The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Israel

By Vexen Crabtree 2018


Comments:
FB, LJ

#equality #freedom #gaza_strip #human_rights #israel #palestine #politics #tolerance #west_bank

Israel
State of Israel

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalJerusalem
Land Area 21 640km21
LocationAsia, Mediterranean, Middle East
Population7.7m (2011)2
Life Expectancy82.56yrs (2017)3
GNI$31 215 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesIL, ISR, 3765
Internet Domain.il6
CurrencyShekel (ILS)7
Telephone+9728

Israel does relatively well in ensuring human rights and freedom, compared to many other countries. Israel does better than average in opposing gender inequality9, LGBT equality10, fighting corruption11, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms12 and in eliminating modern slavery13. Israel does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in commentary from Human Rights Watch14, supporting press freedom15 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights16. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in its Global Peace Index rating17. Critics of Israel (including journalists) faced increasing restrictions in 201718 and its blasphemy law is too vague and wide-ranging19. The Israeli government continues to enforce severe and discriminatory restrictions on Palestinians´ human rights and restricts movement in/out of the Gaza Strip18. Israel does not investigate violent abuses committed by its security forces in Palestinian areas. Unfortunately, the Palestinian Authority (PA) in the West Bank and Hamas in Gaza both conducted their own crackdowns on their own citizens, including making arbitrary arrests and persecuting dissenters.18


1. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #Israel #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

The Israeli government continued to enforce severe and discriminatory restrictions on Palestinians´ human rights; restrict the movement of people and goods into and out of the Gaza Strip; and facilitate the unlawful transfer of Israeli citizens to settlements in the occupied West Bank. Punitive measures taken by the Palestinian Authority (PA) exacerbated the humanitarian crisis in Gaza caused by the closure enforced by Israel. The PA in the West Bank and Hamas in Gaza escalated crackdowns on dissent, arbitrarily arresting critics, and abusing those in their custody. [...]

The Israeli government continued its openly stated policy of rendering “miserable” the lives of the roughly 40,000 Eritrean and Sudanese asylum seekers present in the country in order to induce them to depart. These measures include prolonged detention; restrictions on freedom of movement; ambiguous policies on permission to work; and restricting access to health care.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)18

Corruption (2012-2016)11
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score11
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
32Portugal62.8
33Cyprus61.6
34St Vincent & Grenadines61.5
35Israel61.2
36Taiwan61.2
37Poland60.8
38Spain60.0
39Slovenia59.4
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)17
Pos.Lower is better17
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
146Syria2.83
147Libya2.83
148Pakistan2.83
149Israel2.84
150Central African Rep.2.87
151N. Korea2.93
152Russia2.94
153Congo, DR3.07
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)14
Pos.Higher is better
Score14
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
87Tajikistan-5
88Lebanon-5
89Mali-5
90Israel-5
91UAE-6
92Rwanda-6
93Uzbekistan-6
94Iraq-6
World Avg-1.9
q=123.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)16
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties16
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
139Dominica12
140Central African Rep.12
141Bahrain12
142Israel12
143Angola12
144Suriname12
145Kuwait12
146Trinidad & Tobago12
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)12
Pos.Lower is better
Rank12
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
49Greece48
50Albania50
51Seychelles51
52Israel52
53Peru53
54Bosnia & Herzegovina54
55Armenia55
56Macedonia55
World Avg79.7
q=159.

Press Freedom (2013)15
Pos.Lower is better15
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
109Qatar3286
110Panama3295
111Montenegro3297
112Israel3297
113UAE3349
114Nigeria3411
115Macedonia3427
116Venezuela3444
World Avg3249
q=178.

Israeli authorities have continued to narrow the space for criticism of its policies toward Palestinians. In March, the Knesset passed a law barring entry to foreigners who call for boycotting Israel or settlements. Authorities continue to impose onerous reporting requirements on nongovernment organizations receiving most of their funding from foreign government entities.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)18

Slavery (2018)13
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims13
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
75Hungary0.37
76Bangladesh0.37
77Cuba0.38
78Israel0.39
79Latvia0.39
80Dominican Rep.0.40
81Kosovo0.40
82Cape Verde0.41
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory20. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends21. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life22. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves23.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery24. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity25. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.26. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi13, Eritrea13, Indonesia27) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery28.

2. Gender Equality

#gender #Israel #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)9
Pos.Lower is better9
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
17Portugal0.09
18Canada0.10
19France0.10
20Israel0.10
21Japan0.12
22Cyprus0.12
23Greece0.12
24Australia0.12
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Year Women Can Vote29
Pos.Lower is better
Year29
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
70Malta1947
71Argentina1947
72S. Korea1948
73Israel1948
74Belgium1948
75Niger1948
76Suriname1948
77Seychelles1948
World Avg1930
q=189.

Israel is on the way towards ending gender inequality.

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #Israel #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)10
Pos.Higher is better
Score10
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
26Australia50
27Peru50
28Hungary49
29Israel48
30Estonia45
31Honduras45
32Bolivia45
33Croatia45
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence30. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws31. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries30. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

4. Israel Overall National and Social Development

#human_development #Israel

Social & Moral
Development Index
32
Pos.Higher is better
Points32
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
32Cyprus66.9
33Malta66.7
34Uruguay66.0
35Israel65.9
36Latvia65.6
37Chile65.4
38Costa Rica64.8
39Slovakia64.1
40Lithuania63.9
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

5. Freedom of Belief and Religion

#israel #judaism

Israel upholds the human rights of freedom of belief and freedom of religion, however, "governmental and legal discrimination" exists against those who do not belong to orthodox Judaism, "for example practicing Jews who are not Orthodox must leave the country to marry"19. Israel's blasphemy law (Article 173) is too vague and wide-ranging19.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012)19, in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Israel states:

While there is no formal constitution, Israel's Supreme Court has repeatedly held that the Basic Law on Human Dignity and Liberty protects freedom of religion or belief. The Basic Law describes the country as a "Jewish and democratic state" and references the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, which promises religious freedom and full social and political equality, regardless of religious affiliation. However, governmental and legal discrimination against non-Jews, and non-Orthodox streams of Judaism including Secular Humanistic Judaism, continued. As a "Jewish State" some laws and policies promote certain Orthodox Jewish values over those of other religious beliefs.

Each officially recognized religious community has legal authority over its members in matters of marriage, divorce, and burial, limiting the freedom of many individuals who may not otherwise subject themselves to the authority of those religious communities. Orthodox control of Jewish family law continues to create problems for non-Orthodox Jewish families; for example practicing Jews who are not Orthodox must leave the country to marry. The government does not allow civil marriages, such as secular ceremonies performed by state or municipal authorities, or marriages performed by non-Orthodox rabbis. Secular marriages, non-Orthodox marriages of Jews, or interfaith marriages must take place abroad to be recognized by the government. As a result, several hundred thousand citizens cannot marry within their own country due to either a lack of eligibility or their desire to wed outside of the rabbinic system. In 2010, a bill was passed that allows a limited right to an alternative form of civil marriage ("couplehood union" status) for Israelis who declare a non-religious status.

The religious freedom Article 173 of the country's penal code allows for one year imprisonment if "One publishes a publication that is liable to crudely offend the religious faith or sentiment of others," or if "One voices in a public place and in the hearing of another person any word or sound that is liable to crudely offend the religious faith or sentiment of others."

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)19

Current edition: 2018 Dec 30
http://www.humantruth.info/israel_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Israel (State of Israel)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#burundi #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gaza_strip #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #israel #judaism #mass_media #misogyny #palestine #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #west_bank #women

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References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  10. Sources:^^
  11. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  12. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  13. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  14. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^^
  15. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  16. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  17. ^^
  18. Human Rights Watch (2018). p291-300.^^
  19. IHEU (2012) .^^
  20. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  21. McCall (1979). p180.^
  22. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  23. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  24. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  25. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  26. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  27. Klein (2004) .^
  28. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  29. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.9. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  30. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  31. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  32. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^

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