The Human Truth Foundation

Eritrea (State of Eritrea)

By Vexen Crabtree 2013

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#eritrea

Eritrea
State of Eritrea
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index153rd best
CapitalAsmara
Land Area 101 000km21
LocationAfrica
Population5.6m (2011)2
Life Expectancy64.19yrs (2017)3
GNI$1 490 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesER, ERI, 2325
Internet Domain.er6
CurrencyNakfa (ERN)7
Telephone+2918

1. Overview

#ethiopia

The UN established Eritrea as an autonomous region within the Ethiopian federation in 1952. Ethiopia's full annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years later sparked a violent 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991 with Eritrean rebels defeating government forces. Eritreans overwhelmingly approved independence in a 1993 referendum. ISAIAS Afworki has been Eritrea's only president since independence; his rule, particularly since 2001, has been highly autocratic and repressive. His government has created a highly militarized society by pursuing an unpopular program of mandatory conscription into national service, sometimes of indefinite length. A two-and-a-half-year border war with Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 ended under UN auspices in December 2000. The Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC) created in April 2003 was tasked "to delimit and demarcate the colonial treaty border based on pertinent colonial treaties (1900, 1902, and 1908) and applicable international law." Eritrea for several years hosted a UN peacekeeping operation that monitored a 25 km-wide Temporary Security Zone. The EEBC on 30 November 2007 remotely demarcated the border, assigning the town of Badme to Eritrea, despite Ethiopia's maintaining forces there from the time of the 1998-2000 war. An increasingly hostile Eritrea insisted that the UN terminate its peacekeeping mission on 31 July 2008. Eritrea has accepted the EEBC's "virtual demarcation" decision and repeatedly called on Ethiopia to remove its troops. Ethiopia has not accepted the demarcation decision, and neither party has entered into meaningful dialogue to resolve the impasse. Eritrea is subject to several UN Security Council Resolutions (from 2009, 2011, and 2012) imposing various military and economic sanctions, in view of evidence that it has supported armed opposition groups in the region.

CIA's The World Factbook (2013)9

Book CoverEritrea, a mere sliver on the Horn of Africa, boasts a wealth of culture, history and natural beauty for travellers to experience. Historically intriguing, culturally compelling and scenically magical, Eritrea is one of the most secretive countries in Africa. For those who have a hankering for off-the-beaten-track places, it offers challenges and excitement aplenty, with a unique blend of natural and cultural highlights. The country wows visitors with its awesome scenery, from the quintessentially Abyssinian landscapes – escarpments, plateaus and soaring peaks – to the deserted beaches of the Red Sea coast.Culturally, Eritrea is a melting pot. It might be a tiddler of a country by Africa´s standards, but it hosts a kaleidoscopic range of ethnic groups who have contributed to a cultural fabric that ranges from rock-cut monasteries and Ottoman-era harbour towns, to the evening passeggiata on Asmara´s main thoroughfare.

Despite its human and natural riches, Eritrea endures the tough political and economic landscape and travellers are severely restricted. Nonetheless, this country remains one of the most inspiring destinations in Africa.

"The World" by Lonely Planet (2014)10

2. Eritrea National and Social Development

UN HDI (2016)
Lower is better

Rank11
1Norway1
2Australia2
3Switzerland2
...
176Congo, DR176
177Liberia177
178Guinea-Bissau178
179Eritrea179
180Sierra Leone179
181Mozambique181
182S. Sudan181
183Guinea183
World Avg94.3
q=188.
Social & Moral
Development Index
Higher is better

Points12
1Iceland84.1
2Sweden80.8
3Norway80.0
...
150Lesotho47.1
151Swaziland46.9
152Cambodia46.5
153Eritrea46.4
154Papua New Guinea46.2
155Saudi Arabia46.2
156Burkina Faso46.2
157Nauru45.5
World Avg54.5
q=198.

The United Nations produces an annual Human Development Report which includes the Human Development Index. The factors taken into account include life expectancy, education and schooling and Gross National Income (GNI) amongst many others..

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

3. Population and Demographics

Old-Age Dependency Ratio (2016)
Lower is better

Per 10013
1Uganda04.3
2Mali04.5
3Chad04.7
4Burkina Faso04.7
5Sierra Leone04.8
6Zambia04.8
7Eritrea04.9
8Gambia04.9
9Angola05.0
10Afghanistan05.0
11Zimbabwe05.0
12Nigeria05.1
World Avg18.3
q=185.
Emigrants (2010)
%14
1Dominica104.8
2Palestine68.4
3Samoa67.3
...
30El Salvador20.5
31Micronesia19.7
32Belarus18.4
33Eritrea18.0
34Croatia17.1
35Liechtenstein17.1
36Cyprus17.0
37Marshall Islands16.6
World Avg11.5
q=192.
Fertility Rate (2013)
2.0 is best
15
1Korea, N.2.00
2Brunei1.99
3St Vincent & Grenadines2.01
...
143Solomon Islands4.08
144Burundi4.10
145Ivory Coast4.27
146Eritrea4.28
147Palestine4.31
148Cameroon4.33
149Mauritania4.40
150Congo, (Brazzaville)4.46
World Avg2.81
q=180.

Immigrants (2010)
%14
1Qatar86.5
2Monaco71.6
3UAE70.0
...
173Vanuatu0.3
174Tunisia0.3
175Honduras0.3
176Eritrea0.3
177Afghanistan0.3
178Lesotho0.3
179Laos0.3
180Egypt0.3
World Avg9.2
q=192.
Life Expectancy (2015)
Higher is better

Years16
1Hong Kong84.16
2Japan83.68
3Italy83.34
...
147Rwanda64.75
148Ethiopia64.60
149Botswana64.51
150Eritrea64.19
151Yemen64.05
152Malawi63.88
153Sudan63.73
154Comoros63.57
World Avg71.27
q=190.
Population (2012)17
1China1.4b
2India1.3b
3USA315.8m
...
108Sierra Leone6.1m
109Nicaragua6.0m
110Denmark5.6m
111Eritrea5.6m
112Slovakia5.5m
113Kyrgyzstan5.4m
114Finland5.4m
115Singapore5.3m
World Avg36.0m
q=195.

Eritrea's population is predicted to rise to 8.394 million by 2030. These millions of extra people will all need space to live, food to eat, energy to consume, and will increase the burden on the planet's resources. This country has a fertility rate of 4.28. The fertility rate is, in simple terms, the average amount of children that each woman has. The higher the figure, the quicker the population is growing, although, to calculate the rate you also need to take into account morbidity, i.e., the rate at which people die. If people live healthy and long lives and morbidity is low, then, 2.0 approximates to the replacement rate, which would keep the population stable. If all countries had such a fertility rate, population growth would end. The actual replacement rate in most developed countries is around 2.1.

4. Gender Equality

Year Women Can Vote
Lower is better

Year18
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
102Nicaragua1955
103Ethiopia1955
104Peru1955
105Eritrea1955
106Honduras1955
107Cambodia1955
108Mali1956
109Benin1956
World Avg1930
q=189.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Eritrea and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting.

See:

5. Religion and Beliefs

#buddhism #christianity #hinduism #islam #judaism

Data from the Pew Forum, a professional polling outfit, states that in 2010 the religious makeup of this country was as follows in the table below19:

Christian62.9%
Muslim36.6%
Hindu0.1%
Buddhist0.1%
Folk Religion0.4%
Jew0.1%
Unaffiliated0.1%

The CIA World Factbook has slightly different data, and states: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant20.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012), in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Eritrea states:

The 1997 constitution protects freedom of religion or belief. However, the government has yet to implement the constitution, and in practice it does not respect freedom of belief. In the past few years, there has been an increase in serious government violations of religious freedom, including mass arrests, torture and death for members of minority belief groups.

In 2002 the government decreed that all religious groups must either register or cease all religious activities. Four religious groups are now registered: the Eritrean Orthodox Church, the Evangelical (Lutheran) Church of Eritrea, Islam, and the Roman Catholic Church21. Religious facilities that did not belong to the four officially recognized religious groups were forced to close. The government retains significant control over the four registered religious groups, in most cases controlling their leadership and finances. Many places of worship have closed because of government intimidation and the mass conscription of religious workers and parishioners. The government routinely harasses and detains members of registered and unregistered religious groups, some of whom reportedly died as a result of torture and lack of medical treatment while in detention. By the end of 2011, many estimated that the population of religious prisoners remained at 2,000 to 3,000. Some arrestees reported that they were only released after they signed statements recanting their religious beliefs and agreeing to join an officially registered religion as a condition of their release.

The application for an exit visa requires a designation of religious affiliation, and members of unregistered religions or no religion require additional permission from the Office of Religious Affairs, which has been reported to grant permission, deny permission, or arrest applicants on the spot for practicing an unrecognized faith or being non-religious21.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)22

Links:

6. The Internet

Internet Users (2016)
Higher is better
23
1Iceland100%
2Faroe Islands99%
3Norway98%
...
194Myanmar (Burma)3%
195Sierra Leone2%
196Niger2%
197Guinea2%
198Somalia2%
199Burundi2%
200Timor-Leste (E. Timor)1%
201Eritrea1%
World Avg48.1%
q=201.

Internet access has become an essential research tool. It facilitates an endless list of life improvements, from the ability to network and socialize without constraint, to access to a seemingly infinite repository of technical and procedural information on pretty much any task. The universal availability of data has sped up industrial development and personal learning at the national and personal level. Individuals can read any topic they wish regardless of the locality of expert teachers, and, entire nations can develop their technology and understanding of the world simply because they are now exposed to advanced societies and moral discourses online. Like every communications medium, the Internet has issues and causes a small range of problems, but these are insignificant compared to the advantages of having an online populace.

7. Public Health Issues

Adolescent Birth Rate (2015)
Lower is better

Per 100024
1Korea, N.0.5
2Korea, S.1.6
3Switzerland2.9
...
112Cambodia51.6
113Egypt51.9
114St Lucia53.9
115Eritrea54.3
116Papua New Guinea54.8
117Uruguay56.1
118Costa Rica56.5
119Seychelles57.4
World Avg47.9
q=185.
Alcohol Consumption (2010)
Lower is better

Per Capita25
1Libya0.1
2Pakistan0.1
3Kuwait0.1
...
23Brunei0.9
24Iran1.0
25Algeria1.0
26Eritrea1.1
27Mali1.1
28Syria1.2
29Maldives1.2
30Djibouti1.3
World Avg6.2
q=191.
Infant Immunizations 2011-2015 (2015)
Higher is better

Avg %26
1Hungary99.0
2China99.0
3Uzbekistan98.9
...
70Belize95.1
71Algeria95.0
72Tuvalu94.9
73Eritrea94.7
74Singapore94.6
75UK94.6
76Solomon Islands94.5
77Norway94.3
World Avg88.3
q=194.

Smoking Rates (2014)
Lower is better
27
1Guinea 15
2Solomon Islands 26
3Kiribati 28
...
22Niger 105
23Sao Tome & Principe 111
24India 111
25Eritrea 114
26Haiti 114
27Peru 116
28Somalia 117
29Ghana 121
World Avg 819
q=182.

8. Politics and Freedom

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)
Higher is better

Treaties28
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
172Guinea-Bissau8
173USA8
174Somalia8
175Eritrea8
176Indonesia7
177Korea, N.7
178Sao Tome & Principe7
179Grenada7
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Press Freedom (2013)
Lower is better
29
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
171Vietnam7178
172China7307
173Iran7340
174Somalia7359
175Syria7853
176Turkmenistan7914
177Korea, N.8390
178Eritrea8483
World Avg3249
q=178.

9. More Charts and Comparisons to Other Countries

Global Peace Index (2012)
Lower is better
30
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
118Rwanda2.25
119Kenya2.25
120Algeria2.26
121Eritrea2.26
122Venezuela2.28
123Guatemala2.29
124Mauritania2.30
125Thailand2.30
q=157.
Gross National Income Per-Capita (2011)
Higher is better
PPP $16
1Qatar$129 916
2Singapore$78 162
3Kuwait$76 075
...
177Burkina Faso$1 537
178Sierra Leone$1 529
179Ethiopia$1 523
180Eritrea$1 490
181Guinea-Bissau$1 369
182Comoros$1 335
183Madagascar$1 320
184Togo$1 262
q=193.
Environmental Performance (2010)
Higher is better
31
1Iceland93.5
2Switzerland89.1
3Costa Rica86.4
...
96Jordan56.1
97Bosnia & Herzegovina55.9
98Saudi Arabia55.3
99Eritrea54.6
100Swaziland54.4
101Ivory Coast54.3
102Trinidad & Tobago54.2
103Congo, (Brazzaville)54.0
q=162.
LGBT Equality (2013)
Higher is better

Score32
1Netherlands405
2Belgium350
3Canada280
...
159Pakistan-40
160Algeria-40
161Syria-50
162Eritrea-50
163Tunisia-50
164Togo-50
165Botswana-50
166Benin-50
q=211.

Current edition: 2013 May 01
Last Modified: 2017 Jun 20
http://www.humantruth.info/eritrea.html
Parent page: Compare International Statistics by Region and Continent

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#buddhism #christianity #eritrea #ethiopia #hinduism #islam #judaism

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References: (What's this?)

CIA
(2013) World Factbook. The USA Government's Central Intelligence Agency (USA CIA) publishes The World Factbook, and the online version is frequently updated.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2017) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2017). Accessed 2017 Aug 01.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Lonely Planet
(2014) The World. Subtitled: "A Traveller's Guide to the Planet". Published by Lonely Planet, London, UK. Each chapter is devoted to a specific country and includes a list of the most interesting places to visit and a few other cultural notes..

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Published on the United Nation's website at hdr.undp.org/.../HDR_2011_EN_Complete.pdf (accessed throughout 2013, Jan-Mar). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2013) Human Development Report. This edition had the theme of The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. Published on the United Nation's HDR website at hdr.undp.org/.../hdr2013/ (accessed throughout 2013). UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Analysis conducted by the UN Development Report Office. Available on hdr.undp.org/..

World Health Organisation. (WHO)
(2014) Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health. A copy can be found on the WHO website. Accessed 2015 Jan 04. It "presents a comprehensive perspective on the global, regional and country consumption of alcohol, patterns of drinking, health consequences and policy responses in Member States" and was published in Geneva on 2014 May 12.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017) Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017) Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/er.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  10. Lonely Planet (2014) chapter "Eritrea" .^
  11. UN (2017) Table 1. Lower is better.^
  12. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  13. UN (2017) Dashboard 2. Higher is worse. Old-age is counted as 65+, and ratio is of these to people ages 15-64. Projections are for 2030 based on medium-fertility variant of growth.^
  14. UN (2013) Table 11.^
  15. UN (2013) Table 14. Births per woman (2012), expressed as deviance (positive or negative) from the value of 2.0.^
  16. UN (2017) Table 1. Higher is better.^^
  17. UN (2013) Table 14.^
  18. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 3.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote (1893+) New Zealand, Australia, Finland" by Vexen Crabtree (2017)^
  19. Pew Forum (2012) publication "The Global Religious Landscape: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World´s Major Religious Groups as of 2010" (2012 Dec 18) accessed 2013 May 01.^
  20. CIA (2013) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html accessed 2014 Apr 27.^
  21. 2010 IRF report (US International Religious Freedom report). In IHEU 2012.^
  22. IHEU (2012) . Added to this page on 2013 Oct 28.^
  23. internetlivestats.com/internet-users-by-country accessed 2017 Mar 10.^
  24. UN (2017) Table 5. Lower is better.^
  25. WHO (2014) Appendix 1. Alcohol Per Capita Consumption in liters of pure alcohol, 15+ years age population, consumed in 2010. Lower is better.^
  26. World Health Organisation data for 2011-2015 from 7 data series accessed 2017 May 21. Details in "Immunizations: International Statistics on Vaccines and the Autism Scare: 3. World Health Organisation Statistics" by Vexen Crabtree (2017).^
  27. Annual Cigarette Consumption Per Adult (age 15 and above) - compustible cigarettes. Euromonitor International (2014), via tobaccoatlas.org/topic/cigarette-use-globally/ . Accessed 2017 Jun 20.^
  28. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  29. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^
  30. ^
  31. UN (2011) Table 6. Higher is better.^
  32. Higher is better. Sources:^

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