The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Mali

By Vexen Crabtree 2019


Comments:
FB, LJ

#equality #freedom #human_rights #mali #politics #tolerance

Mali
Republic of Mali

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalBamako
Land Area1 220 190km21
LocationAfrica
Population16.3m (2011)2
Life Expectancy58.47yrs (2017)3
GNI$2 218 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesML, MLI, 4665
Internet Domain.ml6
CurrencyFranc (XOF)7
Telephone+2238

Mali is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Mali does worse than average in commentary from Human Rights Watch9, supporting press freedom10, its Global Peace Index rating11, LGBT equality12, fighting corruption13 and in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms14. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in opposing gender inequality15. At times, Mali's conscription programme descends into simple slave labour16 and both government and militia forces use child soldiers17. "Government forces conducted counterterrorism operationsthat resulted in arbitrary arrests, summary executions, torture, and ill-treatment"17Conflicts have caused "a rule of law and security vacuum, facilitating rampant banditry and displacement. In central Mali, Islamist armed group presence and intimidation of the population steadily increased [in 2017]"17.


1. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #Mali #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Some improvements were being made in 2017 towards improving human rights, however, conflicts and institutional resistance have made true progress impossible.

The Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission, established by presidential executive order in 2014 with a three-year mandate to investigate crimes and the root causes of violence dating back to 1960, made meaningful progress in 2017. The 25-member commission operationalized five regional offices and took over 5,000 statements from victims and witnesses. However, the credibility of the commission was undermined by government´s inclusion of nine armed group members, while excluding victims´ group representatives.

In April [2017], a new Ministry of Human Rights and State Reform was created by a presidential decree to oversee activities related to rule of law and transitional justice. However, the minister was reluctant to investigate or denounce violations by security force personnel.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)17

Corruption (2012-2016)13
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score13
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
114Mexico32.8
115Ecuador32.6
116Belarus32.6
117Mali32.2
118Tanzania32.2
119Vietnam31.4
120Dominican Rep.31.4
121Ivory Coast30.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)11
Pos.Lower is better11
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
98Tajikistan2.12
99Madagascar2.12
100Liberia2.13
101Mali2.13
102Sri Lanka2.15
103Congo, (Brazzaville)2.15
104Kazakhstan2.15
105Saudi Arabia2.18
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)9
Pos.Higher is better
Score9
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
86Oman-5
87Tajikistan-5
88Lebanon-5
89Mali-5
90Israel-5
91UAE-6
92Rwanda-6
93Uzbekistan-6
World Avg-1.9
q=123.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)18
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties18
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
19Brazil21
20Montenegro21
21Guatemala21
22Mali21
23Azerbaijan21
24Bosnia & Herzegovina21
25Bolivia21
26Australia21
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)14
Pos.Lower is better
Rank14
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
121Timor-Leste (E. Timor)120
122Burundi122
123Tunisia123
124Mali124
125Gambia125
126Cameroon126
127Guyana126
128Vietnam128
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)10
Pos.Lower is better10
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
95Ivory Coast2977
96Liberia2989
97Mongolia2993
98Mali3003
99Georgia3009
100Lebanon3015
101Albania3088
102Maldives3110
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)19
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims19
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
71Poland0.34
72Singapore0.34
73Estonia0.36
74Mali0.36
75Hungary0.37
76Bangladesh0.37
77Cuba0.38
78Israel0.39
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory20. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends21. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life22. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves23.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery24. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity25. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.26. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi19, Eritrea19, Indonesia27) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery28.

Mali practices conscription, which involves a mandatory period of service in the military. But the Walk Free Foundation reports that this sometimes becomes slave labour as some 'conscripts' are assigned to lengthy and arduous work which is clearly non-military in nature16 such as public infrastructure and civil construction work.

2. Gender Equality

#gender #Mali #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)15
Pos.Lower is better15
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
152Tonga0.66
153Congo, DR0.66
154Afghanistan0.67
155Ivory Coast0.67
156Mali0.69
157Chad0.69
158Niger0.70
159Yemen0.77
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Year Women Can Vote29
Pos.Lower is better
Year29
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
105Eritrea1955
106Honduras1955
107Cambodia1955
108Mali1956
109Benin1956
110Mauritius1956
111Somalia1956
112Gabon1956
World Avg1930
q=189.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Mali and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting. Mali culture has a severe problem with gender equality, with male rights dominating those of women. Things need to change.

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #Mali #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)12
Pos.Higher is better
Score12
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
105Jordan12
106China12
107Djibouti11
108Mali11
109Tajikistan11
110Gabon10
111Bahamas10
112Kazakhstan8
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence30. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws31. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries30. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

4. Mali Overall National and Social Development

#human_development #Mali

Social & Moral
Development Index
32
Pos.Higher is better
Points32
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
182Palestine38.9
183Mauritania38.3
184Niger38.0
185Mali37.7
186Sudan36.3
187Marshall Islands35.4
188Syria34.4
189Burundi34.4
190Equatorial Guinea33.5
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

Current edition: 2019 Jan 01
http://www.humantruth.info/mali_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Mali (Republic of Mali)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#burundi #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #Mali #mass_media #misogyny #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #women

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References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^^
  10. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  11. ^^
  12. Sources:^^
  13. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  14. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  15. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  16. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p44.^^
  17. Human Rights Watch (2018). p359-364.^^
  18. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  19. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  20. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  21. McCall (1979). p180.^
  22. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  23. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  24. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  25. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  26. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  27. Klein (2004) .^
  28. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  29. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.9. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  30. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  31. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  32. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^

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