The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Italy

By Vexen Crabtree 2019


Comments:
FB, LJ

#equality #eu #freedom #human_rights #Italy #politics #tolerance

Italy
Italian Republic

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalRome
Land Area 294 140km21
LocationEurope, Mediterranean
Population61.0m (2011)2
Life Expectancy83.34yrs (2017)3
GNI$33 573 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesIT, ITA, 3805
Internet Domain.it6
CurrencyEuro (EUR)7
Telephone+398

Italy performs very well in ensuring human rights and freedom compared to most other countries. Italy comes in the top 20 in commentary from Human Rights Watch9, its nominal commitment to Human Rights10 and in opposing gender inequality11. And finally, it does better than average in fighting anti-semitic opinions12, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms13, LGBT equality14, its Global Peace Index rating15, eliminating modern slavery16, supporting press freedom17 and in fighting corruption18. In 2017, "parliament adopted a law finally making torture a crime, but with a definition and statute of limitations that do not meet international standards"19. The United Nations made specific recommendations in 2017 that Italy creates "stronger measures against gender-based violence [and stronger] anti-trafficking mechanisms"19.


1. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #Italy #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

The EU has acted on behalf of its member states on many occasions to support, foster, fund and encourage human rights protections in every region of the world, with agreement of its member states through the European Parliament. According to Human Rights Watch's comprehensive review for the year 2017, in addition to vocal and public pronouncements on poor human rights records of many countries, the EU has also acted through economic sanctions, political pressure and used other means to incentivize the adoption of human rights protections, even if these measures harm EU trading20. It is to Italy's credit that it supports the EU in these actions.

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)12
Pos.Lower is better
%12
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
23Jamaica18
24India20
25Ireland20
26Italy20
27China20
28Portugal21
29Ivory Coast22
30Estonia22
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
65Lesotho45.2
66Romania44.8
67Kuwait44.2
68Italy43.8
69S. Africa43.6
70Montenegro43.2
71Sao Tome & Principe42.8
72Macedonia42.2
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)15
Pos.Lower is better15
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
35Croatia1.65
36Costa Rica1.66
37Laos1.66
38Italy1.69
39Bulgaria1.70
40France1.71
41Estonia1.72
42S. Korea1.73
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)9
Pos.Higher is better
Score9
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
18Bulgaria5
19Spain5
20Malta5
21Italy5
22Slovenia5
23Austria5
24Slovakia5
25Latvia5
World Avg-1.9
q=123.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)10
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties10
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
11Serbia23
12Sweden23
13Uruguay23
14Italy22
15Denmark22
16Croatia22
17Belgium22
18Austria22
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)13
Pos.Lower is better
Rank13
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
25Iceland25
26Taiwan26
27Slovakia27
28Italy28
29Chile29
30Romania30
31France31
32Japan32
World Avg79.7
q=159.

Press Freedom (2013)17
Pos.Lower is better17
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
53Argentina2567
54Moldova2601
55Hungary2609
56Italy2611
57Hong Kong2616
58Senegal2619
59Chile2624
60Sierra Leone2635
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)16
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims16
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
43Suriname0.23
44Spain0.23
45Ecuador0.24
46Italy0.24
47Morocco0.24
48El Salvador0.25
49Portugal0.25
50Peru0.26
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory21. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends22. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life23. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves24.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery25. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity26. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.27. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi16, Eritrea16, Indonesia28) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery29.

2. Gender Equality

#gender #Italy #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)11
Pos.Lower is better11
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
13Luxembourg0.07
14Austria0.08
15Spain0.08
16Italy0.08
17Portugal0.09
18Canada0.10
19France0.10
20Israel0.10
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Year Women Can Vote30
Pos.Lower is better
Year30
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
50Jamaica1944
51Slovenia1945
52Croatia1945
53Italy1945
54Senegal1945
55Indonesia1945
56Japan1945
57Togo1945
World Avg1930
q=189.

Italy is notable for its equality between the sexes.

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #Italy #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)14
Pos.Higher is better
Score14
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
40Switzerland40
41Serbia40
42Cyprus40
43Italy40
44Greece39
45Czechia39
46Slovakia39
47Romania39
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence31. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws32. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries31. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

4. Italy Overall National and Social Development

#human_development #Italy

Social & Moral
Development Index
33
Pos.Higher is better
Points33
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
21Spain73.4
22Estonia72.7
23USA71.9
24Italy71.1
25Czechia71.0
26Singapore71.0
27Portugal70.3
28S. Korea70.3
29Slovenia69.6
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

5. Freedom of Belief and Religion

#christianity #islam #Italy #judaism

Italian law has a definite bias towards Catholic Christianity34. Although the constitution protects freedom of religion and belief, blasphemy laws are specifically used to the favour of Christians, and the education system is somewhat biased - all classrooms in state schools must display crucifixes, for example34, which can only ever entrench prejudice and discrimination at the social level.

The International Humanist and Ethical Union produced a report in 2012 entitled "Freedom of Thought" (2012)34, in which they document bias and prejudice at the national level that is based on religion, belief and/or lack of belief. Their entry for Italy states:

The constitution and other laws and policies protect freedom of religion or belief. However, under article 724 of the penal code, blasphemy is considered as an "administrative offense" and punished with a fine. Administrative law requires that all classrooms in state schools display crucifixes. Additionally, the government recognizes the Holy See as a sovereign authority. Under the 1984 revision of the concordat with the Catholic Church, the state is secular but maintains the practice of state support for religion, which can also be extended to non-Catholic confessions if requested. In such cases, state support is governed by legislation implementing the provisions of an intesa (accord) between the government and the religious group. An intesa grants clergy automatic access to state hospitals, prisons, and military barracks; allows for civil registry of religious marriages; facilitates special religious practices regarding funerals; and exempts students from school attendance on religious holidays. If a religious community so requests, an intesa may provide for state routing of funds, through a voluntary check-off on taxpayer returns, to that community. The state paid Catholic religion teachers, but this financial support was not available to other religious communities. If a student requested the assistance of a religion teacher of a non-Catholic religious group, that group could select a representative but had to cover the cost. The government provided funds for the construction of places of worship, granted public land for their construction, and helped preserve and maintain historic places of worship that shelter much of the country's artistic and cultural heritage.

Cases of Discrimination

On June 12, 2006, the blasphemy case against the author Oriana Fallaci begins in Bergamo, Italy. Prosecutors alleged that her latest book, La Forza della Ragione (The Force of Reason), contained eighteen statements "unequivocally offensive to Islam and Muslims." Oriana Fallaci died of lung cancer before the trial could conclude.

On March 16, 2005, a Milan court prohibited a billboard campaign by the clothes company Francois Girbaut because of a photo imitating Leonardo's Last Supper.

On October 20, 2010, the Italian Minister for Foreign Affairs, Franco Frattini, called for Muslims, Jewsand Christians to unite to fight the "threat" that he claims atheism poses to society.

"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)34

Current edition: 2019 Jan 13
http://www.humantruth.info/italy_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Italy (Italian Republic)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#antisemitism #burundi #christianity #corruption #equality #eritrea #eu #france #freedom #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #islam #Italy #judaism #mass_media #misogyny #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^^
  10. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  11. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  12. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  13. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  14. Sources:^^
  15. ^^
  16. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  17. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  19. Human Rights Watch (2018). p224.^
  20. Human Rights Watch (2018) .^
  21. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  22. McCall (1979). p180.^
  23. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  24. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  25. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  26. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  27. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  28. Klein (2004) .^
  29. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  30. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.9. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  31. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  32. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  33. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  34. IHEU (2012) .^

©2019 Vexen Crabtree all rights reserved.
This site uses the HTF Disclaimer (as linked here)