The Human Truth Foundation

Brazil (Federative Republic of Brazil)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#pentecostalism

Brazil
Federative Republic of Brazil
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index44th best
CapitalBrasilia
Land Area8 459 420km21
LocationSouth America, The Americas
Population209.5m2
Life Expectancy74.75yrs (2017)3
GNI$14 145 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesBR, BRA, 765
Internet Domain.br6
CurrencyReal (BRL)7
Telephone+558

1. Overview

#brazil #portugal

Following more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool, it is today South America's leading economic power and a regional leader, one of the first in the area to begin an economic recovery. Highly unequal income distribution and crime remain pressing problems.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverTropical islands, lush rainforests, marvelous cities and picture-perfect beaches set the scene for the great Brazilian adventure. One of the world´s most captivating places, Brazil is a country of powdery white-sand beaches, verdant rainforests and wild, rhythm-filled metropolises. Brazil´s attractions extend from frozen-in-time colonial towns to otherworldly landscapes of red-rock canyons, thundering waterfalls and coral-fringed tropical islands. Add to that Brazil´s biodiversity: legendary in scope, its diverse ecosystems boast the greatest collection of plant and animal species found on earth. There are countless places where you can spot iconic species in Brazil, including toucans, scarlet macaws, howler monkeys, capybara, pink dolphins and sea turtles.

Brazil offers big adventures for travel. There´s horseback riding and wildlife watching in the Pantanal, kayaking flooded forests in the Amazon, ascending rocky cliff tops to panoramic views, whale watching off the coast, surfing stellar

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Brazil National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
76Lebanon76
77Mexico77
78Azerbaijan78
79Brazil79
80Grenada79
81Bosnia & Herzegovina81
82Macedonia82
83Algeria83
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
75Botswana$14 663
76Thailand$14 519
77Libya$14 303
78Brazil$14 145
79Turkmenistan$14 026
80Costa Rica$14 006
81Palau$13 771
82Algeria$13 533
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Norway30.8
2Denmark31.8
3Sweden33.9
...
41Lithuania68.0
42Bulgaria69.0
43Mauritius69.0
44Brazil69.8
45Monaco69.9
46Israel70.9
47Argentina71.0
48Liechtenstein71.2
World Avg88.0
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Brazil's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Brazil's population is predicted to rise to 220.49 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.80. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
4Indonesia267.7m
5Pakistan212.2m
6Brazil209.5m
7Nigeria195.9m
8Bangladesh161.4m
9Russia145.7m
10Japan127.2m
11Mexico126.2m
12Ethiopia109.2m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
75Armenia74.89
76Romania74.84
77Peru74.81
78Brazil74.75
79Thailand74.62
80Mauritius74.60
81Kuwait74.55
82Saudi Arabia74.44
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
31Costa Rica1.81
32Qatar2.20
33Morocco2.20
34Brazil1.80
35Guyana2.21
36Netherlands1.79
37Vietnam1.77
38Lebanon1.77
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)16
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10016
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
117St Vincent & Grenadines19.7
118Seychelles19.8
119St Lucia19.9
120Brazil19.9
121Argentina20.3
122Jamaica21.0
123Lebanon21.1
124Trinidad & Tobago21.9
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)17
Pos.
%17
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
177India0.4%
178Afghanistan0.4%
179Haiti0.4%
180Brazil0.4%
181Eritrea0.3%
182Somalia0.3%
183Lesotho0.3%
184Peru0.3%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
180Namibia0.7%
181Ethiopia0.7%
182Tanzania0.7%
183Brazil0.7%
184Saudi Arabia0.7%
185Qatar0.7%
186Nigeria0.6%
187Maldives0.6%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#Brazil #equality #freedom #human_rights #morals #politics #prejudice #tolerance

Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance (2020)19,20
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank19,20
1Sweden9.9
2Denmark14.7
3Norway15.5
...
38Latvia52.6
39Lithuania53.2
40Switzerland53.4
41Brazil54.2
42Kosovo54.2
43Bolivia54.9
44Hungary55.6
45Peru55.8
q=199.

Brazil does relatively well in ensuring human rights and freedom, compared to many other countries. Brazil comes in the best 20 in LGBT equality21 (the best in The Americas) despite the current reign of self-proclaimed homophobic president Jair Bolsonaro22, its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice23 (amongst the best in The Americas) and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights24. It does better than average in speed of uptake of HR treaties25 and in commentary in Human Rights Watch reports26 (but bad for The Americas). Brazil does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms27, opposing gender inequality28, supporting press freedom29 and in freethought30.

Brazil was on the right track regarding religious freedom - persecution was rare31,32. But the election of illiberal Jair Bolsonaro in 2018 meant "Brazil is [now] governed by a Christian-extreme-right authoritarian [with Bolsonaro's] speeches filled with openly and harsh misogynistic, racist, anti-LGBTI+ and anti-democratic views"33. The police are involved in far too many unlawful killings and the mistreatment of detainees also seems to be increasing34.

Women were already poorly protected and abortion is far too heavily restricted; as a result, many women and girls seek out illegal and unregulated abortion clinics - of the estimated 416,000 abortions in 2015, fewer than 1,700 were legal. In 2016 a congressional committee moved to prohibit abortion under any circumstances34.

Progress is always going to be difficult in a country where the rich and the poor experience utterly different lives: the richest 1% hold 28% of the country's entire income35.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Brazil's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #Brazil #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #mental_health #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Health (2020)36,37
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank36,37
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
50Israel80.8
51UK80.9
52Hungary81.0
53Brazil81.0
54Macedonia81.5
55Malta81.6
56Poland82.5
57Albania82.8
58Croatia82.9
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives36. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea36.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe36, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia36.

For more, see:

Health:

Brazil does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Brazil does better than average when it comes to its suicide rate38, its immunizations take-up39, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance40, its fertility rate15, its average life expectancy12 and in its smoking rate41 (but bad for The Americas). Brazil does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in its alcohol consumption rate42 and in its adolescent birth rate28. The number of overweight adults has increased by 14% during the past 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
75Armenia74.89
76Romania74.84
77Peru74.81
78Brazil74.75
79Thailand74.62
80Mauritius74.60
81Kuwait74.55
82Saudi Arabia74.44
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)42
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita42
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
113Norway7.5
114Kazakhstan7.7
115Congo, (Brazzaville)7.8
116Brazil7.8
117Panama7.9
118Japan8.0
119Montenegro8.0
120Malta8.1
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)15
Pos.2.0 is best15
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
31Costa Rica1.81
32Qatar2.20
33Morocco2.20
34Brazil1.80
35Guyana2.21
36Netherlands1.79
37Vietnam1.77
38Lebanon1.77
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)41
Pos.Higher is worse41
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
85Cape Verde 515
84Pakistan 511
83Senegal 504
82Brazil 492
81Honduras 489
80Angola 489
79Nicaragua 488
78Ivory Coast 477
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)38
Pos.
Per 100k38
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
28Seychelles8.9
29Cyprus9.1
30Uzbekistan9.3
31Brazil9.7
32Colombia9.9
33Panama10.9
34Nicaragua11.6
35Costa Rica12.1
World Avg20.93
q=91.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
37Thailand37
38Pakistan38
39Portugal39
40Brazil40
41Iceland41
42El Salvador42
43Russia43
44Turkey44
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)43
Pos.Lower is better
%43
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
106Slovenia56.1
107Slovakia56.2
108Sweden56.4
109Brazil56.5
110Germany56.8
111Vanuatu57.1
112Serbia57.1
113Russia57.1
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)28
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100028
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
132S. Sudan65.9
133Belize65.9
134Ghana66.8
135Brazil67.0
136Comoros68.3
137Swaziland70.4
138Bolivia70.8
139Nepal71.9
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)39
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %39
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
35Guyana97.0
36Slovakia97.0
37Kyrgyzstan96.7
38Brazil96.7
39Jordan96.6
40Brunei96.6
41Spain96.5
42Poland96.5
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Brazil's Modernity and Learning

#education #english #intelligence #it_security #maths #modernity #politics #religion #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)44
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank44
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
42Chile43.3
43S. Africa43.7
44Romania44.6
45Brazil45.1
46Malaysia45.6
47Belarus46.0
48Malta46.5
49Serbia46.6
50Cyprus47.1
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2945
2Israel4.1145
3Japan3.5845
...
29Spain1.2245
30Russia1.1945
31New Zealand1.1746
32Brazil1.1547
33Malaysia1.1347
34Turkey1.0145
35Lithuania0.9548
36Poland0.9445
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)49
Pos.Higher is better49
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
92Suriname60.5%
93Mexico59.7%
94Bahrain59.6%
95Brazil59.5%
96Bolivia58.8%
97Zimbabwe58.7%
98Gabon57.6%
99Libya57.4%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)50
Pos.Higher is better
Years50
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
40France15.5
41Seychelles15.5
42Georgia15.4
43Brazil15.4
44Costa Rica15.4
45Belarus15.4
46Kazakhstan15.3
47Bahrain15.3
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
106Madagascar106
107Thailand107
108Yemen108
109Brazil109
110Nicaragua110
111Togo111
112Belize112
113Algeria113
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Maths, Science & Reading (2015)51
Pos.Higher is better
Score51
1Singapore1655
2Hong Kong1598
3Japan1586
...
60Georgia1216
61Jordan1197
62Indonesia1186
63Brazil1185
64Peru1182
65Lebanon1129
66Tunisia1114
67Macedonia1107
World Avg1389
q=70.
Religiosity (2009)52
Pos.Lower is better
%52
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
60Tajikistan85
61Malta86
62Dominican Rep.87
63Brazil87
64Lebanon87
65Ivory Coast88
66Guatemala88
67Zimbabwe88
World Avg75.1
q=114.
IQ (2006)53
Pos.Higher is better53
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
60Laos89
61Ecuador88
62Mexico88
63Brazil87
64Bolivia87
65Iraq87
66Azerbaijan87
67Indonesia87
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)54
Pos.Higher is better54
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
61Malaysia69%
62Greenland67%
63Portugal67%
64Brazil66%
65St Kitts & Nevis66%
66Dominica66%
67Italy66%
68Uruguay65%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
Freedom On The Internet (2012)55
Pos.Lower is better55
1Estonia10
2USA12
3Germany15
...
9S. Africa26
10Argentina26
11Ukraine27
12Brazil27
13Kenya29
14Georgia30
15Nigeria33
16S. Korea34
World Avg46.7
q=47.
IT Security (2013)56
Pos.Lower is better56
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
42Malaysia0.96
43Canada0.96
44Tajikistan1.01
45Brazil1.02
46Indonesia1.05
47British Virgin Islands1.08
48Mali1.12
49France1.13
World Avg0.98
q=81.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)57
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio57
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
19Australia14.6
20Trinidad & Tobago14.5
21Finland14.1
22Brazil13.9
23Netherlands10.5
24Czechia10.1
25New Zealand9.7
26Romania8.7
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

World Giving Index (2013-2021)58
Pos.Lower is better58
1Myanmar (Burma)2.7
2New Zealand4.0
3USA4.7
...
69Cameroon59.0
70S. Sudan59.3
71Colombia59.3
72Brazil62.7
73Kosovo63.4
74Tanzania63.9
75Sudan64.0
76Uruguay64.6
World Avg67.9
q=160.
Corruption (2012-2016)59
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score59
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
74Greece41.8
75Senegal41.8
76Bulgaria41.4
77Brazil41.2
78Serbia40.8
79Tunisia40.2
80Bosnia & Herzegovina40.0
81Jamaica38.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)60
Pos.Higher is better60
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
25Chile6.5
26Taiwan6.4
27Panama6.4
28Brazil6.4
29Argentina6.4
30Guatemala6.4
31Uruguay6.4
32Qatar6.4
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
116Ivory Coast116
117Panama117
118Colombia118
119Brazil119
120Honduras120
121Tanzania121
122Zimbabwe122
123Egypt123
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
156Venezuela156
157Bahrain157
158Mauritania158
159Brunei159
160Algeria160
161Papua New Guinea161
162Brazil162
163Equatorial Guinea163
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2021)61
Pos.Lower is better61
1Iceland1.10
2New Zealand1.25
3Denmark1.26
...
125Saudi Arabia2.38
126Egypt2.40
127Philippines2.42
128Brazil2.43
129Burundi2.43
130Nicaragua2.45
131Myanmar (Burma)2.46
132Chad2.49
World Avg2.08
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
58Romania58
59Vietnam59
60Malawi60
61Brazil61
62Grenada62
63Kenya63
64Denmark64
65Austria65
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)40
Pos.Lower is better
Rank40
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
47Japan47
48Czechia48
49Argentina49
50Brazil50
51Dominican Rep.51
52Slovakia52
53UAE53
54Macedonia54
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)62
Pos.Lower is better
Score62
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
75Ecuador2.46
76Kuwait2.49
77Malaysia2.50
78Brazil2.53
79Ivory Coast2.60
80Australia2.65
81Congo, (Brazzaville)2.69
82Ireland2.69
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #deforestation #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)63
Pos.Higher is better
%63
1Iceland+205.6
2Bahrain+144.4
3Uruguay+131.3
...
137Madagascar-08.9
138Colombia-09.2
139Sri Lanka-09.4
140Brazil-09.7
141Venezuela-10.3
142Guinea-Bissau-11.0
143Senegal-11.5
144Guinea-12.4
World Avg+02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)64
Pos.Higher is better64
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
66Egypt61.2
67Lebanon61.1
68Macedonia61.1
69Brazil60.7
70Sri Lanka60.6
71Equatorial Guinea60.4
72Mexico59.7
73Dominica59.4
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)65
Pos.Higher is better65
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
...
44Lithuania10.42
45Norway10.42
46Japan10.20
47Brazil10.10
48Algeria10.00
49Macedonia10.00
50Croatia10.00
51France09.90
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
47India1994 May 19
48Paraguay1994 May 25
49Hungary1994 May 25
50Brazil1994 May 29
51Cuba1994 Jun 06
52Namibia1997 Aug 14
53Sri Lanka1994 Jun 21
54Ethiopia1994 Jul 04
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)66
Pos.Higher is better
%66
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
4Trinidad & Tobago74.5%
5Costa Rica74.2%
6Cyprus71.0%
7Guatemala70.9%
8Philippines70.8%
9S. Korea70.7%
10Colombia70.3%
11Bolivia69.3%
12Paraguay68.9%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

11.1. The Destruction of the Amazon Rainforest 67

#brazil #environmentalism #farming

The Amazon rainforest, in Brazil, hosts 15% of Earth's biodiversity, 40% of our tropical forests, and 'stores tens of billions of tonnes of carbon'68. In the last 40 years, we have destroyed 20% of it, generally for cattle farmers and plantations69. Soya-bean producers too, as a result of a surge in demand for things like chicken feed70, since the 1990s71,69. Before this period, it took us 450 years to clear the same amount69. One third of all species on Earth only live in the Amazon69, and we have directly caused the extinction of thousands of them.

In 2020, helped by Covid-19 lockdowns, the world's carbon emissions may have fallen by 7%. But not in Brazil, which increased its emissions by 10-20% compared to when they were last measured, in 2018.70

The culprit is deforestation. In the first four months of 2020 an estimated 1,202 square km (464 square miles) were cleared in the Brazilian Amazon, 55% more than during the same period in 2019, which was the worst year in a decade. Come August, when ranchers set fire to cleared areas to prepare them for grazing, runaway blazes could outnumber those that shocked the world last year.

Environmentalists blame Brazil's populist president, Jair Bolsonaro, for the catastrophe. He favours deregulation to allow logging, mining and farming in the forest. [...] In a video of a cabinet meeting in April [2020] released by the Supreme Court, the environment minister, Ricardo Salles, called on the government to "push through" deregulation while people are distracted by the pandemic. [...]

In 2009, a damning report from Greenpeace led JBS, Marfrig and Minerva, meat giants which together handle two-thirds of Brazil's exports, to pledge to stop buying from suppliers that deforest illegally.... using satellites to detect clearing. Soya traders such as Cargill and Bunge have used such systems... since 2008, when retail firms like McDonald's and Tesco said they would no longer buy Amazonian soya harvested on deforested land.

The Economist (2020)70

But it is only occasionally that public relations pressure is strong enough to force companies - and Brazilian presidents - to take action. Since 2012, the temporary drop in deforestation was obliterated by renewed chopping70.

One easy way around the rules against buying produce from deforested land is so simple, it's painful to hear of its effectiveness. Firms use deforested land to fatten up their livestock, and then move the cattle to legal farms before selling them. On paper, it looks legit as long as you don't do any investigating. Easy - and it's obvious. After Greenpeace reported that a protected Amazon reserve was destroyed, and that JBS, Marfrig and Minerva sold beef grown on the cleared land, they claimed that they didn't know it had come from illegal sources70. Smaller companies are much worse on average, but harder to keep track of. So the lie is allowed to persist by the companies involved, by the Brazilian government and by its law enforcers.

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10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #poverty #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)72
Pos.Higher is worse72
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
90St Vincent & Grenadines11.30
89Grenada11.20
88Belize11.10
87Brazil10.90
86Peru10.80
85Colombia10.70
84Jordan10.60
83St Lucia10.60
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)73
Pos.Lower is better
%73
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
143St Lucia51.2
144Swaziland51.5
145Botswana53.3
146Brazil53.3
147Mozambique54.0
148Lesotho54.2
149Central African Rep.56.2
150Zambia57.1
World Avg38.1
q=152.
Multidimensional Poverty (2018)74
Pos.Lower is better
Severity74
1Armenia.001
2Ukraine.001
3Serbia.001
...
22Guyana.014
23Dominican Rep..015
24China.016
25Brazil.01675
26Belize.017
27Ecuador.018
28Jamaica.018
29Paraguay.019
World Avg.154
q=101.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#afterlife #belief #buddhism #christianity #god #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #universalism

Religiosity (2009)52
Pos.Lower is better
%52
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
60Tajikistan85
61Malta86
62Dominican Rep.87
63Brazil87
64Lebanon87
65Ivory Coast88
66Guatemala88
67Zimbabwe88
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)76
Pos.Higher is better
%76
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
76Colombia1
77Costa Rica1
78Honduras1
79Brazil1
80Ecuador1
81S. Africa1
82Venezuela1
83Peru1
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below77:

Christian88.9%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion2.8%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated7.9%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic (nominal) 73.6%, Protestant 15.4%, Spiritualist 1.3%, Bantu/voodoo 0.3%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.2%, none 7.4% (2000 census)78.

The Afterlife: Ipsos-NA in 2011 gathered some statistics on Brazil79. Despite the large numbers of Christians, not many have traditional beliefs in the afterlife - just 28%. Some people don't know what to believe (19%). Some believe that upon death, you simply cease to exist (6%). Also, 2% specifically believe in heaven but not in hell (which is nice - making them possible "universalists"). 12% believe in reincarnation.

A Pew Forum poll in 2006 found that nearly half or more of all Protestants in several countries, including Brazil, identified themselves as Pentecostal Christians80. Due to its large population, there are more Catholics here than in any other country.

11.2. Freedom of Belief and Religious Tolerance 81

#brazil #freethought #religious_tolerance

Until 2018, Brazil was clearly on the right track when it comes to religious tolerance and freethought. In 2011, academics Grim & Finke stated that "religious freedoms are assured [and] violent religious persecution is rare and no single religion can lay claim to the authority or power of the state"31. Likewise, this is what the Freedom of Thought Report said in 2012:

The constitution and other laws and policies protect freedom of conscience, religion or belief, which is guaranteed under Article 5 of the constitution. The law provides penalties of up to five years in prison for crimes of religious intolerance and enables courts to fine or imprison for two to five years anyone who displays, distributes, or broadcasts religiously intolerant material. It is illegal to write, edit, publish, or sell literature that promotes religious intolerance.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)32

But Brazil wasn't destined to have steady progress into modern civility, and election of Jair Bolsonaro in October 2018 meant that a staunch conservative popularist was now in power - i.e., someone who will happily oppress any group whose beliefs don't match his own:

Throughout his election campaign, Bolsonaro presented himself as the defender of traditional Christian moral values [and] his election has ensured that Brazil is governed by a Christian-extreme-right authoritarian agenda [with Bolsonaro's] speeches filled with openly and harsh misogynistic, racist, anti-LGBTI+ and anti-democratic views.

"The Freedom of Thought Report" by Humanists International (2021)33

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