The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Colombia

By Vexen Crabtree 2018


Comments:
FB, LJ

#argentina #brazil #Colombia #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance #uruguay #venezuela

Colombia
Republic of Colombia

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalBogota
Land Area1 109 500km21
LocationSouth America, The Americas
Population47.6m (2011)2
Life Expectancy74.23yrs (2017)3
GNI$12 762 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesCO, COL, 1705
Internet Domain.co6
CurrencyPeso (COP)7
Telephone+578

Colombia is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Colombia does better than average in LGBT equality9, its nominal commitment to Human Rights10, eliminating modern slavery11 and in commentary from Human Rights Watch12. Since 2015 it has removed many artificial barriers to LGBT equality in areas of marriage and adoption19; it is just the 4th country in South America to legalize same-sex marriage20. Colombia does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in fighting anti-semitic opinions13, opposing gender inequality14, fighting corruption15, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms16 and in supporting press freedom17. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in its Global Peace Index rating18. Human rights defenders, trade unionists, journalists, indigenous and Afro-Colombian leaders, and other community activists face death threats and violence, mostly from guerrillas and successor groups. Perpetrators of these abuses are rarely held accountable"19


1. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #Colombia #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

After 52 years of conflict, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia demobilized after an agreement was reached, however "civilians continue to suffer serious abuses by the National Liberation Army (ELN) guerrillas and paramilitary successor groups that emerged after a demobilization process a decade ago. ... Human rights defenders, trade unionists, journalists, indigenous and Afro-Colombian leaders, and other community activists face death threats and violence, mostly from guerrillas and successor groups. Perpetrators of these abuses are rarely held accountable"19. The agreement explicitly sets the ground for investigations into human rights abuses from FARC and members of the armed forces19.

Along with 11 others, Colombia signed the Lima Declaration in 2017, condemning "the assault on democratic order and the systematic violation of human rights in Venezuela"21.

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)13
Pos.Lower is better
%13
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
68S. Africa38
69Belarus38
70Peru38
71Colombia41
72Hungary41
73Dominican Rep.41
74Serbia42
75Bulgaria44
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)15
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score15
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
93Morocco37.2
94Peru37.0
95Benin36.8
96Colombia36.6
97Thailand36.6
98Maldives36.0
99Philippines35.6
100Algeria35.2
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)18
Pos.Lower is better18
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
140Georgia2.54
141India2.55
142Yemen2.60
143Colombia2.63
144Chad2.67
145Nigeria2.80
146Syria2.83
147Libya2.83
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)12
Pos.Higher is better
Score12
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
64Qatar-3
65Tanzania-3
66Ecuador-3
67Colombia-3
68Bolivia-3
69Kenya-4
70Philippines-4
71Nigeria-4
World Avg-1.9
q=123.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)10
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties10
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
49Panama20
50New Zealand20
51Uganda19
52Colombia19
53Switzerland19
54UK19
55Venezuela19
56Lesotho19
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)16
Pos.Lower is better
Rank16
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
110Ivory Coast110
111Ukraine111
112Senegal111
113Colombia111
114Kuwait111
115Malaysia115
116Russia115
117Qatar117
World Avg79.7
q=159.

Press Freedom (2013)17
Pos.Lower is better17
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
125Ukraine3679
126Honduras3692
127Afghanistan3736
128Colombia3748
129Angola3780
130Libya3786
131Burundi3802
132Zimbabwe3812
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)11
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims11
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
51Guyana0.26
52Jamaica0.26
53Mexico0.27
54Colombia0.27
55Algeria0.27
56Barbados0.27
57China0.28
58S. Africa0.28
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory22. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends23. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life24. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves25.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery26. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity27. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.28. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi11, Eritrea11, Indonesia29) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery30.

Colombia practices conscription, which involves a mandatory period of service in the military. But the Walk Free Foundation reports that this sometimes becomes slave labour as some 'conscripts' are assigned to lengthy and arduous work which is clearly non-military in nature31 such as public infrastructure and civil construction work.

2. Gender Equality

#Colombia #gender #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)14
Pos.Lower is better14
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
86Peru0.39
87Sri Lanka0.39
88Ecuador0.39
89Colombia0.39
90S. Africa0.39
91Kyrgyzstan0.39
92Brazil0.41
93Jamaica0.42
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Year Women Can Vote32
Pos.Lower is better
Year32
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
96Mexico1953
97Bhutan1953
98Syria1953
99Colombia1954
100Belize1954
101Ghana1954
102Nicaragua1955
103Ethiopia1955
World Avg1930
q=189.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Colombia and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting. Colombia has made some steps towards ending gender inequality but much more needs to be done.

Gender-based violence is widespread in Colombia. Lack of training and poor implementation of treatment protocols impede timely access to medical services and create obstacles for women and girls seeking post-violence care. Perpetrators of gender-based violence crimes are rarely brought to justice. In July 2015, "femicide"-defined, in part, as the murder of a woman because of her gender-became a crime. The law established comprehensive measures to prevent and prosecute gender-based violence, including recognizing the rights of victims and their relatives to specialized legal assistance.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#Colombia #equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)9
Pos.Higher is better
Score9
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
18New Zealand63
19Portugal63
20Canada62
21Colombia58
22Finland57
23Austria56
24Ireland53
25Ecuador50
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence33. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws34. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries33. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

Since 2015 there have been several positive steps to remove artificial legal prejudice against LGBT folk; it is no longer permissible to bar someone from adopting a child because of their sexual orientation and in 2016 the court upheld the right of same-sex couples to marry19. In 2016, Colombia became the fourth country in Catholic-majority South America to legalize same-sex marriage, following Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil, although direction had to be forced through via the courts, who stated that "all people are free to choose independently to start a family in keeping with their sexual orientation receiving equal treatment under the constitution and the law"20.

4. Colombia Overall National and Social Development

#Colombia #human_development

Social & Moral
Development Index
35
Pos.Higher is better
Points35
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
80Armenia54.4
81Guatemala54.3
82Ukraine54.2
83Colombia53.7
84Ecuador53.5
85Kuwait53.5
86Kyrgyzstan53.4
87Jordan53.3
88Bahamas53.3
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

Current edition: 2018 Dec 08
http://www.humantruth.info/colombia_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Colombia (Republic of Colombia)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#antisemitism #argentina #brazil #burundi #Colombia #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #mass_media #misogyny #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #uruguay #venezuela #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Pew Forum
(2017 Aug 08) Gay Marriage Around the World.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Sources:^^
  10. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  11. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  12. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^^
  13. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  14. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  15. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  16. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  17. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  18. ^^
  19. Human Rights Watch (2018). p152-159.^^^^
  20. Pew Forum (2017 Aug 08). According to the wire service Agence France-Presse.^^
  21. Human Rights Watch (2018). p617-624.^
  22. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  23. McCall (1979). p180.^
  24. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  25. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  26. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  27. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  28. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  29. Klein (2004) .^
  30. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  31. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p44.^
  32. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.9. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  33. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  34. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  35. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^

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