The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Kazakhstan

By Vexen Crabtree 2018


Comments:
FB, LJ

#equality #freedom #human_rights #kazakhstan #politics #tolerance

Kazakhstan
Republic of Kazakhstan

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalAstana
Land Area2 699 700km21
LocationAsia
Population16.4m (2011)2
Life Expectancy69.59yrs (2017)3
GNI$22 093 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesKZ, KAZ, 3985
Internet Domain.kz6
CurrencyTenge (KZT)7
Telephone+78

Kazakhstan is very poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world, and it has cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Kazakhstan does worse than average in eliminating modern slavery9, commentary from Human Rights Watch10, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms11, its Global Peace Index rating12, LGBT equality13 and in fighting corruption14. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in supporting press freedom15. LGBT folk hide their sexual orientation out of fear of reprisals or discrimination, and they face hostility from authorities16. Kazakhstan seemed determined in 2017 to make its overall record even worse; suppressing independent trade union activity and persecuting critics and journalists, and threatening to further decrease citizen's religious freedoms16. Torture and ill-treatment in detention persist16.


1. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #Kazakhstan #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

[In 2017, Kazakhstan's] human rights record further deteriorated. Authorities suppressed independent trade union activity and continued to target government critics, including journalists, with politically motivated criminal charges and other harassment. Several activists and union leaders remain wrongfully imprisoned. The government is considering legislative amendments that appear to propose even further restrictions on freedom of religion. Impunity for torture and ill-treatment in detention persist. [...] Authorities continued to misuse the vague and overbroad criminal charge of "inciting discord" to target outspoken activists and others.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)16

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)17
Pos.Lower is better
%17
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
47Russia30
48Bolivia30
49Georgia32
50Kazakhstan32
51Bangladesh32
52Bosnia & Herzegovina32
53Costa Rica32
54Uruguay33
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)14
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score14
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
134Madagascar28.4
135Lebanon28.2
136Russia28.2
137Kazakhstan28.0
138Nicaragua27.6
139Iran27.2
140Nigeria26.6
141Ukraine26.6
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)12
Pos.Lower is better12
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
101Mali2.13
102Sri Lanka2.15
103Congo, (Brazzaville)2.15
104Kazakhstan2.15
105Saudi Arabia2.18
106Haiti2.18
107Cambodia2.21
108Belarus2.21
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)10
Pos.Higher is better
Score10
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
95Bangladesh-6
96Bosnia & Herzegovina-6
97Jordan-6
98Kazakhstan-6
99Cuba-6
100Yemen-7
101Egypt-7
102Equatorial Guinea-7
World Avg-1.9
q=123.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)18
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties18
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
59Netherlands19
60Nicaragua19
61Canada19
62Kazakhstan19
63Luxembourg19
64Greece19
65Ireland19
66Lithuania18
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
93Botswana93
94Liberia94
95Lesotho94
96Kazakhstan96
97Ecuador97
98Kyrgyzstan98
99Tanzania99
100Uganda100
World Avg79.7
q=159.

Press Freedom (2013)15
Pos.Lower is better15
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
156Belarus4835
157Egypt4866
158Pakistan5131
159Kazakhstan5508
160Rwanda5546
161Sri Lanka5659
162Saudi Arabia5688
163Uzbekistan6039
World Avg3249
q=178.

Continuing a long-term trend of press persecution, in 2017 "independent and opposition journalists continued to face harassment, physical attacks, and spurious criminal prosecutions16.

Slavery (2018)9
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims9
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
82Cape Verde0.41
83Kyrgyzstan0.41
84Cyprus0.42
85Kazakhstan0.42
86Lesotho0.42
87Georgia0.43
88Romania0.43
89Vietnam0.45
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory19. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends20. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life21. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves22.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery23. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity24. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.25. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi9, Eritrea9, Indonesia26) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery27.

2. Gender Equality

#gender #Kazakhstan #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)28
Pos.Lower is better28
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
39Slovakia0.18
40Serbia0.18
41Latvia0.19
42Kazakhstan0.20
43USA0.20
44Malta0.22
45Bulgaria0.22
46UAE0.23
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Year Women Can Vote29
Pos.Lower is better
Year29
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
180Central African Rep.1986
181Namibia1989
182Samoa1990
183Kazakhstan1993
184Moldova1994
185Oman1994
186Qatar2003
187Kuwait2005
World Avg1930
q=189.

Kazakhstan is on the way towards ending gender inequality but women are still in an unfavourable position much of the time.

In July [2017], President Nursultan Nazarbaev signed amendments to the criminal code decriminalizing battery and light bodily harm, including in cases of domestic violence. The law does not envisage criminal sanctions for repeat offenses.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)16

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #Kazakhstan #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)13
Pos.Higher is better
Score13
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
109Tajikistan11
110Gabon10
111Bahamas10
112Kazakhstan8
113N. Korea8
114Rwanda7
115Congo, (Brazzaville)5
116Madagascar5
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence30. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws31. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries30. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people hide their sexual orientation or gender identity out of fear of reprisals or discrimination. On rare occasions when LGBT people report abuse, they can face indifference and hostility from authorities. Transgender people must undergo humiliating and invasive procedures - including a psychiatric diagnosis and coerced sterilization - to change gender on official documents. Feminita, an Almaty-based lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) group, reported that “police not only use vulgar, evil, insulting jokes, but also blackmail, [and] sometimes violence".

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)16

4. Kazakhstan Overall National and Social Development

#human_development #Kazakhstan

Social & Moral
Development Index
32
Pos.Higher is better
Points32
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
113Ghana49.6
114Grenada49.6
115Namibia49.5
116Kazakhstan49.5
117Vanuatu49.4
118Antigua & Barbuda49.4
119Kenya49.4
120Samoa49.4
121Belize49.2
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

Current edition: 2018 Dec 30
http://www.humantruth.info/kazakhstan_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Kazakhstan (Republic of Kazakhstan)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #Kazakhstan #mass_media #misogyny #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  10. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^^
  11. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  12. ^^
  13. Sources:^^
  14. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  15. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  16. Human Rights Watch (2018). p311-316.^^^^
  17. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^
  18. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  19. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  20. McCall (1979). p180.^
  21. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  22. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  23. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  24. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  25. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  26. Klein (2004) .^
  27. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  28. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^
  29. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.9. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  30. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  31. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  32. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^

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