The Human Truth Foundation

Jamaica

http://www.humantruth.info/jamaica.html

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#atheism #jamaica #theism

Jamaica
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index87th best
CapitalKingston
Land Area 10 830km21
LocationNorth America, The Americas, The Caribbean
GroupingsSmall Islands
Population2.9m2
Life Expectancy70.50yrs (2017)3
GNI$8 834 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesJM, JAM, 3885
Internet Domain.jm6
CurrencyDollar (JMD)7
Telephone+8

1. Overview

#jamaica #spain

The island - discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1494 - was settled by the Spanish early in the 16th century. The native Taino, who had inhabited Jamaica for centuries, were gradually exterminated and replaced by African slaves. England seized the island in 1655 and established a plantation economy based on sugar, cocoa, and coffee. The abolition of slavery in 1834 freed a quarter million slaves, many of whom became small farmers. Jamaica gradually increased its independence from Britain. In 1958 it joined other British Caribbean colonies in forming the Federation of the West Indies. Jamaica gained full independence when it withdrew from the Federation in 1962. Deteriorating economic conditions during the 1970s led to recurrent violence as rival gangs affiliated with the major political parties evolved into powerful organized crime networks involved in international drug smuggling and money laundering. Violent crime, drug trafficking, and poverty pose significant challenges to the government today. Nonetheless, many rural and resort areas remain relatively safe and contribute substantially to the economy.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverJamaica is a powerfully beautiful country, packed with extremes: experience flat beaches twinned to green mountains, electrifying Kingston and relaxed resorts, sweet reggae and slack dancehall. Jamaica, at first blush, is the Caribbean island many know best thanks to its relentless exposure - its music, dreadlocks, dancehall and beaches.

But did you know there are Chinese Jamaicans and Jewish Jamaicans and white Jamaicans who speak patois as fluently as downtown Kingston yardies? Jamaica, perhaps more than any other Caribbean nation, also keeps one foot rooted in Africa. From the evolution of African folk music into reggae, or the shifting of African spice rubs into delicious jerk, it´s rewarding to see how the Jamaican cultural story retains its original voice whilst adapting it to the setting - and of course, rhythms - of the Caribbean.

Understand the above and you can better appreciate the good, red Jamaican soil; the respect Jamaicans have for life and nature; and the meaning `One Love´ has in a place like the Kingston ghettoes. To know Jamaica, experience it. As locals say, `Rock-stone a river naah know sun hot´. That´s patois for `experience brings knowledge,´ and so much more so on an island that can express such simple proverbs so beautifully.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Jamaica National and Social Development

#economics #human_development #wealth

UN HDI (2021)11
Pos.Higher is better
Value11
1Switzerland0.962
2Norway0.961
3Iceland0.959
4Hong Kong0.952
5Australia0.951
...
107Palestine0.715
108Guyana0.714
109S. Africa0.713
110Jamaica0.709
111Samoa0.707
112Lebanon0.706
The Americas Avg0.75
World Avg0.72
q=191.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2021)11
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $11
1Liechtenstein$146 830
2Singapore$90 919
3Qatar$87 134
4Luxembourg$84 649
5Ireland$76 169
...
112Lebanon$9 526
113Bhutan$9 438
114Philippines$8 920
115Jamaica$8 834
116Guatemala$8 723
117Namibia$8 634
The Americas Avg$16 628
World Avg$20 136
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12,13
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank12,13
1Taiwan28.6
2Norway29.4
3Denmark31.2
4Sweden32.2
5Finland32.6
...
84Jordan82.4
85Kyrgyzstan82.6
86Qatar83.2
87Jamaica83.2
88Morocco84.3
89Uzbekistan84.5
The Americas Avg81.6
World Avg86.1
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Jamaica's Demographics and Migration

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Jamaica's population is predicted to fall to 2 842 000 by 2030. This country has a fertility rate of 2.28. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
4Indonesia267.7m
5Pakistan212.2m
...
134Bosnia & Herzegovina3.3m
135Mongolia3.2m
136Armenia3.0m
137Jamaica2.9m
138Albania2.9m
139Lithuania2.8m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2021)11
Pos.Higher is better
Years11
1Monaco85.9
2Hong Kong85.5
3Japan84.8
4Australia84.5
5Switzerland84.0
...
108El Salvador70.7
109Micronesia70.7
110Venezuela70.6
111Jamaica70.5
112Belize70.5
113Vanuatu70.4
World Avg71.28
q=195.
Fertility Rate (2013)14
Pos.2.0 is best14
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
4France1.99
5Turkey2.04
...
41Armenia1.74
42Kuwait2.27
43Bhutan2.27
44Jamaica2.28
45Suriname2.28
46Uzbekistan2.29
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)15
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10015
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
4Burkina Faso04.7
5Sierra Leone04.8
...
119St Lucia19.9
120Brazil19.9
121Argentina20.3
122Jamaica21.0
123Lebanon21.1
124Trinidad & Tobago21.9
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)16
Pos.
%16
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
4Liechtenstein65.1%
5Monaco54.9%
...
160Bangladesh0.9%
161Tanzania0.9%
162Mozambique0.8%
163Jamaica0.8%
164El Salvador0.7%
165Laos0.7%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)17
Pos.
%17
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
4Grenada65.5%
5St Kitts & Nevis61.1%
...
14Palau38.8%
15St Vincent & Grenadines37.7%
16Cape Verde37.6%
17Jamaica36.1%
18Armenia28.2%
19Trinidad & Tobago26.7%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #freedom #gender_equality #human_rights #Jamaica #morals #politics #prejudice #tolerance

Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance (2020)18,19
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank18,19
1Sweden9.2
2Norway14.7
3Denmark14.7
4Netherlands15.8
5New Zealand17.5
...
57Bosnia & Herzegovina63.4
58Georgia64.3
59Colombia64.4
60Jamaica64.6
61El Salvador66.9
62Seychelles67.0
The Americas Avg74.2
World Avg87.7
q=199.

Jamaica does relatively well in ensuring human rights and freedom, compared to many other countries. Jamaica comes in the best 20 in supporting press freedom20 (the best in The Americas). It does better than average for its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice21, speed of uptake of HR treaties22, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms23 and in freethought24. But, things could still be better. Christian institutions are the greatest risk to human rights, with the influence increasing even though the population is gradually shedding theistic beliefs25. Jamaica does worse than average for opposing gender inequality26, its nominal commitment to Human Rights27 and in LGBT equality28. Homosexual marriages are illegal, with consistent pressure from Christian churches preventing any movement towards tolerance25. Atheists are discriminated against, with public officials all being required to swear an oath 'before God' and other explicit Christian engagements and privileges at government level which are not given to other religions25.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Jamaica's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #Jamaica #life_expectancy #longevity #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Compared to The Americas (2020)29,30
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank29,30
1Antigua & Barbuda75.6
2Brazil82.1
3Cuba82.4
4Canada83.5
5Barbados85.1
...
27Bolivia103.4
28Uruguay103.6
29Guatemala103.8
30Jamaica106.6
31Belize107.1
32Dominican Rep.109.4
33Haiti111.4
The Americas Avg96.2
q=35.
Health (2020)29,30
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank29,30
1Monaco13.0
2Hong Kong18.3
3Maldives41.0
4Singapore42.6
5Japan51.0
...
141Timor-Leste (E. Timor)105.6
142Lesotho106.3
143Botswana106.5
144Jamaica106.6
145Belize107.1
146Belarus107.1
147Ukraine107.3
World Avg93.5
q=196.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Monaco, Hong Kong and The Maldives29. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are The Marshall Islands, S. Sudan and Palau29.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and The Mediterranean29, whereas the worst are Micronesia, Australasia and Africa29.

For more, see:

Health:

Jamaica has some poor policies and cultural issues which cause some public health problems. Jamaica does better than average in terms of its alcohol consumption rate31 and in its fertility rate14. When it comes to most other metrics, Jamaica does not do well. It does worse than average in terms of its smoking rate32, its average life expectancy11, its immunizations take-up33 and in its adolescent birth rate26. And finally, it falls into the worst-performing 20 in terms of its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance34. The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% between 1976 and 2016.

Life Expectancy (2021)11
Pos.Higher is better
Years11
1Monaco85.9
2Hong Kong85.5
3Japan84.8
4Australia84.5
5Switzerland84.0
...
108El Salvador70.7
109Micronesia70.7
110Venezuela70.6
111Jamaica70.5
112Belize70.5
113Vanuatu70.4
The Americas Avg72.58
World Avg71.28
q=195.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)31
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita31
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
4Mauritania0.0
5Somalia0.0
...
67UAE3.8
68N. Korea3.9
69Honduras4.0
70Jamaica4.2
71Sri Lanka4.3
72Bahamas4.4
The Americas Avg6.9
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)14
Pos.2.0 is best14
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
4France1.99
5Turkey2.04
...
41Armenia1.74
42Kuwait2.27
43Bhutan2.27
44Jamaica2.28
45Suriname2.28
46Uzbekistan2.29
The Americas Avg2.29
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)32
Pos.Higher is worse32
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
179Macedonia2 732
178Russia2 690
...
99Cambodia 645
98Fiji 618
97N. Korea 610
96Jamaica 593
95Seychelles 590
94Malaysia 584
The Americas Avg 457
World Avg 819
q=182.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)34
Pos.Lower is better
Rank34
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
4UK4
5Norway5
...
144Marshall Islands144
145Botswana145
146Samoa146
147Jamaica147
148Togo148
149Tonga149
The Americas Avg94.3
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)35
Pos.Lower is better
%35
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
4Ethiopia20.9
5Nepal21.0
...
96St Vincent & Grenadines55.0
97Solomon Islands55.0
98Denmark55.4
99Jamaica55.5
100Mongolia55.6
101Honduras55.8
The Americas Avg57.4
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)26
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100026
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
4Hong Kong3.2
5Slovenia3.8
...
120Paraguay57.4
121Ethiopia58.4
122Palestine58.6
123Jamaica59.7
124Azerbaijan59.8
125Yemen61.5
The Americas Avg56.6
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)33
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %33
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
4Niue98.8
5Mongolia98.7
...
114Moldova91.5
115Iceland91.5
116Trinidad & Tobago91.4
117Jamaica90.9
118Burkina Faso90.6
119Nepal90.1
The Americas Avg91.3
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Jamaica's Modernity and Learning

#education #intelligence #modernity #technology #the_internet

Compared to The Americas (2020)19
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank19
1Canada21.6
2USA29.3
3Argentina43.8
4Chile51.6
5Barbados54.2
...
29Greenland90.0
30Bolivia90.1
31St Vincent & Grenadines90.3
32Jamaica97.8
33St Lucia97.8
34Paraguay104.4
35El Salvador111.1
The Americas Avg81.7
q=41.
Modernity and Learning (2020)19
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank19
1Finland8.4
2Taiwan10.0
3Switzerland15.1
4Estonia15.8
5Denmark16.0
...
128Ghana96.7
129Libya97.0
130Botswana97.7
131Jamaica97.8
132St Lucia97.8
133Pakistan97.9
134Nauru99.0
World Avg83.2
q=205.

Modernity and Education:

Secondary Education (2018)36
Pos.Higher is better36
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
4Canada100.0%
5Finland100.0%
...
81Qatar67.5%
82Mauritius66.9%
83Oman66.4%
84Jamaica66.3%
85Egypt65.3%
86Argentina64.8%
The Americas Avg63.0%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2021)37
Pos.Higher is better
Years37
1Australia21.1
2New Zealand20.3
3Greece20.0
4Belgium19.6
5Sweden19.4
...
93S. Africa13.6
94Macedonia13.6
95Azerbaijan13.5
96Jamaica13.4
97Sao Tome & Principe13.4
98Palestine13.4
The Americas Avg14.2
World Avg13.5
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)34
Pos.Lower is better
Rank34
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
4Denmark4
5UK5
...
74Chile74
75Argentina75
76Costa Rica76
77Jamaica77
78Colombia78
79Liberia79
The Americas Avg99.8
World Avg82.0
q=163.
IQ (2006)38
Pos.Higher is better38
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
4Japan105
5Taiwan105
...
107Kenya72
108S. Africa72
109Zambia71
110Jamaica71
111Ghana71
112Namibia70
The Americas Avg85.3
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)39
Pos.Higher is better39
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
4Bermuda97%
5Andorra97%
...
111Belize45%
112Ukraine44%
113Philippines44%
114Jamaica43%
115Ecuador43%
116Thailand43%
The Americas Avg56.4%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)40
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio40
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
4USA35.0
5Greece33.5
...
170St Vincent & Grenadines0.0
171Montenegro0.0
172Libya0.0
173Jamaica0.0
174Fiji0.0
175Jordan0.0
The Americas Avg3.36
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

On the Corruption Index, Jamaica scored on average 38.8 over the 2012-2016 period. Over the 10 years since then, it improved by 5.2 points.

World Giving Index (2013-2021)41
Pos.Lower is better41
1Myanmar (Burma)2.7
2New Zealand4.0
3USA4.7
4Australia4.9
5Indonesia9.0
...
37Dominican Rep.36.7
38Sierra Leone37.4
39Zambia37.4
40Jamaica38.5
41Switzerland38.5
42Sweden38.9
The Americas Avg58.4
World Avg67.9
q=160.
Corruption (2022)42
Pos.Higher is better
Points42
1Denmark90.0
2Finland87.0
3New Zealand87.0
4Norway84.0
5Singapore83.0
...
66Sao Tome & Principe45.0
67Montenegro45.0
68Cuba45.0
69Jamaica44.0
70Oman44.0
71Bahrain44.0
The Americas Avg42.97
World Avg42.98
q=180.
Happiness (2018)43
Pos.Higher is better43
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
4Iceland7.5
5Switzerland7.5
...
53Latvia5.9
54Japan5.9
55Mauritius5.9
56Jamaica5.9
57S. Korea5.9
58Northern Cyprus5.8
The Americas Avg6.05
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)34
Pos.Lower is better
Rank34
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
4Switzerland4
5Sweden5
...
83Guatemala83
84Cape Verde84
85Morocco85
86Jamaica86
87Senegal87
88Indonesia88
The Americas Avg80.2
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)34
Pos.Lower is better
Rank34
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
4Netherlands4
5Switzerland5
...
143Tanzania143
144St Vincent & Grenadines144
145Samoa145
146Jamaica146
147Syria147
148Iran148
The Americas Avg100.5
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2021)44
Pos.Lower is better44
1Iceland1.10
2New Zealand1.25
3Denmark1.26
4Portugal1.27
5Slovenia1.32
...
71Zambia1.96
72Bosnia & Herzegovina1.97
73Oman1.98
74Jamaica1.99
75Paraguay2.00
76Kyrgyzstan2.00
The Americas Avg2.13
World Avg2.08
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)34
Pos.Lower is better
Rank34
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
4Egypt4
5Nigeria5
...
71Spain71
72USA72
73Cyprus73
74Jamaica74
75Guyana75
76Fiji76
The Americas Avg82.3
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)34
Pos.Lower is better
Rank34
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
4Sweden4
5Malta5
...
83Sierra Leone83
84Israel84
85Tanzania85
86Jamaica86
87Nicaragua87
88Niger88
The Americas Avg91.5
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)45
Pos.Lower is better
Score45
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
4Equatorial Guinea0.00
5Cambodia0.00
...
41Cyprus0.42
42Lithuania0.46
43Sierra Leone0.46
44Jamaica0.47
45Poland0.48
46Gabon0.55
The Americas Avg2.16
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #deforestation #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)46
Pos.Higher is better
%46
1Iceland+205.6
2Bahrain+144.4
3Uruguay+131.3
4Kuwait+81.2
5Dominican Rep.+79.5
...
111Albania-02.2
112Sierra Leone-02.4
113Trinidad & Tobago-02.6
114Jamaica-02.7
115Australia-02.9
116Kazakhstan-03.3
The Americas Avg-00.2
World Avg+02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)47
Pos.Higher is better47
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
4Malta80.9
5Sweden80.5
...
75Malaysia59.2
76Antigua & Barbuda59.2
77UAE58.9
78Jamaica58.6
79Namibia58.5
80Iran58.2
The Americas Avg58.8
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)48
Pos.Higher is better48
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
4Colombia17.54
5Ireland17.54
...
66Cameroon08.33
67Australia08.20
68UAE08.13
69Jamaica08.06
70Senegal08.06
71Malaysia08.00
The Americas Avg10.78
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
4Vanuatu1993 Dec 29
5Papua New Guinea1993 Dec 29
...
106Equatorial Guinea1995 Mar 06
107Sierra Leone1995 Mar 12
108Lebanon1995 Mar 15
109Jamaica1995 Apr 06
110Lesotho1995 Apr 10
111Panama1995 Apr 17
The Americas Avg1899 Dec 30
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #poverty #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)49
Pos.Higher is worse49
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
181Somalia38.90
180Nigeria37.10
...
83St Lucia10.60
82Mexico10.50
81Tonga10.40
80Jamaica10.00
79Samoa10.00
78Moldova9.60
The Americas Avg12.03
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Multidimensional Poverty (2018)50
Pos.Lower is better
Severity50
1Armenia.001
2Ukraine.001
3Serbia.001
4Turkmenistan.001
5Jordan.002
...
25Brazil.01651
26Belize.017
27Ecuador.018
28Jamaica.018
29Paraguay.019
30Vietnam.019
The Americas Avg.045
World Avg.154
q=101.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#atheism #belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #Jamaica #judaism #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)52
Pos.Higher is better
%52
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
4Czechia61
5Estonia49
...
62Lebanon3
63Congo, (Brazzaville)3
64Poland3
65Jamaica3
66India3
67Angola2
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below53:

Christian77.2%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion4.5%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated17.2%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Protestant 62.5% (Seventh-Day Adventist 10.8%, Pentecostal 9.5%, Other Church of God 8.3%, Baptist 7.2%, New Testament Church of God 6.3%, Church of God in Jamaica 4.8%, Church of God of Prophecy 4.3%, Anglican 3.6%, other Christian 7.7%), Roman Catholic 2.6%, other or unspecified 14.2%, none 20.9%, (2001 census)54.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: Jamaica's 19th-century blasphemy law was removed in 2013, putting some historical prejudice to bed25. Although Jamaica's Constitution protects freedom of religion (Section 17)25, it causes discrimination against the non-religious and against atheists; for example, public officials must all swear an oath to God25, which therefore makes it illegal for atheists to take up those jobs. Government activity includes explicit Christian engagements with no opening for other faiths and no consideration for those who have no religion25.

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