The Human Truth Foundation

Netherlands (Kingdom of the Netherlands)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#netherlands

Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index5th best
CapitalAmsterdam (administrative) and The Hague (legislative/judicial)
Land Area 33 730km21
LocationEurope
Population17.1m2
Life Expectancy81.71yrs (2017)3
GNI$46 326 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesNL, NLD, 5285
Internet Domain.nl6
CurrencyEuro (EUR)7
Telephone+318

1. Overview

#netherlands

The Dutch United Provinces declared their independence from Spain in 1579; during the 17th century, they became a leading seafaring and commercial power, with settlements and colonies around the world. After a 20-year French occupation, a Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed in 1815. In 1830 Belgium seceded and formed a separate kingdom. The Netherlands remained neutral in World War I, but suffered invasion and occupation by Germany in World War II. A modern, industrialized nation, the Netherlands is also a large exporter of agricultural products. The country was a founding member of NATO and the EEC (now the EU) and participated in the introduction of the euro in 1999. In October 2010, the former Netherlands Antilles was dissolved and the three smallest islands - Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba - became special municipalities in the Netherlands administrative structure. The larger islands of Sint Maarten and Curacao joined the Netherlands and Aruba as constituent countries forming the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverDiscover the many secrets of this gently beautiful country and its masterpieces, canal towns and windmills. Revel in the welcoming yet wry culture at a cafe, then bike past fields of tulips. Great Dutch artists Rembrandt, Vermeer and Van Gogh have spanned the centuries, and touring the Netherlands you´ll see why. Discover clichés such as tulips and windmills, or stroll canals in the midst of 17th-century splendour in beautiful small towns such as Leiden and Delft. Of course, enticing Amsterdam´s phenomenal and diverse nightlife is world-famous, from its throbbing clubs to quaint brown cafes.

The locals live on bicycles and you can too. Almost every train station has a shop to rent a bike - you´ll soon be off on the ubiquitous bike paths, wherever your mood takes you.

Finally there´s the Dutch themselves. Warm, friendly and funny, you´ll have a hard time being alone in a cafe as someone will soon strike up a conversation, and usually in English. Revel in Amsterdam, don´t miss exquisite Maastricht or pulsing Rotterdam, and pick a passel of small towns to add contrast. It´s a very big small country.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

Unfortunately, The Netherlands is quietly becoming infamous as a Tax Haven, wherein rich individuals, corporations, and criminals hide money from authorities11.

2. Netherlands National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)12
Pos.Lower is better
Rank12
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
4Germany4
5Denmark5
6Singapore5
7Netherlands7
8Ireland8
9Iceland9
10Canada10
11USA10
12Hong Kong12
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)13
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $13
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
12Saudi Arabia$51 320
13San Marino$50 063
14Andorra$47 979
15Netherlands$46 326
16Sweden$46 251
17Germany$45 000
18Denmark$44 519
19Ireland$43 798
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
14,15
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank14,15
1Norway30.8
2Denmark31.8
3Sweden33.9
4Taiwan34.0
5Netherlands35.0
6Finland35.0
7Germany36.9
8Austria37.3
9New Zealand37.4
10Canada38.0
11Iceland39.3
12Switzerland39.8
World Avg88.0
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Netherlands's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

The Netherlands's population is predicted to rise to 17.31 million by 2030. This rise is despite a low fertility rate, meaning, that this country is helping to alleviate problems with growing population in neighbouring countries by accepting immigrants, very likely as a requirement of maintaining an active workforce. This country has a fertility rate of 1.79. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
64Zambia17.4m
65Guatemala17.2m
66Ecuador17.1m
67Netherlands17.1m
68Syria16.9m
69Cambodia16.2m
70Senegal15.9m
71Chad15.5m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)13
Pos.Higher is better
Years13
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
15Chile81.96
16Luxembourg81.88
17Norway81.71
18Netherlands81.71
19Austria81.58
20Andorra81.46
21Portugal81.18
22Germany81.09
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)16
Pos.2.0 is best16
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
33Morocco2.20
34Brazil1.80
35Guyana2.21
36Netherlands1.79
37Vietnam1.77
38Lebanon1.77
39Mexico2.25
40Sri Lanka2.26
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)17
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10017
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
175Austria40.5
176Greece41.3
177Spain41.4
178Netherlands41.9
179Slovenia42.7
180Finland43.3
181Hong Kong43.7
182Portugal44.7
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)18
Pos.
%18
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
47France12.2%
48Barbados12.1%
49Djibouti12.1%
50Netherlands12.1%
51Slovenia11.8%
52Denmark11.5%
53Belarus11.4%
54Montenegro11.3%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)19
Pos.
%19
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
95Singapore6.1%
96Guatemala6.1%
97Brunei6.0%
98Netherlands6.0%
99Italy5.8%
100Benin5.8%
101Laos5.7%
102Turkey5.6%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#christianity #equality #freedom #human_rights #islam #morals #Netherlands #politics #prejudice #tolerance

Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance (2020)20,21
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank20,21
1Sweden9.9
2Denmark14.7
3Norway15.5
4Netherlands16.5
5New Zealand19.0
6Iceland20.1
7Austria22.5
8Canada22.6
9Hong Kong23.3
10Luxembourg23.9
11Finland25.2
12France25.9
q=199.

When it comes to ensuring human rights and freedom, The Netherlands leads the world, setting excellent examples. The Netherlands performs the best when it comes to freethought22 and in LGBT equality23. It does the second-best for supporting press freedom24. It comes in the best 20 in opposing gender inequality25 (amongst the best in Europe), commentary in Human Rights Watch reports26, its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice27 (one of the best in Europe) and in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms28. And finally, it does better than average when it comes to its nominal commitment to Human Rights29 (but bad for Europe) and in speed of uptake of HR treaties30. The Netherlands became the first country in the world to remove restrictions on homosexual marriage, divorce and adoption rights, in the face of opposition from Christian and Muslim organisations31. Human Rights Watch's 2017 report states that the Netherlands's support of women's rights at home and internationally has been notable32.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Netherlands's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #mental_health #Netherlands #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Health (2020)33,34
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank33,34
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
33Armenia76.0
34Iceland76.0
35Greece76.1
36Netherlands76.4
37Cuba76.4
38UAE76.6
39Antigua & Barbuda77.7
40Myanmar (Burma)78.3
41Belgium78.4
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives33. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea33.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe33, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia33.

For more, see:

Health:

The Netherlands does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. The Netherlands comes in the best 20 when it comes to its adolescent birth rate25 (one of the lowest in Europe), its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance35 and in its average life expectancy13. It does better than average in terms of its fertility rate16 (but bad for Europe). The Netherlands does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in its suicide rate36 (still low for Europe), its immunizations take-up37, its alcohol consumption rate38 (still low for Europe) and in its smoking rate39 (still low for Europe). The prevalence of overweight adults has increased by 14% between 1976 and 2016.
Life Expectancy (2015)13
Pos.Higher is better
Years13
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
15Chile81.96
16Luxembourg81.88
17Norway81.71
18Netherlands81.71
19Austria81.58
20Andorra81.46
21Portugal81.18
22Germany81.09
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)38
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita38
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
128Trinidad & Tobago8.4
129Vietnam8.4
130Ukraine8.6
131Netherlands8.7
132Croatia8.9
133Cameroon8.9
134Canada8.9
135Rwanda9.0
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)16
Pos.2.0 is best16
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
33Morocco2.20
34Brazil1.80
35Guyana2.21
36Netherlands1.79
37Vietnam1.77
38Lebanon1.77
39Mexico2.25
40Sri Lanka2.26
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)39
Pos.Higher is worse39
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
150Germany1 480
149Italy1 443
148Poland1 396
147Netherlands1 396
146Saudi Arabia1 395
145Cuba1 392
144Georgia1 378
143Denmark1 378
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)36
Pos.
Per 100k36
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
44Australia16.4
45El Salvador16.5
46Kyrgyzstan17.7
47Netherlands18.6
48Luxembourg19.3
49Portugal19.6
50Singapore20.6
51India20.8
World Avg20.93
q=91.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)35
Pos.Lower is better
Rank35
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
4UK4
5Norway5
6Switzerland6
7Germany7
8Canada8
9Netherlands9
10USA10
11Luxembourg11
12Finland12
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)40
Pos.Lower is better
%40
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
115Peru57.5
116Albania57.7
117Romania57.7
118Netherlands57.8
119Latvia57.8
120Finland57.9
121Macedonia58.1
122Nicaragua58.2
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)25
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100025
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
4Hong Kong3.2
5Slovenia3.8
6Singapore3.8
7Netherlands4.0
8Denmark4.0
9Japan4.1
10Cyprus5.0
11Sweden5.7
12Norway5.9
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)37
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %37
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
128Costa Rica88.5
129Colombia88.4
130Kiribati88.4
131Netherlands88.1
132Paraguay88.1
133Bosnia & Herzegovina88.0
134Sierra Leone87.7
135Suriname87.2
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Netherlands's Modernity and Learning

#education #english #intelligence #it_security #maths #modernity #research #science #technology #the_internet

Despite the huge success of Dutch education, evidenced by the statistics compared to the rest of the world, there are issues with the education system that causes problems for overall societal cohesion.

Under the Dutch system of "pillarization"... children are educated in separate Protestant, Catholic, Muslim and secular systems. Receiving an education in a state-sponsored school without ever having to deal with people outside one´s own religion is not likely to foster rapid assimilation.

"Against Identity Politics" by Francis Fukuyama (2018 Sep/Oct)41

A modern "depilliarisation" movement is in progress, although not moving very quickly.

Modernity and Learning (2020)42
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank42
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
12Norway16.6
13Germany17.1
14Japan17.3
15Netherlands18.6
16Austria18.9
17Iceland19.1
18Slovenia19.5
19Canada20.4
20Singapore21.1
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2943
2Israel4.1143
3Japan3.5843
...
15Australia2.2544
16Singapore2.0045
17Czechia2.0043
18Netherlands1.9743
19Iceland1.8943
20Norway1.7043
21UK1.7043
22Canada1.6143
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
46Mongolia88.8%
47Bahamas88.4%
48Ireland88.3%
49Netherlands88.3%
50Cuba87.4%
51Poland85.3%
52Belgium84.8%
53UK84.5%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)47
Pos.Higher is better
Years47
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
7Sweden18.8
8Ireland18.8
9Norway18.1
10Netherlands18.0
11Spain17.9
12Argentina17.6
13UK17.4
14Slovenia17.4
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)35
Pos.Lower is better
Rank35
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
4Denmark4
5UK5
6Austria6
7Finland7
8Netherlands8
9Belgium9
10Slovenia10
11Switzerland11
12New Zealand12
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Maths, Science & Reading (2015)48
Pos.Higher is better
Score48
1Singapore1655
2Hong Kong1598
3Japan1586
...
11Ireland1528
12Slovenia1528
13Germany1524
14Netherlands1524
15Switzerland1519
16New Zealand1517
17Norway1513
18Denmark1513
World Avg1389
q=70.
IQ (2006)49
Pos.Higher is better49
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
8Iceland101
9Switzerland101
10Mongolia101
11Netherlands100
12Norway100
13Austria100
14UK100
15New Zealand99
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)50
Pos.Higher is better50
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
4Bermuda97%
5Andorra97%
6Denmark96%
7Liechtenstein96%
8Luxembourg95%
9Netherlands94%
10Sweden93%
11Monaco93%
12UK93%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IT Security (2013)51
Pos.Lower is better51
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
65Nepal1.45
66Afghanistan1.45
67Germany1.46
68Netherlands1.47
69Rwanda1.50
70Tanzania1.50
71Maldives1.57
72China1.59
World Avg0.98
q=81.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)52
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio52
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
20Trinidad & Tobago14.5
21Finland14.1
22Brazil13.9
23Netherlands10.5
24Czechia10.1
25New Zealand9.7
26Romania8.7
27Austria7.5
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

World Giving Index (2013-2021)53
Pos.Lower is better53
1Myanmar (Burma)2.7
2New Zealand4.0
3USA4.7
...
10UAE11.6
11Bahrain11.7
12Kenya12.0
13Netherlands14.3
14Trinidad & Tobago16.5
15Bhutan17.5
16Norway20.0
17Sri Lanka20.3
World Avg67.9
q=160.
Corruption (2012-2016)54
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score54
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
4Sweden88.2
5Norway86.0
6Switzerland85.8
7Singapore85.2
8Netherlands83.4
9Canada82.2
10Luxembourg81.6
11Australia80.8
12Germany79.6
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)55
Pos.Higher is better55
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
4Iceland7.5
5Switzerland7.5
6Netherlands7.4
7Canada7.3
8New Zealand7.3
9Sweden7.3
10Australia7.3
11Israel7.2
12Austria7.1
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)35
Pos.Lower is better
Rank35
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
4Switzerland4
5Sweden5
6Denmark6
7Austria7
8Ireland8
9Czechia9
10Luxembourg10
11UK11
12Portugal12
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)35
Pos.Lower is better
Rank35
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
4Netherlands4
5Switzerland5
6Serbia6
7Belgium7
8Norway8
9Finland9
10Croatia10
11Georgia11
12Philippines12
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2021)56
Pos.Lower is better56
1Iceland1.10
2New Zealand1.25
3Denmark1.26
...
18Croatia1.48
19Hungary1.49
20Belgium1.50
21Netherlands1.51
22Bhutan1.51
23Malaysia1.52
24Poland1.52
25Romania1.53
World Avg2.08
q=163.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)35
Pos.Lower is better
Rank35
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
24Ecuador24
25Madagascar25
26Sri Lanka26
27Netherlands27
28Mongolia28
29Rwanda29
30Paraguay30
31Jordan31
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)35
Pos.Lower is better
Rank35
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
4Sweden4
5Malta5
6Australia6
7Norway7
8Finland8
9Denmark9
10Switzerland10
11Canada11
12UK12
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)57
Pos.Lower is better
Score57
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
71Haiti2.18
72Kosovo2.26
73Japan2.29
74Netherlands2.35
75Ecuador2.46
76Kuwait2.49
77Malaysia2.50
78Brazil2.53
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #deforestation #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)58
Pos.Higher is better
%58
1Iceland+205.6
2Bahrain+144.4
3Uruguay+131.3
...
42Gambia+10.4
43Macedonia+10.3
44Serbia+09.9
45Netherlands+09.3
46Switzerland+09.0
47Ghana+08.2
48St Vincent & Grenadines+08.0
49Costa Rica+07.5
World Avg+02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)59
Pos.Higher is better59
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
15Belgium77.4
16Italy77.0
17New Zealand76.0
18Netherlands75.5
19Israel75.0
20Japan74.7
21Australia74.1
22Greece73.6
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)60
Pos.Higher is better60
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
...
37Israel11.11
38Turkey11.11
39Azerbaijan10.87
40Netherlands10.75
41Mexico10.64
42Paraguay10.53
43Chile10.42
44Lithuania10.42
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
65Malaysia1994 Sep 22
66Benin1994 Sep 28
67France1994 Sep 29
68Netherlands1994 Oct 10
69Pakistan1994 Oct 24
70Kenya1994 Oct 24
71Finland1994 Oct 25
72Estonia1994 Oct 25
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.
Rational Beliefs on the Environment (2011)61
Pos.Higher is better
%61
1Argentina78.3%
2Greece77.6%
3Brazil77.1%
...
119Algeria23.5%
120Pakistan23.2%
121Liberia23.1%
122Netherlands23.0%
123Finland22.9%
124Congo, DR22.8%
125UK22.6%
126Malawi22.0%
World Avg39.9%
q=145.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#capitalism #economics #health #inequality #life_expectancy #social_development

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)62
Pos.Higher is worse62
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
15Luxembourg3.40
14Israel3.30
13Italy3.10
12Netherlands3.10
11Spain3.00
10S. Korea3.00
9Norway3.00
8Czechia3.00
World Avg14.59
q=184.
Income Inequality (Gini Coefficient) (2017)63
Pos.Lower is better
%63
1Ukraine25.0
2Belarus25.4
3Slovenia25.4
...
12Belgium27.7
13Iceland27.8
14Denmark28.2
15Netherlands28.2
16Serbia28.5
17Timor-Leste (E. Timor)28.7
18Albania29.0
19Sweden29.2
World Avg38.1
q=152.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#belief #buddhism #christianity #god #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion

Disbelief In God (2007)64
Pos.Higher is better
%64
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
4Czechia61
5Estonia49
6Denmark48
7France44
8Belgium43
9Netherlands42
10Germany42
11UK42
12Cuba40
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below65:

Christian50.6%
Muslim6%
Hindu0.5%
Buddhist0.2%
Folk Religion0.2%
Jew0.2%
Unaffiliated42.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 30%, Protestant 20% (Dutch Reformed 11%, Calvinist 6%, other Protestant 3%), Muslim 5.8%, other 2.2%, none 42% (2006)66.

The Netherlands has a long history of religious tolerance67, for example, it was a safe haven for Jewish refugees from Christian persecution during the Spanish Inquisition in the 16th century68. But the murder of Theo van Gogh "by a Muslim extremist in November 2004 led to a sharp reversal of public opinion, turning against immigration in general and Muslim immigration in particular"67.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012)69, in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for The Netherlands states:

The constitution and other laws and policies protect freedom of religion or belief. However, it is a crime to engage in public speech that incites religious hatred. Article 137c of the Dutch Penal Code penalizes defamation of groups "because of their race, religion or convictions, their heterosexual or homosexual orientation or physical, psychological or mental disability..."

Article 137d criminalizes inciting "hatred or discrimination against persons or violence against person or property on the grounds of their race, religion or beliefs, their gender, their heterosexual or homosexual orientation or their physical, psychological or mental disability..." Article 429bis criminalizes display of "scornful blasphemy for insulting religious feelings" along public roads. Fines are to be levied, with prison for repeat offenders.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)70

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