The Human Truth Foundation

Montenegro (Republic of Montenegro)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#charity #economics #happiness #homosexuality #montenegro #morals #research #science #the_environment

Montenegro
Republic of Montenegro
StatusIndependent State
CapitalPodgorica
Land Area 13 450km21
LocationEurope, Mediterranean, The Balkans
Population0.6m (2011)2
Life Expectancy76.40yrs (2017)3
GNI$15 410 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesME, MNE, 4995
Internet Domain.me, .yu6
CurrencyEuro (EUR)7
Telephone+3828

1. Overview

#croatia #switzerland

The use of the name Crna Gora (Montenegro) began in the 13th century in reference to a highland region in the Serbian province of Zeta. The later medieval state of Zeta maintained its existence until 1496 when Montenegro finally fell under Ottoman rule. Over subsequent centuries, Montenegro, while a part of the Ottoman Empire, was able to maintain a level of autonomy. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro was a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it was transformed into a secular principality. Montenegro was recognized as an independent sovereign principality at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. After World War I, during which Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, first as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, in a looser State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia barely exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally restore its independence on 3 June 2006.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverMontenegro, Crna Gora, Black Mountain: the very name conjures up images of romance and drama – and this fascinating land doesn´t disappoint on either front. Imagine a place with sapphire beaches as spectacular as Croatia´s, rugged peaks as dramatic as Switzerland´s, canyons nearly as deep as Colorado´s, palazzos as elegant as Venice´s and towns as old as Greece´s and then wrap it up in a Mediterranean climate and squish it into an area two-thirds the size of Wales and you start to get a picture of Montenegro.

There´s not a lot of it – barely 100km from tip to toe – but Montenegro´s coast is quite extraordinary. Mountains jut sharply from crystal-clear waters in such a way that the word `looming´ is unavoidable. As if that wasn´t picturesque enough, ancient walled towns cling to the rocks and dip their feet in the water like they´re the ones on holiday.

But when the beaches fill up with Eastern European sunseekers, intrepid travellers can easily sidestep the hordes in the rugged mountains of Durmitor and Prokletije, the primeval forest of Biogradska Gora or in the many towns and villages where ordinary Montenegrins go about their daily lives.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Montenegro National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
45Croatia45
46Argentina45
47Bahrain47
48Montenegro48
49Russia49
50Romania50
51Kuwait51
52Belarus52
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
12
Pos.Higher is better
Points12
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
76Seychelles55.4
77Peru55.2
78Georgia55.1
79Montenegro54.9
80Armenia54.6
81Guatemala54.6
82Cuba54.6
83Turkmenistan54.5
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #Montenegro #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)13
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
139Ireland29.2
140Russia29.5
141Georgia29.7
142Montenegro30.0
143Belarus30.3
144Ukraine30.8
145Australia31.3
146Slovakia31.6
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
185Qatar0.7
186Nigeria0.6
187Maldives0.6
188China0.6
189Japan0.6
190Oman0.5
191Madagascar0.4
192Montenegro0.0
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
53Luxembourg1.67
54Turkmenistan2.33
55Trinidad & Tobago1.63
56Montenegro1.63
57S. Africa2.39
58Iran1.60
59Venezuela2.41
60Ecuador2.41
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)14
Pos.
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
67Ghana7.6
68Suriname7.5
69Italy7.4
70Montenegro6.8
71Burkina Faso6.4
72Macedonia6.3
73Namibia6.3
74St Lucia5.9
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)16
Pos.Higher is better
Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
52Bosnia & Herzegovina76.63
53Argentina76.46
54Slovakia76.41
55Montenegro76.40
56Antigua & Barbuda76.24
57Ecuador76.12
58China75.96
59Vietnam75.94
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
160Guyana0.8m
161Bhutan0.8m
162Equatorial Guinea0.7m
163Montenegro0.6m
164Solomon Islands0.6m
165Suriname0.5m
166Luxembourg0.5m
167Cape Verde0.5m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Montenegro's population is predicted to fall to 633 000 by 2030. Developed countries with falling populations face a pension's crises, whereby an incresingly ageing population must be cared for by fewer and fewer workers. Economic stability can be maintained by increasing foreign workers from younger countries. This country has a fertility rate of 1.63. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #Montenegro #peace #politics #slavery

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
40Slovenia27
41Austria28
42Latvia28
43Montenegro29
44Spain29
45Venezuela30
46Moldova30
47Russia30
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)19
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score19
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
67Kuwait44.2
68Italy43.8
69S. Africa43.6
70Montenegro43.2
71Sao Tome & Principe42.8
72Macedonia42.2
73Solomon Islands42.0
74Greece41.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)20
Pos.Lower is better20
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
78Senegal1.99
79Peru2.00
80Nepal2.00
81Montenegro2.01
82Nicaragua2.01
83Brazil2.02
84Bolivia2.02
85Ecuador2.03
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)21
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties21
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
17Belgium22
18Austria22
19Brazil21
20Montenegro21
21Guatemala21
22Mali21
23Azerbaijan21
24Bosnia & Herzegovina21
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)22
Pos.Lower is better
Rank22
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
42Uruguay42
43Georgia43
44Croatia44
45Montenegro44
46Panama46
47Mongolia47
48Bahamas48
49Greece48
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)23
Pos.Lower is better23
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
108Bolivia3280
109Qatar3286
110Panama3295
111Montenegro3297
112Israel3297
113UAE3349
114Nigeria3411
115Macedonia3427
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)24
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims24
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
109Gambia0.58
110Lithuania0.58
111Ivory Coast0.59
112Montenegro0.59
113Nepal0.60
114Croatia0.60
115Ethiopia0.61
116India0.61
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory25. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends26. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life27. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves28.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery29. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity30. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.31. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi24, Eritrea24, Indonesia32) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery33.

5. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #Montenegro #women

Gender Inequality (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better34
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
30Poland0.14
31Croatia0.14
32Belarus0.14
33Montenegro0.16
34New Zealand0.16
35Bosnia & Herzegovina0.16
36Macedonia0.16
37China0.16
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Montenegro is on the way towards ending gender inequality.

See:

6. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Religiosity (2009)35
Pos.Lower is better
%35
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
32Chile70
33Croatia70
34Singapore70
35Montenegro71
36Greece71
37Italy72
38Moldova72
39Kyrgyzstan72
World Avg75.1
q=114.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below36:

Christian78.1%
Muslim18.7%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated3.2%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 97.2% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 71% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Orthodox 74.2%, Muslim 17.7%, Catholic 3.5%, other 0.6%, unspecified 3%, atheist 1% (2003 census)37.

Links:

7. The Internet

#internet #Montenegro #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)38
Pos.Higher is better38
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
72French Polynesia64%
73Albania63%
74Palestine63%
75Montenegro62%
76Bosnia & Herzegovina62%
77Azerbaijan61%
78Belarus61%
79St Vincent & Grenadines60%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)39
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio39
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
168Dominica0.0
169Cuba0.0
170St Vincent & Grenadines0.0
171Montenegro0.0
172Libya0.0
173Jamaica0.0
174Fiji0.0
175Jordan0.0
World Avg3.82
q=176.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

8. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #health #Montenegro #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)34
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100034
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
37Algeria10.6
38Qatar10.7
39Lithuania11.0
40Montenegro12.2
41Lebanon12.4
42Estonia13.1
43Poland13.4
44Bahrain13.5
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)40
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita40
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
135Cameroon8.4
136Belize8.5
137Brazil8.7
138Montenegro8.7
139Sierra Leone8.7
140Paraguay8.8
141Venezuela8.9
142USA9.2
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
131Afghanistan131
132Suriname132
133Grenada133
134Montenegro134
135Iraq135
136Madagascar136
137Congo, (Brazzaville)137
138Albania138
World Avg82.0
q=163.

Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)42
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %42
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
117Jamaica90.9
118Burkina Faso90.6
119Nepal90.1
120Montenegro89.9
121Zimbabwe89.7
122Senegal89.5
123Peru89.3
124Ireland89.2
World Avg88.3
q=194.
Smoking Rates (2014)43
Pos.Lower is better43
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
175Luxembourg2 284
176Belgium2 353
177Slovenia2 637
178Russia2 690
179Macedonia2 732
180Lebanon3 023
181Belarus3 831
182Montenegro4 125
World Avg 819
q=182.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
44
Pos.Lower is better44
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
140Togo118
141Morocco119
142Tunisia121
143Montenegro121.75
144Bulgaria122
145Rwanda122.75
146Serbia125
q=156.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
45Morocco45
46Belarus46
47Moldova47
48Montenegro48
49Norway49
50Fiji50
51Dominica51
q=163.
Creativity and Culture (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
58Philippines58
59Uruguay59
60Samoa60
61Montenegro61
62Ukraine62
63Israel63
64Mexico64
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
125Burundi125
126Barbados126
127Chad127
128Montenegro128
129Dominican Rep.129
130Papua New Guinea130
131Syria131
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
38Liberia38
39Turkey39
40Malaysia40
41Montenegro41
42Iceland42
43Hungary43
44Kenya44
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)41
Pos.Lower is better
Rank41
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
68Panama68
69New Zealand69
70Tunisia70
71Montenegro71
72Ukraine72
73Chile73
74Macedonia74
q=163.
Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1Korea, S.4.29
2Israel4.11
3Japan3.58
...
69Thailand0.39
70Tanzania0.38
71Romania0.38
72Montenegro0.38
73Chile0.38
74Ghana0.38
75Moldova0.35
76Ecuador0.34
q=126.
Life Satisfaction (2011)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
61Ghana5.6
62Peru5.6
63Croatia5.6
64Montenegro5.5
65Hong Kong5.5
66Kazakhstan5.5
67Estonia5.5
68Mauritius5.5
q=150.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)16
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
69Bulgaria$16 261
70Suriname$16 018
71Belarus$15 629
72Montenegro$15 410
73Venezuela$15 129
74Barbados$14 952
75Botswana$14 663
76Thailand$14 519
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
62Jordan62.2
63Armenia62.1
64Peru61.9
65Montenegro61.3
66Egypt61.2
67Lebanon61.1
68Macedonia61.1
69Brazil60.7
q=180.
Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
40Slovenia27
41Austria28
42Latvia28
43Montenegro29
44Spain29
45Venezuela30
46Moldova30
47Russia30
q=101.
LGBT Equality (2017)47
Pos.Higher is better
Score47
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
46Slovakia39
47Romania39
48San Marino35
49Montenegro35
50Guatemala35
51Japan35
52Bosnia & Herzegovina35
53Georgia35
q=196.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 21
http://www.humantruth.info/montenegro.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #antisemitism #buddhism #burundi #charity #christianity #corruption #croatia #demographics #economics #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #happiness #health #hinduism #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #immigration #indonesia #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #mass_media #misogyny #Montenegro #morals #overpopulation #parenting #peace #politics #population #religion #research #science #slavery #smoking #switzerland #the_environment #the_internet #vaccines #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

The Good Country Index. Published by The Good Country Inc., New York, USA. Website: goodcountry.org. The Good Country Index gauges how well countries are doing in helping international development. Edition 1.2 (2017) has 35 criteria.

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Charities Aid Foundation
World Giving Index. On www.cafonline.org.

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Aug 22.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Gallup
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mj.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Montenegro".^
  11. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  13. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  18. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  19. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  20. ^
  21. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  22. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^
  23. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  24. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  25. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  26. McCall (1979). P180.^
  27. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  28. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  29. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  30. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  31. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  32. Klein (2004) .^
  33. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  34. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  35. Gallup (2009) .^
  36. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  37. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  38. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  39. % of internet access via native IPv6 compared to IPv4. As of 2017 Jun 20, from http://www.cidr-report.org. Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  40. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  41. The Good Country Index (2017) .^^
  42. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  43. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  44. Charities Aid Foundation. Average ranking across years 2013-2016. Lower is better.^
  45. UN (2013). Table 9. Higher is better. Table 9. The UN's data is the latest available from a range of data from 2007-2011.^
  46. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^
  47. Sources:^

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