The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Cambodia

By Vexen Crabtree 2018


Comments:
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#cambodia #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Cambodia
Kingdom of Cambodia

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalPhnom Penh
Land Area 176 520km21
LocationAsia
Population14.5m (2011)2
Life Expectancy68.81yrs (2017)3
GNI$3 095 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesKH, KHM, 1165
Internet Domain.kh6
CurrencyRiels (KHR)7
Telephone+8558

Cambodia is very poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world, and it has cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Cambodia does better than average in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms9, its nominal commitment to Human Rights10 and in LGBT equality11. Cambodia does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in its Global Peace Index rating12, opposing gender inequality13 and in supporting press freedom14. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in fighting corruption15 and in eliminating modern slavery16. Civil and political rights in Cambodia deteriorated in 2017 as the government persecuted political opposition and human rights activists17 and forced several independent media outlets to close17.


1. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #Cambodia #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)15
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score15
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
155Congo, DR21.6
156Myanmar (Burma)21.4
157Zimbabwe21.0
158Cambodia21.0
159Chad20.4
160Burundi20.2
161Eritrea19.8
162Angola19.4
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)12
Pos.Lower is better12
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
104Kazakhstan2.15
105Saudi Arabia2.18
106Haiti2.18
107Cambodia2.21
108Belarus2.21
109Uzbekistan2.22
110El Salvador2.22
111Egypt2.22
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)10
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties10
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
97Benin16
98Gabon16
99San Marino16
100Cambodia16
101Sierra Leone15
102Chad15
103Tanzania15
104St Vincent & Grenadines15
World Avg15.1
q=194.

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)9
Pos.Lower is better
Rank9
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
61Haiti61
62Fiji61
63Dominican Rep.63
64Cambodia64
65Madagascar65
66Brunei66
67Serbia67
68Guatemala68
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)14
Pos.Lower is better14
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
139India4122
140Oman4151
141Congo, DR4166
142Cambodia4181
143Bangladesh4201
144Malaysia4273
145Palestine4309
146Philippines4311
World Avg3249
q=178.

In 2017, press freedom continued to get worse as the government forced several independent media outlets (both newspaper and radio) to close17.

Slavery (2018)16
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims16
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
156Congo, DR1.37
157Somalia1.55
158Iran1.62
159Cambodia1.68
160Pakistan1.68
161S. Sudan2.05
162Mauritania2.14
163Afghanistan2.22
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory18. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends19. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life20. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves21.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery22. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity23. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.24. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi16, Eritrea16, Indonesia25) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery26.

Cambodia has an issue with slavery, including forced labour, debt bondage and forced marriage (which is sometimes a front for more forced labour), including slavery for the purpose of sexual exploitation and forced begging, but the government's response is slow and reluctant27; some of those practices are part of Cambodian culture and to overcome them will require strong and fresh moral leadership.

2. Gender Equality

#Cambodia #gender #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)13
Pos.Lower is better13
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
109Burundi0.47
110Bhutan0.48
111Jordan0.48
112Cambodia0.48
113Morocco0.49
114Guatemala0.49
115Nepal0.50
116Ethiopia0.50
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Year Women Can Vote28
Pos.Lower is better
Year28
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
104Peru1955
105Eritrea1955
106Honduras1955
107Cambodia1955
108Mali1956
109Benin1956
110Mauritius1956
111Somalia1956
World Avg1930
q=189.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Cambodia and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting. Cambodia is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#Cambodia #equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)11
Pos.Higher is better
Score11
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
95Azerbaijan15
96Equatorial Guinea15
97Burkina Faso15
98Cambodia15
99Vanuatu15
100Congo, DR15
101Lesotho15
102Belize15
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence29. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws30. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries29. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

4. Cambodia Overall National and Social Development

#Cambodia #human_development

Social & Moral
Development Index
31
Pos.Higher is better
Points31
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
158Benin44.2
159Lesotho44.2
160Togo44.1
161Cambodia44.1
162Madagascar44.1
163Cameroon43.8
164Guinea-Bissau43.8
165Zambia43.7
166Algeria43.5
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

Current edition: 2018 Oct 26
http://www.humantruth.info/cambodia_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Cambodia (Kingdom of Cambodia)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#burundi #Cambodia #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #mass_media #misogyny #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #women

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References: (What's this?)

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Oct 26.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  10. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  11. Sources:^^
  12. ^^
  13. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  14. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  15. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  16. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  17. Human Rights Watch (2018). P113-117.^^
  18. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  19. McCall (1979). P180.^
  20. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  21. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  22. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  23. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  24. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  25. Klein (2004) .^
  26. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  27. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P29.^
  28. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  29. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  30. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  31. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^

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