The Human Truth Foundation

Poland (Republic of Poland)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#poland

Poland
Republic of Poland
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index31st best
CapitalWarsaw
Land Area 304 150km21
LocationEurope
Population38.3m (2011)2
Life Expectancy77.62yrs (2017)3
GNI$24 117 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesPL, POL, 6165
Internet Domain.pl6
CurrencyZloty (PLN)7
Telephone+488

1. Overview

#germany #poland #russia

Poland's history as a state begins near the middle of the 10th century. By the mid-16th century, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ruled a vast tract of land in central and eastern Europe. During the 18th century, internal disorders weakened the nation, and in a series of agreements between 1772 and 1795, Russia, Prussia, and Austria partitioned Poland among themselves. Poland regained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. It became a Soviet satellite state following the war, but its government was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" that over time became a political force with over ten million members. Free elections in 1989 and 1990 won Solidarity control of the parliament and the presidency, bringing the Communist era to a close. A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. With its transformation to a democratic, market-oriented country largely completed, Poland is an increasingly active member of Euro-Atlantic organizations.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverChic medieval hot spots like Kraków and Gdansk vie with energetic Warsaw for your urban attention. Outside the cities, forests, rivers, lakes and hills beckon for some fresh-air fun. If they were handing out prizes for `most eventful history´, Poland would be sure to get a medal. The nation has spent centuries at the pointy end of history, grappling with war and invasion. Nothing, however, has succeeded in suppressing the Poles´ strong cultural identity. As a result, centres such as bustling Warsaw and cultured Kraków exude a sophisticated energy that´s a heady mix of old and new.

Away from the cities, Poland offers a diverse range of experiences, from swimming on its Baltic Sea beaches to skiing or hiking in its magnificent mountains. Everywhere in between are towns and cities dotted with ruined castles, picturesque squares, colourful houses and historic churches.Although prices are slowly rising as its economy gathers momentum, Poland is still good value for travellers year-round. As the Polish people work on combining their national identity with their place in Europe, it´s a fascinating time to visit this beautiful country.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Poland National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
33Malta33
34Qatar33
35Cyprus33
36Poland36
37Lithuania37
38Chile38
39Saudi Arabia38
40Slovakia40
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)12
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $12
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
44Lithuania$26 006
45Greece$24 808
46Malaysia$24 620
47Poland$24 117
48Seychelles$23 886
49Hungary$23 394
50Russia$23 286
51Latvia$22 589
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Denmark28.3
2Norway29.1
3Finland29.7
...
27USA50.0
28Singapore50.4
29Portugal51.3
30Poland52.4
31Slovakia55.7
32Costa Rica56.6
33Malta57.7
34Cyprus57.8
World Avg86.9
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Poland's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #overpopulation #population

Population:

Poland's population is predicted to fall to 37 835 000 by 2030. Developed countries with falling populations face a pension's crises, whereby an incresingly ageing population must be cared for by fewer and fewer workers. Economic stability can be maintained by increasing foreign workers from younger countries. This country has a fertility rate of 1.40. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2012)15
Pos.
Population15
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
30Ukraine44.9m
31Kenya42.7m
32Argentina41.1m
33Poland38.3m
34Algeria36.5m
35Uganda35.6m
36Sudan35.0m
37Canada34.7m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
40Albania77.97
41Dominica77.85
42Panama77.76
43Poland77.62
44Croatia77.50
45Uruguay77.35
46UAE77.12
47Estonia77.01
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)16
Pos.2.0 is best16
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
97Hungary1.42
98Romania1.42
99Japan1.40
100Poland1.40
101Nepal2.60
102Macedonia1.40
103Fiji2.61
104S. Korea1.38
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)17
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10017
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
...
157Lithuania36.0
158Czechia36.1
159Cuba36.2
160Poland36.3
161Singapore36.5
162Latvia36.7
163Sweden37.0
164Bulgaria37.0
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Qatar86.5%
2Monaco71.6%
3UAE70.0%
...
117Liberia2.3%
118Pakistan2.3%
119Cambodia2.2%
120Poland2.2%
121Fiji2.2%
122Yemen2.1%
123Kenya2.0%
124Kiribati2.0%
World Avg9.2%
q=192.
Emigrants (2010)18
Pos.
%18
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
76Somalia8.7%
77Kuwait8.5%
78Ecuador8.3%
79Poland8.3%
80Afghanistan8.1%
81Paraguay7.9%
82Russia7.9%
83Mali7.6%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #freedom #human_rights #Poland #politics #tolerance

Poland performs very well in ensuring human rights and freedom compared to most other countries. Poland comes in the best 20 in the year from which women could participate in democracy. It does better than average for supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms19, supporting press freedom20, commentary in Human Rights Watch reports21 (but low for Europe), its nominal commitment to Human Rights22, opposing gender inequality23 and in eliminating modern slavery24. Poland does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice25 (amongst the highest in Europe). Human Rights Watch have sounded warnings that in 2017, Poland "continued to undermine the rule of law and human rights protection during the year"26. Poland is Europe's most Catholic country and has the region's most restrictive abortion laws in Europe27 but in 2017 made access to emergency contraception even more limited27, as part of its overall commitment to making family planning impossible, even in cases of extreme poverty. Such religious-based doctrine should only be accepted voluntarily by believers, not be forced upon the populace as a whole.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Poland's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #health #life_expectancy #longevity #mental_health #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #Poland #population #smoking #suicide #vaccines

Health (2020)28,29
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank28,29
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
53Brazil81.0
54Macedonia81.5
55Malta81.6
56Poland82.5
57Albania82.8
58Croatia82.9
59France82.9
60Vietnam83.0
61Czechia83.0
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives28. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea28.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia.

Health:

Poland does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Poland comes in the best 20 in its fertility rate16. It does better than average in its immunizations take-up30, its adolescent birth rate23 (but high for Europe), its average life expectancy12 and in its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance31 (but bad for Europe). Poland does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in terms of its suicide rate32 and in its smoking rate33. And finally, it falls into the worst-performing 20 in its alcohol consumption rate34. The number of overweight adults has increased by 14% over the last 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)12
Pos.Higher is better
Years12
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
40Albania77.97
41Dominica77.85
42Panama77.76
43Poland77.62
44Croatia77.50
45Uruguay77.35
46UAE77.12
47Estonia77.01
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)34
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita34
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
170Switzerland11.5
171Austria11.6
172Estonia11.6
173Poland11.6
174Russia11.7
175Seychelles12.0
176Belgium12.1
177Portugal12.3
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)16
Pos.2.0 is best16
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
97Hungary1.42
98Romania1.42
99Japan1.40
100Poland1.40
101Nepal2.60
102Macedonia1.40
103Fiji2.61
104S. Korea1.38
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)33
Pos.Higher is worse33
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
151Bulgaria1 505
150Germany1 480
149Italy1 443
148Poland1 396
147Netherlands1 396
146Saudi Arabia1 395
145Cuba1 392
144Georgia1 378
World Avg 819
q=182.
Suicide Rate (2013)32
Pos.
Per 100k32
1Haiti0
2Grenada0
3Egypt0.1
...
67Czechia28.3
68Suriname28.7
69Hong Kong29.7
70Poland30.5
71Austria30.9
72Uruguay32.3
73France33.2
74Moldova35.7
World Avg20.93
q=91.
Food Aid, Health Contributions & WHO Compliance (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Sweden1
2Ireland2
3Denmark3
...
76Malta76
77Guatemala77
78Sri Lanka78
79Poland79
80Uruguay80
81Dominican Rep.81
82Zambia82
83Croatia83
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Overweight Adults (2016)35
Pos.Lower is better
%35
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
...
121Macedonia58.1
122Nicaragua58.2
123Norway58.3
124Poland58.3
125Ukraine58.4
126Cuba58.5
127Italy58.5
128Luxembourg58.7
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)23
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100023
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
40Montenegro12.2
41Lebanon12.4
42Estonia13.1
43Poland13.4
44Bahrain13.5
45Malaysia13.6
46Latvia13.6
47Australia14.1
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)30
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %30
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
39Jordan96.6
40Brunei96.6
41Spain96.5
42Poland96.5
43Libya96.4
44St Kitts & Nevis96.3
45Bahamas96.2
46Maldives96.2
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Poland's Modernity and Learning

#education #english #intelligence #it_security #maths #modernity #religion #research #science #technology #the_internet

Modernity and Learning (2020)36
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank36
1Finland8.0
2Belgium9.1
3Denmark10.0
...
27Israel26.0
28Portugal27.0
29Latvia27.3
30Poland28.1
31Spain28.8
32Greece29.3
33Lithuania30.5
34Italy33.5
35Argentina33.7
World Avg69.0
q=180.

Modernity and Education:

Research and Development (2016)
Pos.Higher is better
% RDP PPP
1S. Korea4.2937
2Israel4.1137
3Japan3.5837
...
33Malaysia1.1338
34Turkey1.0137
35Lithuania0.9539
36Poland0.9437
37Slovakia0.8937
38Malta0.8939
39Greece0.8437
40India0.8240
World Avg0.84
q=126.
Secondary Education (2018)41
Pos.Higher is better41
1Luxembourg100.0%
2Estonia100.0%
3Austria100.0%
...
48Ireland88.3%
49Netherlands88.3%
50Cuba87.4%
51Poland85.3%
52Belgium84.8%
53UK84.5%
54Jordan84.0%
55France83.5%
World Avg63.0%
q=169.
Length of Schooling (2018)42
Pos.Higher is better
Years42
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
21Hong Kong16.5
22Lithuania16.5
23Turkey16.4
24Poland16.4
25S. Korea16.4
26Uruguay16.3
27Singapore16.3
28Portugal16.3
World Avg13.2
q=193.
Intellectual Endeavours (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Ukraine1
2Czechia2
3Hungary3
...
20Australia20
21Germany21
22Grenada22
23Poland23
24France24
25S. Africa25
26Singapore26
27Greece27
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Maths, Science & Reading (2015)43
Pos.Higher is better
Score43
1Singapore1655
2Hong Kong1598
3Japan1586
...
16New Zealand1517
17Norway1513
18Denmark1513
19Poland1511
20Belgium1508
21Vietnam1507
22Australia1507
23UK1499
World Avg1389
q=70.
Religiosity (2009)44
Pos.Lower is better
%44
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
39Kyrgyzstan72
40Armenia73
41Mexico73
42Poland75
43Cyprus75
44Macedonia76
45Bosnia & Herzegovina77
46Venezuela79
World Avg75.1
q=114.
IQ (2006)45
Pos.Higher is better45
1Hong Kong108
2Singapore108
3S. Korea106
...
13Austria100
14UK100
15New Zealand99
16Poland99
17Germany99
18Finland99
19Estonia99
20Sweden99
World Avg85.6
q=138.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)46
Pos.Higher is better46
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
48Macau73%
49Israel73%
50Guam73%
51Poland72%
52Brunei72%
53Slovenia72%
54Cyprus72%
55Russia71%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.
IT Security (2013)47
Pos.Lower is better47
1Ireland0.11
2Luxembourg0.11
3Belize0.11
...
18Sweden0.44
19Romania0.52
20Turkey0.52
21Poland0.55
22Switzerland0.55
23S. Korea0.56
24Australia0.63
25Libya0.63
World Avg0.98
q=81.
IPv6 Uptake (2017)48
Pos.Higher is better
Ratio48
1Belgium55.4
2Germany41.8
3Switzerland35.1
...
34Macau4.2
35Singapore4.0
36Sweden3.8
37Poland3.6
38Thailand3.3
39Denmark3.1
40Bosnia & Herzegovina3.1
41Sri Lanka2.9
World Avg3.82
q=176.

7. National Culture

#charity #corruption #happiness #morals #politics

Personal Charitability
(World Position, 2013-2016)
49
Pos.Lower is better49
1Myanmar (Burma)1.25
2USA1.5
3New Zealand3.5
...
106Ivory Coast93.33
107Burkina Faso93.75
108Belarus94.75
109Poland96.5
110Macedonia98.75
111Romania99.75
112Cambodia99.75
113Ukraine100
World Avg68.1185897435897
q=156.
Life Satisfaction (2011)50
Pos.Higher is better50
1Denmark7.8
2Norway7.6
3Netherlands7.6
...
57Turkmenistan5.8
58Nicaragua5.7
59Jordan5.7
60Poland5.6
61Ghana5.6
62Peru5.6
63Croatia5.6
64Montenegro5.5
World Avg5.4
q=150.
Corruption (2012-2016)51
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score51
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
34St Vincent & Grenadines61.5
35Israel61.2
36Taiwan61.2
37Poland60.8
38Spain60.0
39Slovenia59.4
40Dominica58.3
41Cape Verde57.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Happiness (2018)52
Pos.Higher is better52
1Finland7.6
2Norway7.6
3Denmark7.6
...
39Slovakia6.2
40El Salvador6.2
41Nicaragua6.1
42Poland6.1
43Bahrain6.1
44Uzbekistan6.1
45Kuwait6.1
46Thailand6.1
World Avg5.38
q=156.
Creativity and Culture (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Belgium1
2Netherlands2
3Estonia3
...
18Barbados18
19Hungary19
20Slovakia20
21Poland21
22Norway22
23Lithuania23
24St Lucia24
25Canada25
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Open Trading, Aid and Development (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Ireland1
2Denmark2
3Sweden3
...
43Morocco43
44Fiji44
45Bosnia & Herzegovina45
46Poland46
47Japan47
48Armenia48
49UAE49
50Greece50
World Avg82.0
q=163.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#extremism #human_development #peace #politics #religious_violence #terrorism

Global Peace Index (2012)53
Pos.Lower is better53
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
21Mauritius1.49
22Australia1.49
23Singapore1.52
24Poland1.52
25Spain1.55
26Slovakia1.59
27Taiwan1.60
28Netherlands1.61
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Peacekeeping and Security (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Samoa1
2S. Africa2
3Tunisia3
...
104Latvia104
105Laos105
106Mozambique106
107Poland107
108Ukraine108
109Belgium109
110Panama110
111Equatorial Guinea111
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Refugees and UN Treaties (2017)31
Pos.Lower is better
Rank31
1Austria1
2Germany2
3Netherlands3
...
21Ireland21
22Costa Rica22
23Thailand23
24Poland24
25S. Africa25
26Chile26
27Panama27
28Portugal28
World Avg82.0
q=163.
Impact of Terrorism (2019)54
Pos.Lower is better
Score54
1Togo0.00
2Mongolia0.00
3Swaziland0.00
...
42Lithuania0.46
43Sierra Leone0.46
44Jamaica0.47
45Poland0.48
46Gabon0.55
47Malawi0.66
48Azerbaijan0.70
49Czechia0.87
World Avg2.78
q=150.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)55
Pos.Higher is better
%55
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
51Cyprus07.2
52Fiji06.7
53Laos06.3
54Poland06.3
55Liechtenstein06.2
56Latvia05.8
57Uzbekistan05.7
58New Zealand05.1
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)56
Pos.Higher is better56
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
47Uruguay64.7
48Estonia64.3
49Singapore64.2
50Poland64.1
51Venezuela63.9
52Russia63.8
53Brunei63.6
54Morocco63.5
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Energy to GDP Efficiency (2014)57
Pos.Higher is better57
1Hong Kong26.32
2Sri Lanka20.00
3Panama17.86
...
52Lebanon09.90
53Hungary09.80
54Latvia09.80
55Poland09.71
56Argentina09.35
57Pakistan09.26
58Montenegro09.17
59Slovakia09.09
World Avg09.29
q=119.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
137Singapore1996 Mar 20
138Syria1996 Apr 03
139Suriname1996 Apr 11
140Poland1996 Apr 17
141Lithuania1996 May 01
142Yemen1996 May 21
143Niue1996 May 28
144Madagascar1996 Jun 02
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.

10. Religion and Beliefs

#afterlife #belief #buddhism #christianity #god #heaven #hell #hinduism #islam #judaism #religion #universalism

Religiosity (2009)44
Pos.Lower is better
%44
1Estonia16
2Sweden17
3Denmark19
...
39Kyrgyzstan72
40Armenia73
41Mexico73
42Poland75
43Cyprus75
44Macedonia76
45Bosnia & Herzegovina77
46Venezuela79
World Avg75.1
q=114.
Disbelief In God (2007)58
Pos.Higher is better
%58
1Vietnam81
2Japan65
3Sweden64
...
61Uzbekistan4
62Lebanon3
63Congo, (Brazzaville)3
64Poland3
65Jamaica3
66India3
67Angola2
68Chile2
World Avg9.9
q=137.

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below59:

Christian94.3%
Muslim0.1%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.1%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated5.6%

It appears that when asked "What religion are you" many give pollsters the 'correct' answer despite how they actually feel, and despite what they actually believe. Although 94.8% of the populace say they belong to a religion, only 75% say that they are religious when the question is phrased as "Is religion an important part of your daily life?".

For more on this phenomenon, see:

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Roman Catholic 89.8% [about 75% practicing], Eastern Orthodox 1.3%, Protestant 0.3%, other 0.3%, unspecified 8.3% (2002)60.

The Afterlife: Ipsos-NA in 2011 gathered some statistics on Poland61. Despite the large numbers of Christians, not many have traditional beliefs in the afterlife - just 20%. More people don't know what to believe (32%). Some believe that upon death, you simply cease to exist (21%). Also, 1% specifically believe in heaven but not in hell (which is nice - making them possible "universalists"). 7% believe in reincarnation.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012)62, in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Poland states:

The constitution and other laws and policies protect freedom of religion or belief. However, Poland's penal code states "Whoever offends religious feelings of other people by publicly insulting an object of religious cult or a place for public holding of religious ceremonies, is subject to a fine, restriction of liberty or loss of liberty for up to 2 years."

Cases of Discrimination

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In January 2012, Dorota Rabczewska, a popular musician better known as Doda, was fined US $1,450 for "offending religious feelings" when she said in an interview that the Bible is full of "unbelievable tales" and that "it's hard to believe in something written down by someone drunk on wine and smoking some kind of herbs."

In October 2012, Poland's Supreme Court opened the way for a blasphemy verdict against another musician, Adam Darksi. Darski, who uses the stage name Nergal, is the lead singer of a heavy metal group named Behemoth. During a concert in 2007 Darski ripped up a Bible and called it deceitful and described the Roman Catholic Church as "a criminal sect". He was tried for "offending religious feelings". A lower court dismissed the charges, but the Supreme Court was then asked to rule on the legal arguments arising from the case. The Supreme Court ruled that Darski could be convicted of the crime of "offending religious feelings" even if he did not act with the "direct intention" of offending those feelings. That interpretation closed off an argument used by lawyers for Darski, who said he had not committed a crime because he did not intend to offend anyone. The case therefore returns to a lower court. If found guilty, Darski faces a maximum sentence of two years in jail, under Poland's criminal code.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)63

Once, Poland was known for its long series of atrocities against Jews, especially during the Holocaust of the 1940s but in modern times there is now (thankfully) "a significant renascence of Jewish culture" in Poland64.

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