The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in United Arab Emirates

By Vexen Crabtree 2019


Comments:
FB, LJ

#equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance #united_arab_emirates

United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalAbu Dhabi
Land Area 83 600km21
LocationAsia, Middle East
Population8.1m (2011)2
Life Expectancy77.12yrs (2017)3
GNI$66 203 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesAE, ARE, 7845
Internet Domain.ae6
CurrencyDirham (AED)7
Telephone+9718

The United Arab Emirates is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. The UAE comes in the top 20 in eliminating modern slavery9. It does better than average in fighting corruption10, its Global Peace Index rating11 and in opposing gender inequality12. The UAE does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in commentary from Human Rights Watch13, supporting press freedom14 and in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms15. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in fighting anti-semitic opinions16, its nominal commitment to Human Rights17 and in LGBT equality18. UAE's government does not tolerate criticism and "arbitrarily detains and forcibly disappears" critics19. It has "continued to play a leading role in the Saudi-led coalition, which has conducted scores of unlawful attacks in Yemen"19. Despite some improvements, migrant construction workers "face serious exploitation"19.


1. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery #United_Arab_Emirates

UAE authorities have launched a sustained assault on freedom of expression and association since 2011. UAE residents who have spoken about human rights issues are at serious risk of arbitrary detention, imprisonment, and torture. Many are serving long prison terms or have left the country under pressure.

The UAE´s 2014 counterterrorism law provides for the death penalty for people whose activities “undermine national unity or social peace,” neither of which the law defines.

In March [2017], the UAE detained Ahmed Mansoor, an award-winning human rights defender, who is facing speech-related charges that include using social media websites to “publish false information that harms national unity.” Before his arrest, Mansoor had called for the release of Osama al-Najjar, who remains in prison despite having completed a three-year prison sentence on charges related to his peaceful activities on Twitter.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)16
Pos.Lower is better
%16
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
90Lebanon78
91Morocco80
92Qatar80
93UAE80
94Jordan81
95Bahrain81
96Kuwait82
97Tunisia86
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)10
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score10
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
23Chile70.4
24France70.0
25Bahamas69.8
26UAE68.6
27St Lucia68.3
28Estonia68.2
29Qatar67.4
30Bhutan64.2
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)11
Pos.Lower is better11
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
43Lithuania1.74
44Argentina1.76
45Latvia1.77
46UAE1.79
47Kuwait1.79
48Mozambique1.80
49Namibia1.80
50Ghana1.81
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)13
Pos.Higher is better
Score13
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
88Lebanon-5
89Mali-5
90Israel-5
91UAE-6
92Rwanda-6
93Uzbekistan-6
94Iraq-6
95Bangladesh-6
World Avg-1.9
q=123.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)17
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties17
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
177N. Korea7
178Sao Tome & Principe7
179Grenada7
180UAE7
181St Lucia6
182Brunei6
183Tonga6
184Pakistan6
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)15
Pos.Lower is better
Rank15
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
115Malaysia115
116Russia115
117Qatar117
118UAE118
119Guinea-Bissau118
120Oman120
121Timor-Leste (E. Timor)120
122Burundi122
World Avg79.7
q=159.

Press Freedom (2013)14
Pos.Lower is better14
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
110Panama3295
111Montenegro3297
112Israel3297
113UAE3349
114Nigeria3411
115Macedonia3427
116Venezuela3444
117Nepal3461
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)9
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims9
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
18Sweden0.16
19Ireland0.17
20Lebanon0.17
21UAE0.17
22Finland0.17
23Austria0.17
24Switzerland0.17
25Brazil0.18
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory20. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends21. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life22. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves23.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery24. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity25. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.26. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi9, Eritrea9, Indonesia27) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery28.

Foreign nationals account for more than 88.5 percent of the UAE´s population, according to 2011 government statistics. Many low-paid migrant workers remain acutely vulnerable to forced labor, despite some reforms. [...] Domestic workers [face] a range of abuses,from unpaid wages, confinement to the house, workdays up to 21 hours with no breaks, to physical or sexual assault by employers. [...]

The UAE has made some reforms to increase domestic worker protection. In September, the president signed a bill on domestic workers that guarantees domestic workers labor rights for the first time including a weekly rest day, 30 days of paid annual leave, sick leave, and 12 hours of rest a day. In some cases, the law allows for inspections of recruitment agency offices, workplaces, and residences, and sets out penalties for violations. But, the 2017 law does not prohibit employers from charging reimbursement for recruitment expenses and requires that workers who terminate employment without a breach of contract compensate their employers with one month´s salary and pay for their own tickets home.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

2. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #United_Arab_Emirates #women

Gender Inequality (2015)12
Pos.Lower is better12
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
43USA0.20
44Malta0.22
45Bulgaria0.22
46UAE0.23
47Moldova0.23
48Bahrain0.23
49Hungary0.25
50Saudi Arabia0.26
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

The UAE is on the way towards ending gender inequality but women are still in an unfavourable position much of the time.

UAE's 2015 anti-discrimination law does not tackle discrimination based on gender, domestic violence is not illegal, and the legal itself is inherently biased against women, using Islamic law as its basis.19.

. For a woman to marry, her male guardian must conclude her marriage contract; men have the right to unilaterally divorce their wives, whereas a woman must apply for a court order to obtain a divorce; a woman can lose her right to maintenance if, for example, she refuses to have sexual relations with her husband without a lawful excuse; and women are required to “obey” their husbands.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #sexuality #tolerance #United_Arab_Emirates

LGBT Equality (2017)18
Pos.Higher is better
Score18
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
179Tonga-30
180Tuvalu-30
181Mauritania-32
182UAE-34
183Kuwait-37
184Algeria-37
185Tunisia-39
186Guinea-39
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence29. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws30. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries29. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

Some states (emirates) in UAE directly outlaw homosexuality, wrongly calling it "unnatural sex"19 despite the fact that homosexuality is documented in a great number of natural animals in the wild, and in other states generic laws on "indecency" and sex outside of marriage are used to persecute anyone involved in same-sex relations19.

4. United Arab Emirates Overall National and Social Development

#human_development #United_Arab_Emirates

Social & Moral
Development Index
31
Pos.Higher is better
Points31
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
55S. Africa58.5
56Albania58.0
57Brazil58.0
58UAE57.3
59Jamaica57.2
60Fiji57.2
61Turkey57.1
62Macedonia57.0
63Moldova57.0
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

Current edition: 2019 Jan 01
http://www.humantruth.info/united_arab_emirates_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: United Arab Emirates (United Arab Emirates)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #mass_media #misogyny #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #United_Arab_Emirates #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  10. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  11. ^^
  12. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  13. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^^
  14. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  15. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  16. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  17. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  18. Sources:^^
  19. Human Rights Watch (2018). p586-590.^^^^
  20. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  21. McCall (1979). p180.^
  22. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  23. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  24. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  25. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  26. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  27. Klein (2004) .^
  28. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  29. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  30. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  31. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^

©2019 Vexen Crabtree all rights reserved.
This site uses the HTF Disclaimer (as linked here)