The Human Truth Foundation

Eritrea (State of Eritrea)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013


Comments:
FB, LJ

#economics #eritrea #the_environment

Eritrea
State of Eritrea
StatusIndependent State
CapitalAsmara
Land Area 101 000km21
LocationAfrica
Population5.6m (2011)2
Life Expectancy64.19yrs (2017)3
GNI$1 490 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesER, ERI, 2325
Internet Domain.er6
CurrencyNakfa (ERN)7
Telephone+2918

1. Overview

#eritrea #ethiopia

"Eritrea remains a one-man dictatorship under President Isaias Afewerki, now in his 26th year in power. It has no legislature, no independent civil society organizations or media outlets, and no independent judiciary"9.

The UN established Eritrea as an autonomous region within the Ethiopian federation in 1952. Ethiopia's full annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a violent 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991 with Eritrean rebels defeating government forces. Eritreans overwhelmingly approved independence in a 1993 referendum. ISAIAS Afworki has been Eritrea's only president since independence; his rule, particularly since 2001, has been highly autocratic and repressive. His government has created a highly militarized society by pursuing an unpopular program of mandatory conscription into national service, sometimes of indefinite length. A two-and-a-half-year border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 ended under UN auspices in December 2000. The Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC) created in April 2003 was tasked "to delimit and demarcate the colonial treaty border based on pertinent colonial treaties (1900, 1902, and 1908) and applicable international law." Eritrea for several years hosted a UN peacekeeping operation that monitored a 25 km-wide Temporary Security Zone. The EEBC on 30 November 2007 remotely demarcated the border, assigning the town of Badme to Eritrea, despite Ethiopia's maintaining forces there from the time of the 1998-2000 war. An increasingly hostile Eritrea insisted that the UN terminate its peacekeeping mission on 31 July 2008. Eritrea has accepted the EEBC's "virtual demarcation" decision and repeatedly called on Ethiopia to remove its troops. Ethiopia has not accepted the demarcation decision, and neither party has entered into meaningful dialogue to resolve the impasse. Eritrea is subject to several UN Security Council Resolutions (from 2009, 2011, and 2012) imposing various military and economic sanctions, in view of evidence that it has supported armed opposition groups in the region.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)10

Book CoverEritrea, a mere sliver on the Horn of Africa, boasts a wealth of culture, history and natural beauty for travellers to experience. Historically intriguing, culturally compelling and scenically magical, Eritrea is one of the most secretive countries in Africa. For those who have a hankering for off-the-beaten-track places, it offers challenges and excitement aplenty, with a unique blend of natural and cultural highlights. The country wows visitors with its awesome scenery, from the quintessentially Abyssinian landscapes - escarpments, plateaus and soaring peaks - to the deserted beaches of the Red Sea coast.Culturally, Eritrea is a melting pot. It might be a tiddler of a country by Africa´s standards, but it hosts a kaleidoscopic range of ethnic groups who have contributed to a cultural fabric that ranges from rock-cut monasteries and Ottoman-era harbour towns, to the evening passeggiata on Asmara´s main thoroughfare.

Despite its human and natural riches, Eritrea endures the tough political and economic landscape and travellers are severely restricted. Nonetheless, this country remains one of the most inspiring destinations in Africa.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)11

Largely because of the oppressive nature of the Isaias rule and the prolonged national service, about 12 percent of Eritrea´s population has fled the country. In2016 alone, 52,000 escaped, according to the latest United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) report.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)9

2. Eritrea National and Social Development

#human_development

UN HDI (2016)12
Pos.Lower is better
Rank12
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
176Congo, DR176
177Liberia177
178Guinea-Bissau178
179Eritrea179
180Sierra Leone179
181Mozambique181
182S. Sudan181
183Guinea183
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
13
Pos.Higher is better
Points13
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
172Zimbabwe41.1
173S. Sudan41.0
174Tuvalu40.9
175Eritrea40.4
176Ivory Coast40.3
177Gabon40.0
178Pakistan39.9
179Papua New Guinea39.9
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

#demographics #Eritrea #health #immigration #life_expectancy #overpopulation #population

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)14
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10014
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
4Burkina Faso04.7
5Sierra Leone04.8
6Zambia04.8
7Eritrea04.9
8Gambia04.9
9Angola05.0
10Afghanistan05.0
11Zimbabwe05.0
12Nigeria05.1
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)15
Pos.
%15
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
30El Salvador20.5
31Micronesia19.7
32Belarus18.4
33Eritrea18.0
34Croatia17.1
35Liechtenstein17.1
36Cyprus17.0
37Marshall Islands16.6
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)16
Pos.2.0 is best16
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
143Solomon Islands4.08
144Burundi4.10
145Ivory Coast4.27
146Eritrea4.28
147Palestine4.31
148Cameroon4.33
149Mauritania4.40
150Congo, (Brazzaville)4.46
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)15
Pos.
%15
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
173Vanuatu0.3
174Tunisia0.3
175Honduras0.3
176Eritrea0.3
177Afghanistan0.3
178Lesotho0.3
179Laos0.3
180Egypt0.3
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)17
Pos.Higher is better
Years17
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
147Rwanda64.75
148Ethiopia64.60
149Botswana64.51
150Eritrea64.19
151Yemen64.05
152Malawi63.88
153Sudan63.73
154Comoros63.57
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)18
Pos.The Overpopulation of the Earth18
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
108Sierra Leone6.1m
109Nicaragua6.0m
110Denmark5.6m
111Eritrea5.6m
112Slovakia5.5m
113Kyrgyzstan5.4m
114Finland5.4m
115Singapore5.3m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Eritrea's population is predicted to rise to 8.394 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 4.28. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Human Rights, Equality and Freedom

#equality #eritrea #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Eritrea is amongst the worst places in the world at ensuring human rights and freedom, and it has severe cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Eritrea does worse than average in its Global Peace Index rating19, LGBT equality20 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights21. It falls into the bottom 20 in commentary from Human Rights Watch22 and in fighting corruption23. It is second-from-the-bottom in eliminating modern slavery24. And finally, it is the worst in supporting press freedom25. In 2001, "the government closed all independent newspapers and arrested their editors and leading journalists. None were brought to trial. They remain in solitary detention. There are reliable reports that about half of them had died"9. "Eritreans are subject to arbitrary imprisonment. Arrest and harsh punishment including torture, are at the whim of security force commanders without trial or appeal"9.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #eritrea #hinduism #islam #judaism

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below26:

Christian62.9%
Muslim36.6%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.4%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant27.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: The government does not respect its peoples' right to freedom of religion and belief. In recent years there has been an "increase in serious government violations of religious freedom, including mass arrests, torture and death for members of minority belief groups"28. Since 2002, only four official religious groups have been allowed to exist (Sunni Islam, Eritrean Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Evangelical (Lutheran)9,29 and the government controls them closely. Failure to be a member of one of them is enough to be denied government services, and sometimes even arrested on the spot28.

Links:

6. The Internet

#Eritrea #internet #the_internet

Internet Users (2016)30
Pos.Higher is better30
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
194Myanmar (Burma)3%
195Sierra Leone2%
196Niger2%
197Guinea2%
198Somalia2%
199Burundi2%
200Timor-Leste (E. Timor)1%
201Eritrea1%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

#alcohol #Eritrea #health #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)31
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100031
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
112Cambodia51.6
113Egypt51.9
114St Lucia53.9
115Eritrea54.3
116Papua New Guinea54.8
117Uruguay56.1
118Costa Rica56.5
119Seychelles57.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)32
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita32
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
23Brunei0.9
24Iran1.0
25Algeria1.0
26Eritrea1.1
27Mali1.1
28Syria1.2
29Maldives1.2
30Djibouti1.3
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)33
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %33
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
70Belize95.1
71Algeria95.0
72Tuvalu94.9
73Eritrea94.7
74Singapore94.6
75UK94.6
76Solomon Islands94.5
77Norway94.3
World Avg88.3
q=194.

Smoking Rates (2014)34
Pos.Lower is better34
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
22Niger 105
23Sao Tome & Principe 111
24India 111
25Eritrea 114
26Haiti 114
27Peru 116
28Somalia 117
29Ghana 121
World Avg 819
q=182.

8. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)17
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $17
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
177Burkina Faso$1 537
178Sierra Leone$1 529
179Ethiopia$1 523
180Eritrea$1 490
181Guinea-Bissau$1 369
182Comoros$1 335
183Madagascar$1 320
184Togo$1 262
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2018)35
Pos.Higher is better35
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
162Swaziland40.3
163Djibouti40.0
164Papua New Guinea39.4
165Eritrea39.3
166Mauritania39.2
167Benin38.2
168Afghanistan37.7
169Pakistan37.5
q=180.

There isn't much information in the database for Eritrea, most likely because it is either a part of another country (i.e., a territory or posession) and therefore most international statistics are counted for the country as a whole, or, this is such an exotic place that little data exists about it.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2018 Dec 24
http://www.humantruth.info/eritrea.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#alcohol #buddhism #christianity #demographics #economics #equality #eritrea #ethiopia #freedom #health #hinduism #human_development #human_rights #immigration #internet #islam #judaism #life_expectancy #overpopulation #parenting #politics #population #smoking #the_environment #the_internet #tolerance #vaccines

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References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Human Rights Watch (2018). p201-205.^^^
  10. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/er.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  11. Lonely Planet (2014). Chapter "Eritrea".^
  12. UN (2017). Table 1. Lower is better.^
  13. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  14. UN (2017). Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  15. UN (2013). Table 11.^
  16. UN (2013). Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  17. UN (2017). Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  18. UN (2013). Table 14.^
  19. ^
  20. Sources:^
  21. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  22. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^
  23. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  24. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  25. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  26. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  27. CIA (2013). Https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  28. IHEU (2012) .^
  29. 2010 IRF report (US International Religious Freedom report). In IHEU 2012.^
  30. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  31. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^
  32. WHO (2014). Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  33. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  34. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  35. Yale University Center for Environmental Law & Policy 2018 EPI.^

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