The Human Truth Foundation

Eritrea (State of Eritrea)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#Eritrea

Eritrea
State of Eritrea
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index163rd best
CapitalAsmara
Land Area1 101 000 km2
LocationAfrica
Population25.581 million
Life Expectancy362.011yrs (2012)
GNI3$ 531
ISO3166-1 Codes4ER, ERI, 232
Internet Domain5.er
Currency6Nakfa (ERN)
Telephone7+291

1. Overview

#ethiopia

The UN established Eritrea as an autonomous region within the Ethiopian federation in 1952. Ethiopia's full annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a violent 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991 with Eritrean rebels defeating government forces. Eritreans overwhelmingly approved independence in a 1993 referendum. ISAIAS Afworki has been Eritrea's only president since independence; his rule, particularly since 2001, has been highly autocratic and repressive. His government has created a highly militarized society by pursuing an unpopular program of mandatory conscription into national service, sometimes of indefinite length. A two-and-a-half-year border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 ended under UN auspices in December 2000. The Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC) created in April 2003 was tasked "to delimit and demarcate the colonial treaty border based on pertinent colonial treaties (1900, 1902, and 1908) and applicable international law." Eritrea for several years hosted a UN peacekeeping operation that monitored a 25 km-wide Temporary Security Zone. The EEBC on 30 November 2007 remotely demarcated the border, assigning the town of Badme to Eritrea, despite Ethiopia's maintaining forces there from the time of the 1998-2000 war. An increasingly hostile Eritrea insisted that the UN terminate its peacekeeping mission on 31 July 2008. Eritrea has accepted the EEBC's "virtual demarcation" decision and repeatedly called on Ethiopia to remove its troops. Ethiopia has not accepted the demarcation decision, and neither party has entered into meaningful dialogue to resolve the impasse. Eritrea is subject to several UN Security Council Resolutions (from 2009, 2011, and 2012) imposing various military and economic sanctions, in view of evidence that it has supported armed opposition groups in the region.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)8

2. Eritrea National and Social Development

UN's Human Development Index
Country2012
score
Average
1980-2010
1Norway95.587.3
2Australia93.888.9
3USA93.787.8
...
175Afghanistan37.426.7
176Guinea-Bissau36.435.1
177Sierra Leone35.926.9
178Guinea35.534.2
179Burundi35.525.2
180Central African Rep.35.230.9
181Eritrea35.134.5
182Mali34.425.2
183Burkina Faso34.332.9
184Chad34.030.6
185Mozambique32.725.4
186Niger30.422.3
187Congo, DR30.426.9
Data Source
Social and Moral Development
CountryScore
1Sweden88.9
2Iceland87.4
3Denmark87.2
...
160Congo, (Brazzaville)43.0
161Nigeria43.0
162Djibouti42.9
163Eritrea42.5
164Senegal42.5
165Ivory Coast42.4
166Gambia42.0
167Zambia42.0
168Malawi42.0
169Togo41.6
170Mozambique41.6
171Rwanda41.6
172Zimbabwe41.4
173Benin41.3
Data Source

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others. The values in the chart are factored by 100.

The Social and Moral Development Index is a formulaic aggregation of many factors. It concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).

3. Population and Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy (at birth)
1Japan83.6
2Hong Kong83
3Switzerland82.5
...
151Timor-Leste (E. Timor)62.9
152Namibia62.6
153Haiti62.4
154Eritrea62
155Sudan61.8
156Comoros61.5
157Senegal59.6
158Ethiopia59.7
Data Source
Fertility Rate
1Korea, N.2.0
2Brunei2.0
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.0
...
143Solomon Islands4.1
144Burundi4.1
145Ivory Coast4.3
146Eritrea4.3
147Palestine4.3
148Cameroon4.3
149Mauritania4.4
150Congo, (Brazzaville)4.5
Data Source
Population (m=millions)
CountryPeoplePer km2
1China1 353.6m145
2India1 258.35m423
3USA 315.79m35
...
108Sierra Leone6.126m86
109Nicaragua5.955m49
110Denmark5.593m132
111Eritrea5.581m55
112Slovakia5.48m114
113Kyrgyzstan5.448m28
114Finland5.403m18
Data Source

Eritrea's population is predicted to rise to 8.394 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 4.28.

The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Female Vote and Stand
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
101Ghana1954
102Honduras1955
103Nicaragua1955
104Eritrea1955
105Cambodia1955
106Peru1955
107Ethiopia1955
108Mali1956

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Eritrea and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below9:

Christian62.9%
Muslim36.6%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.4%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant10.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012), in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Eritrea states:

The 1997 constitution protects freedom of religion or belief. However, the government has yet to implement the constitution, and in practice it does not respect freedom of belief. In the past few years, there has been an increase in serious government violations of religious freedom, including mass arrests, torture and death for members of minority belief groups.

In 2002 the government decreed that all religious groups must either register or cease all religious activities. Four religious groups are now registered: the Eritrean Orthodox Church, the Evangelical (Lutheran) Church of Eritrea, Islam, and the Roman Catholic Church11. Religious facilities that did not belong to the four officially recognized religious groups were forced to close. The government retains significant control over the four registered religious groups, in most cases controlling their leadership and finances. Many places of worship have closed because of government intimidation and the mass conscription of religious workers and parishioners. The government routinely harasses and detains members of registered and unregistered religious groups, some of whom reportedly died as a result of torture and lack of medical treatment while in detention. By the end of 2011, many estimated that the population of religious prisoners remained at 2,000 to 3,000. Some arrestees reported that they were only released after they signed statements recanting their religious beliefs and agreeing to join an officially registered religion as a condition of their release.

The application for an exit visa requires a designation of religious affiliation, and members of unregistered religions or no religion require additional permission from the Office of Religious Affairs, which has been reported to grant permission, deny permission, or arrest applicants on the spot for practicing an unrecognized faith or being non-religious11.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)12

Links:

6. The Internet

Internet Users in Population
1Iceland95.64
2Norway93.28
3Netherlands90.70
...
151Djibouti6.50
152Equatorial Guinea6.00
153Botswana6.00
154Eritrea5.40
155Togo5.38
156Comoros5.10
157Solomon Islands5.00
158Congo, (Brazzaville)5.00
Data Source

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

Links:

7. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Global Peace Index
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
118Rwanda2.25
119Kenya2.25
120Algeria2.26
121Eritrea2.26
122Venezuela2.28
123Guatemala2.29
124Mauritania2.30
125Thailand2.30
Data Source
Human Rights Treaties
1Argentina24
2Ecuador23
3Germany23
...
172Guinea-Bissau8
173USA8
174Somalia8
175Eritrea8
176Sao Tome & Principe7
177Grenada7
178Indonesia7
179Korea, N.7
Data Source
Press Freedom Index
1Finland99.0
2Netherlands99.0
3Norway99.0
...
171Vietnam99.8
172China99.9
173Iran99.9
174Somalia99.9
175Syria99.9
176Turkmenistan99.9
177Korea, N.100.0
178Eritrea100.0
Data Source
Gross National Income
1Qatar$87 478
2Liechtenstein$84 880
3Kuwait$52 793
...
180Malawi$ 774
181Central African Rep.$ 722
182Niger$ 701
183Burundi$ 544
184Eritrea$ 531
185Liberia$ 480
186Zimbabwe$ 424
187Congo, DR$ 319
Data Source
Environmental Performance
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
96Jordan56.1
97Bosnia & Herzegovina55.9
98Saudi Arabia55.3
99Eritrea54.6
100Swaziland54.4
101Ivory Coast54.3
102Trinidad & Tobago54.2
103Congo, (Brazzaville)54.0
Data Source
Gay Equality
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
164Benin-50
165Oman-50
166Syria-50
167Eritrea-50
168Tunisia-50
169Cameroon-70
170Libya-70
171Qatar-70
Data Source

Current edition: 2013 May 01
http://www.humantruth.info/eritrea.html
Parent page: Vexing International Issues

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Feb 20.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2013) .^
  4. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  5. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  6. According to ISO4217.^
  7. According to ITU-T.^
  8. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/er.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  9. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  10. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  11. 2010 IRF report (US International Religious Freedom report). In IHEU 2012.^
  12. IHEU (2012) . Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^

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