizen participation in local governance, Oman successfully conducted its first municipal council elections in December 2012. Announced by the Sultan in 2011, the municipal councils will have the power to advise the Royal Court on the needs of local districts across Oman's 11 governorates.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverOman is the obvious choice for those seeking out the modern face of Arabia while still wanting to sense its ancient soul. The sultanate of Oman could be the Arabian Peninsula´s most rewarding destination. More accessible than Saudi Arabia, safer than Yemen and more traditional than the Gulf emirates, Oman nonetheless has plenty to rival these countries´ attractions and more. A stirring past that combines the great sweep of Bedouin history with a proud seafaring tradition has bequeathed to the country some extraordinary forts and other traditional architecture. And Mutrah Souq in Muscat is a fantasy of an Arabian bazaar come to life, with glittering gold and clouds of incense. But it´s Oman´s diverse natural beauty that is the main drawcard. Here you´ll find beautiful beaches, the jagged ramparts of mountain ranges and the perfectly sculpted sands of the fabled Empty Quarter.

Oman is an understated presence among the glitzy states of the Gulf. What it does boast, with its rich heritage and embracing society, is a strong sense of identity, a pride in an ancient frankincense-trading past and confidence in a highly educated future.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Oman National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
50Romania50
51Kuwait51
52Belarus52
53Oman52
54Barbados54
55Uruguay54
56Kazakhstan56
57Bulgaria56
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark83.6
2Finland83.1
3Sweden82.6
...
92San Marino54.3
93Bolivia54.2
94Azerbaijan54.0
95Oman54.0
96Colombia53.9
97Nepal53.8
98Morocco53.7
99Russia53.6
World Avg55.4
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #Oman #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
49Namibia07.4
50Botswana07.7
51UAE07.7
52Oman07.8
53Jordan08.0
54Laos08.1
55Timor-Leste (E. Timor)08.2
56Belize08.3
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
185Qatar0.7%
186Nigeria0.6%
187Maldives0.6%
188China0.6%
189Japan0.6%
190Oman0.5%
191Madagascar0.4%
192Montenegro0.0%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
24Bangladesh2.16
25Belgium1.83
26Algeria2.17
27Oman2.17
28Argentina2.18
29El Salvador2.18
30Grenada2.18
31Costa Rica1.81
World Avg2.81
q=180.

The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5%
2Monaco71.6%
3UAE70.0%
...
13Brunei36.4%
14Luxembourg35.2%
15Liechtenstein34.6%
16Oman28.4%
17Palau28.1%
18Saudi Arabia27.8%
19Australia25.7%
20Antigua & Barbuda23.6%
World Avg9.2%
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
46UAE77.12
47Estonia77.01
48Mexico76.97
49Oman76.97
50Maldives76.96
51Bahrain76.72
52Bosnia & Herzegovina76.63
53Argentina76.46
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.
Population17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
133Lithuania3.3m
134Albania3.2m
135Armenia3.1m
136Oman2.9m
137Kuwait2.9m
138Mongolia2.8m
139Jamaica2.8m
140Namibia2.4m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Oman's population is predicted to rise to 3.603 million by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 2.17. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #freedom #human_rights #oman #politics #tolerance

Oman is very poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world, and it has cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Oman does better than average for eliminating modern slavery18, opposing gender inequality19, its Global Peace Index rating20 and in fighting corruption21. Oman does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average when it comes to commentary in Human Rights Watch reports22, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms23, supporting press freedom24, LGBT equality25 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights26. And finally, it sits amongst the bottom 20 in fighting anti-semitic opinions27 and in the year from which women could participate in democracy28 (one of the highest in Asia). Free speech is routinely denied, even on independent social media platforms where saying that that displeases the government can result in arrests and detainment29. Migrant workers, especially, are often abused and are poorly protected29.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Peace Versus Instability

#human_development #Oman #peace #politics

Peacekeeping and Security (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
8Brunei8
9Moldova9
10Morocco10
11Oman11
12Tanzania12
13Cameroon13
14Singapore14
15Colombia15
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
116Dominica116
117Saudi Arabia117
118Lesotho118
119Oman119
120Egypt120
121Colombia121
122Honduras122
123Guinea123
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Global Peace Index (2012)20
Pos.Lower is better20
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
56Burkina Faso1.88
57Djibouti1.88
58Mongolia1.88
59Oman1.89
60Malawi1.89
61Panama1.90
62Jordan1.90
63Indonesia1.91
World Avg2.02
q=157.

"The 2012 Global Peace Index is the sixth edition of the world's leading study on global levels of peacefulness. The GPI ranks 158 nations using 23 qualitative and quantitative indicators from highly respected sources, which gauge three broad themes: the level of safety and security in society; the extent of domestic or international conflict; and the degree of militarisation. By generating new information on the state of peace at the national and global level, the Institute for Economics and Peace hopes to make a valuable contribution to better understanding how civil society, researchers, policymakers, and government can create a more peaceful society"20. The most peaceable countries in the world are Iceland, New Zealand and Denmark20 and the worst are Somalia, Afghanistan and Sudan20.

6. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)31
Pos.Higher is better
%31
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
130Malawi0
131Chad0
132Nepal0
133Morocco0
134Mauritania0
135Mali0
136Senegal0
137Oman0
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below32:

Christian6.5%
Muslim85.9%
Hindu5.5%
Buddhist0.8%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.2%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Ibadhi Muslim (official) 75%, other (includes Sunni Muslim, Shia Muslim, Hindu) 25%33.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #it_security #Oman #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)34
Pos.Higher is better34
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
53Slovenia72%
54Cyprus72%
55Russia71%
56Oman71%
57New Caledonia70%
58Macedonia69%
59Argentina69%
60Trinidad & Tobago69%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)35
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio35
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
142Ivory Coast0.0
143Mauritania0.0
144Iraq0.0
145Oman0.0
146Papua New Guinea0.0
147French Polynesia0.0
148Palestine0.0
149Lesotho0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.
IT Security (2013)36
Pos.Lower is better36
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
72China1.59
73Angola1.61
74Sri Lanka1.67
75Oman1.72
76Iraq1.84
77Bangladesh1.87
78Sudan1.98
79India2.10
World Avg0.98
q=81.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #genetics #health #obesity #Oman #public_health #smoking #sociology #UK

Oman does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Oman comes in the best 20 in its immunizations take-up37. It does better than average when it comes to its alcohol consumption rate38, its adolescent birth rate19 and in its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance30. Oman does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average when it comes to its smoking rate39 (still low for Asia) and in the prevalence of overweight adults40. The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% during the last 40 years.

Alcohol Consumption (2016)38
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita38
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
19Morocco0.6
20Jordan0.7
21Senegal0.7
22Oman0.8
23Indonesia0.8
24Azerbaijan0.8
25Algeria0.9
26Malaysia0.9
World Avg6.2
q=189.

There is nothing wrong with drinking modest and sensible amounts of alcohol but fitness, physical health, mental health and long-term health all suffer as a result of medium- or heavy- drinking41 and the health risks to the baby when pregnant mothers drink42 are well-known. Aside from the effects on the individual, alcohol misuse impacts on entire economies43 via increased health service costs, policing costs and lost days' work. Worldwide, alcohol misuse is "among the top five risk factors for disease, disability and death" and is a "cause of more than 200 disease and injury conditions in individuals, most notably alcohol dependence, liver cirrhosis, cancers and injuries"44. "In 2012... 5.9% of all global deaths, were attributable to alcohol consumption"45. Deaths from chronic alcohol misuse have been rising for decades, and so has violence, abuse, vandalism and crime all associated with alcohol over-use. The aggression and crime associated with alcohol in some Western countries infringes on the human rights of those who want nothing to do with such behaviour. Many of the social effects of alcohol are psychological and cultural; i.e., people don't have to behave criminally or destructively whilst drunk - it is a culturally learned behaviour. Experiments have shown that behaviour can be controlled: Those who do not wish to behave badly whilst drunk, will not do so.

Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
23France23
24Italy24
25Qatar25
26Oman26
27Estonia27
28Austria28
29Greece29
30Nicaragua30
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Overweight Adults (2016)40
Pos.Lower is better
%40
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
152Algeria62.0
153Greece62.3
154Czechia62.3
155Oman62.6
156Argentina62.7
157Uruguay62.9
158Chile63.1
159Venezuela63.4
World Avg49.0
q=191.

About one third of the global population is overweight or obese46. Most Western countries are facing an obesity epidemic. Our cultures are having to change to compensate for widespread ill-health. It is costing our health systems a massive amount of money, and is having negative effects on national economies. The situation has persisted for a suitable length of time for our very perceptions to change; opinions on "normal weights" for people and "average sizes" for clothes has shot up47. Over 2 in 3 adults in the UK are overweight47 and this costs the NHS £5.1 billion per year48 and "costs Britain's economy £47bn a year; more than war, terrorism or armed violence"49. We are forgetting how to be healthy.

The causes are not genetic. Most people who say obesity "runs in their family" are wrong. The rate of increase in obesity is many, many times too fast to be accounted for by a change in inherited genes50. Our culture and lifestyle choices are to blame. The causes of the modern obesity epidemic are processed foods, low levels of physical exercise, over-indulgence, poor choices in food products, poor knowledge of nutrition. Most of this is made much worse by well-funded advertising campaigns by food manufacturers selling cheaper mass-produced food. Even some so-called "health foods" contain well over recommended limits of fat, salt and sugar51.

Smoking Rates (2014)39
Pos.Lower is better39
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
90Gabon 559
91Venezuela 565
92Uzbekistan 573
93Oman 577
94Malaysia 584
95Seychelles 590
96Jamaica 593
97N. Korea 610
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. Children's Health

#health #Oman #parenting #population #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)19
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100019
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
21Austria7.1
22China7.3
23Greece7.5
24Oman8.1
25Belgium8.2
26Spain8.4
27Bosnia & Herzegovina8.6
28Saudi Arabia8.8
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)37
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %37
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
13Finland98.1
14Saudi Arabia98.0
15Luxembourg98.0
16Oman98.0
17Antigua & Barbuda98.0
18Cuba97.9
19Belgium97.8
20Thailand97.8
World Avg88.3
q=194.

10. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Intellectual Endeavours (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
120Niger120
121El Salvador121
122Dominican Rep.122
123Oman123
124Chad124
125Brunei125
126Ivory Coast126
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
123Egypt123
124Burkina Faso124
125Dominican Rep.125
126Oman126
127Mozambique127
128Niger128
129Sierra Leone129
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
8Brunei8
9Moldova9
10Morocco10
11Oman11
12Tanzania12
13Cameroon13
14Singapore14
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
116Dominica116
117Saudi Arabia117
118Lesotho118
119Oman119
120Egypt120
121Colombia121
122Honduras122
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)30
Pos.Lower is better
Rank30
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
72Ukraine72
73Chile73
74Macedonia74
75Oman75
76Dominican Rep.76
77Slovenia77
78Guatemala78
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2952
2Israel4.1152
3Japan3.5852
...
93Vietnam0.1953
94Panama0.1853
95Mauritius0.1854
96Oman0.1755
97Kazakhstan0.1755
98Bolivia0.1656
99Kyrgyzstan0.1653
100Sri Lanka0.1657
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)58
Pos.Higher is better58
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
19Ireland7.0
20Belgium6.9
21UK6.9
22Oman6.9
23Iceland6.9
24S. Korea6.9
25Mexico6.8
26Brazil6.8
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
28Bahrain$37 236
29Iceland$37 065
30S. Korea$34 541
31Oman$34 402
32Italy$33 573
33New Zealand$32 870
34Spain$32 779
35Israel$31 215
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)59
Pos.Higher is better59
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
113Botswana51.7
114Honduras51.5
115Sudan51.5
116Oman51.3
117Zambia51.0
118Grenada50.9
119Tanzania50.8
120China50.7
q=180.
IQ (2006)60
Pos.Higher is better60
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
87Algeria83
88Libya83
89Tunisia83
90Oman83
91Syria83
92India82
93Bangladesh82
94Lebanon82
q=138.