The Human Truth Foundation

Eritrea (State of Eritrea)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

#eritrea

Eritrea
State of Eritrea
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index184th best
CapitalAsmara
Land Area 101 000km21
LocationAfrica
Population3.5m2
Life Expectancy64.19yrs (2017)3
GNI$1 490 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesER, ERI, 2325
Internet Domain.er6
CurrencyNakfa (ERN)7
Telephone+2918

1. Overview

#eritrea #ethiopia

"Eritrea remains a one-man dictatorship under President Isaias Afewerki, now in his 26th year in power. It has no legislature, no independent civil society organizations or media outlets, and no independent judiciary"9.

The UN established Eritrea as an autonomous region within the Ethiopian federation in 1952. Ethiopia's full annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a violent 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991 with Eritrean rebels defeating government forces. Eritreans overwhelmingly approved independence in a 1993 referendum. ISAIAS Afworki has been Eritrea's only president since independence; his rule, particularly since 2001, has been highly autocratic and repressive. His government has created a highly militarized society by pursuing an unpopular program of mandatory conscription into national service, sometimes of indefinite length. A two-and-a-half-year border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 ended under UN auspices in December 2000. The Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC) created in April 2003 was tasked "to delimit and demarcate the colonial treaty border based on pertinent colonial treaties (1900, 1902, and 1908) and applicable international law." Eritrea for several years hosted a UN peacekeeping operation that monitored a 25 km-wide Temporary Security Zone. The EEBC on 30 November 2007 remotely demarcated the border, assigning the town of Badme to Eritrea, despite Ethiopia's maintaining forces there from the time of the 1998-2000 war. An increasingly hostile Eritrea insisted that the UN terminate its peacekeeping mission on 31 July 2008. Eritrea has accepted the EEBC's "virtual demarcation" decision and repeatedly called on Ethiopia to remove its troops. Ethiopia has not accepted the demarcation decision, and neither party has entered into meaningful dialogue to resolve the impasse. Eritrea is subject to several UN Security Council Resolutions (from 2009, 2011, and 2012) imposing various military and economic sanctions, in view of evidence that it has supported armed opposition groups in the region.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)10

Book CoverEritrea, a mere sliver on the Horn of Africa, boasts a wealth of culture, history and natural beauty for travellers to experience. Historically intriguing, culturally compelling and scenically magical, Eritrea is one of the most secretive countries in Africa. For those who have a hankering for off-the-beaten-track places, it offers challenges and excitement aplenty, with a unique blend of natural and cultural highlights. The country wows visitors with its awesome scenery, from the quintessentially Abyssinian landscapes - escarpments, plateaus and soaring peaks - to the deserted beaches of the Red Sea coast.Culturally, Eritrea is a melting pot. It might be a tiddler of a country by Africa´s standards, but it hosts a kaleidoscopic range of ethnic groups who have contributed to a cultural fabric that ranges from rock-cut monasteries and Ottoman-era harbour towns, to the evening passeggiata on Asmara´s main thoroughfare.

Despite its human and natural riches, Eritrea endures the tough political and economic landscape and travellers are severely restricted. Nonetheless, this country remains one of the most inspiring destinations in Africa.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)11

Largely because of the oppressive nature of the Isaias rule and the prolonged national service, about 12 percent of Eritrea´s population has fled the country. In2016 alone, 52,000 escaped, according to the latest United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) report.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)9

2. Eritrea National and Social Development

#economics #human_development

UN HDI (2016)12
Pos.Lower is better
Rank12
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
176Congo, DR176
177Liberia177
178Guinea-Bissau178
179Eritrea179
180Sierra Leone179
181Mozambique181
182S. Sudan181
183Guinea183
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)13
Pos.Higher is better
PPP $13
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
177Burkina Faso$1 537
178Sierra Leone$1 529
179Ethiopia$1 523
180Eritrea$1 490
181Guinea-Bissau$1 369
182Comoros$1 335
183Madagascar$1 320
184Togo$1 262
World Avg$17 240
q=193.
Social & Moral
Development Index
14,15
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank14,15
1Taiwan30.2
2Denmark30.5
3Norway30.9
...
181Nauru123.2
182Guinea-Bissau123.7
183Iraq124.2
184Eritrea124.4
185Congo, DR124.8
186Micronesia125.3
187Palau125.9
188Chad127.0
World Avg86.4
q=195.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: Which are the Best Countries in the World? The Social and Moral Development Index.

3. Eritrea's Demographics

#birth_control #demographics #health #immigration #life_expectancy #longevity #migration #overpopulation #population

Population:

Eritrea's population is predicted to rise to 8.394 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 4.28. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

Population (2018)2
Pos.
Population2
1China1.4b
2India1.4b
3USA327.1m
...
129Kuwait4.1m
130Moldova4.1m
131Georgia4.0m
132Eritrea3.5m
133Uruguay3.4m
134Bosnia & Herzegovina3.3m
135Mongolia3.2m
136Armenia3.0m
World Avg39.0m
q=195.
Life Expectancy (2015)13
Pos.Higher is better
Years13
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
147Rwanda64.75
148Ethiopia64.60
149Botswana64.51
150Eritrea64.19
151Yemen64.05
152Malawi63.88
153Sudan63.73
154Comoros63.57
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Fertility Rate (2013)16
Pos.2.0 is best16
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
143Solomon Islands4.08
144Burundi4.10
145Ivory Coast4.27
146Eritrea4.28
147Palestine4.31
148Cameroon4.33
149Mauritania4.40
150Congo, (Brazzaville)4.46
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)17
Pos.Lower is better
Per 10017
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
4Burkina Faso04.7
5Sierra Leone04.8
6Zambia04.8
7Eritrea04.9
8Gambia04.9
9Angola05.0
10Afghanistan05.0
11Zimbabwe05.0
12Nigeria05.1
World Avg18.3
q=185.

Migration:

Immigrants (2017)18
Pos.
%18
1UAE88.4%
2Kuwait75.5%
3Qatar65.2%
...
178Afghanistan0.4%
179Haiti0.4%
180Brazil0.4%
181Eritrea0.3%
182Somalia0.3%
183Lesotho0.3%
184Peru0.3%
185Colombia0.3%
World Avg9.4%
q=195.
Emigrants (2010)19
Pos.
%19
1Dominica104.8%
2Palestine68.4%
3Samoa67.3%
...
30El Salvador20.5%
31Micronesia19.7%
32Belarus18.4%
33Eritrea18.0%
34Croatia17.1%
35Liechtenstein17.1%
36Cyprus17.0%
37Marshall Islands16.6%
World Avg11.5%
q=192.

4. Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #eritrea #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Eritrea is amongst the worst places in the world at ensuring human rights and freedom, and it has severe cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Eritrea does better than average in terms of speed of uptake of HR treaties20. When it comes to most other metrics, Eritrea does not do well. It does worse than average for LGBT equality21 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights22 (amongst the lowest in Africa). It falls into the worst 20 in terms of commentary in Human Rights Watch reports23. And finally, it is the worst in supporting press freedom24. In 2001, "the government closed all independent newspapers and arrested their editors and leading journalists. None were brought to trial. They remain in solitary detention. There are reliable reports that about half of them had died"9. "Eritreans are subject to arbitrary imprisonment. Arrest and harsh punishment including torture, are at the whim of security force commanders without trial or appeal"9.

For tables, charts and commentary, see:

5. Eritrea's Health

#alcohol #birth_control #demographics #Eritrea #health #life_expectancy #longevity #obesity #overpopulation #parenting #population #smoking #vaccines

Health (2020)25,26
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank25,26
1Hong Kong18.0
2Singapore41.5
3Maldives43.3
...
39Antigua & Barbuda77.7
40Myanmar (Burma)78.3
41Belgium78.4
42Eritrea78.4
43Nepal78.6
44Bahrain79.0
45India79.1
46Cyprus79.3
47Slovenia79.8
World Avg92.3
q=187.

The countries with the best overall approach to public health, in terms of both public policy and individual lifestyle choices, are Hong Kong, Singapore and The Maldives25. These countries are worth emulating. And, although often through no fault of the average citizen, the worst countries are S. Sudan, Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea25.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are its average life expectancy, its alcohol consumption rate, its fertility rate, its smoking rate, its suicide rate, its food aid and health contributions and WHO compliance, the prevalence of overweight adults, its adolescent birth rate and its immunizations take-up. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Asia and Europe25, whereas the worst are Africa, Micronesia and Polynesia25.

Health:

Eritrea does relatively well in encouraging good health, compared to many other countries. Eritrea does better than average in its smoking rate27, its alcohol consumption rate28 and in its immunizations take-up29. Eritrea does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in terms of its adolescent birth rate30 (still good for Africa), its fertility rate16 and in its average life expectancy13 (still high for Africa). The number of overweight adults has increased by 14% during the last 40 years.
Life Expectancy (2015)13
Pos.Higher is better
Years13
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
147Rwanda64.75
148Ethiopia64.60
149Botswana64.51
150Eritrea64.19
151Yemen64.05
152Malawi63.88
153Sudan63.73
154Comoros63.57
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Alcohol Consumption (2016)28
Pos.Lower is better
Per Capita28
1Bangladesh0.0
2Kuwait0.0
3Libya0.0
...
28Iran1.0
29Vanuatu1.0
30Papua New Guinea1.2
31Eritrea1.3
32Guinea1.3
33Mali1.3
34Solomon Islands1.4
35Tonga1.5
World Avg6.2
q=189.
Fertility Rate (2013)16
Pos.2.0 is best16
1N. Korea2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
143Solomon Islands4.08
144Burundi4.10
145Ivory Coast4.27
146Eritrea4.28
147Palestine4.31
148Cameroon4.33
149Mauritania4.40
150Congo, (Brazzaville)4.46
World Avg2.81
q=180.
Smoking Rates (2014)27
Pos.Higher is worse27
182Montenegro4 125
181Belarus3 831
180Lebanon3 023
...
28Somalia 117
27Peru 116
26Haiti 114
25Eritrea 114
24India 111
23Sao Tome & Principe 111
22Niger 105
21Liberia 104
World Avg 819
q=182.
Overweight Adults (2016)31
Pos.Lower is better
%31
1Vietnam18.3
2India19.7
3Bangladesh20.0
4Ethiopia20.9
5Nepal21.0
6Timor-Leste (E. Timor)21.6
7Cambodia21.7
8Niger22.0
9Eritrea22.0
10Burundi22.2
11Uganda22.4
12Afghanistan23.0
World Avg49.0
q=191.

Children's Health:

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)30
Pos.Lower is better
Per 100030
1N. Korea0.5
2S. Korea1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
112Cambodia51.6
113Egypt51.9
114St Lucia53.9
115Eritrea54.3
116Papua New Guinea54.8
117Uruguay56.1
118Costa Rica56.5
119Seychelles57.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)29
Pos.Higher is better
Avg %29
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
70Belize95.1
71Algeria95.0
72Tuvalu94.9
73Eritrea94.7
74Singapore94.6
75UK94.6
76Solomon Islands94.5
77Norway94.3
World Avg88.3
q=194.

6. Eritrea's Modernity and Learning

#education #the_internet

Modernity and Education:

Length of Schooling (2018)32
Pos.Higher is better
Years32
1Australia22.1
2Belgium19.7
3Finland19.3
...
186Sudan7.7
187Mali7.6
188Central African Rep.7.6
189Chad7.5
190Djibouti6.5
191Niger6.5
192Eritrea5.0
193S. Sudan5.0
World Avg13.2
q=193.

Technology and Information:

Internet Users (2016)33
Pos.Higher is better33
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
194Myanmar (Burma)3%
195Sierra Leone2%
196Niger2%
197Guinea2%
198Somalia2%
199Burundi2%
200Timor-Leste (E. Timor)1%
201Eritrea1%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.

7. National Culture

#corruption #politics

Corruption (2012-2016)34
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score34
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
158Cambodia21.0
159Chad20.4
160Burundi20.2
161Eritrea19.8
162Angola19.4
163Guinea-Bissau19.2
164Syria18.8
165Haiti18.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.

8. Peace Versus Instability

#human_development #peace #politics

Global Peace Index (2012)35
Pos.Lower is better35
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
118Rwanda2.25
119Kenya2.25
120Algeria2.26
121Eritrea2.26
122Venezuela2.28
123Guatemala2.29
124Mauritania2.30
125Thailand2.30
World Avg2.02
q=157.

9. The Natural Environment

#biodiversity #climate_change #over-exploitation #the_environment

Forest Area Change 1990-2015 (2015)36
Pos.Higher is better
%36
1Iceland205.6
2Bahrain144.4
3Uruguay131.3
...
128Solomon Islands-06.0
129Mauritius-06.1
130Kenya-06.6
131Eritrea-06.8
132St Lucia-06.9
133Portugal-07.5
134Zambia-07.9
135Brunei-08.0
World Avg02.8
q=184.
Environmental Performance (2018)37
Pos.Higher is better37
1Switzerland87.4
2France84.0
3Denmark81.6
...
162Swaziland40.3
163Djibouti40.0
164Papua New Guinea39.4
165Eritrea39.3
166Mauritania39.2
167Benin38.2
168Afghanistan37.7
169Pakistan37.5
World Avg56.4
q=180.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Pos.Earlier is better
Signed
1China1993 Dec 29
2Guinea1993 Dec 29
3Cook Islands1993 Dec 29
...
143Niue1996 May 28
144Madagascar1996 Jun 02
145Tanzania1996 Jun 06
146Eritrea1996 Jun 19
147Ireland1996 Jun 20
148Bulgaria1996 Jul 16
149Rwanda1996 Aug 27
150St Vincent & Grenadines1996 Sep 01
World Avg1899 Dec 30
q=197.

10. Economic Inequality and Poverty

#health #inequality #life_expectancy

Inequality in Life Expectancy (2019)38
Pos.Higher is worse38
184Chad40.90
183Central African Rep.40.10
182Sierra Leone39.00
...
137Kenya22.50
136Namibia22.10
135Timor-Leste (E. Timor)21.70
134Eritrea21.40
133Senegal21.20
132Madagascar21.10
131India19.70
130Rwanda19.50
World Avg14.59
q=184.

11. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #eritrea #hinduism #islam #judaism

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below39:

Christian62.9%
Muslim36.6%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.4%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant40.

Freedom of Religion and Belief: The government does not respect its peoples' right to freedom of religion and belief. In recent years there has been an "increase in serious government violations of religious freedom, including mass arrests, torture and death for members of minority belief groups"41. Since 2002, only four official religious groups have been allowed to exist (Sunni Islam, Eritrean Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Evangelical (Lutheran)9,42 and the government controls them closely. Failure to be a member of one of them is enough to be denied government services, and sometimes even arrested on the spot41.

Links: