The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Haiti

By Vexen Crabtree 2018


Comments:
FB, LJ

#equality #freedom #haiti #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Haiti
Republic of Haiti

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalPort-au-Prince
Land Area 27 560km21
LocationNorth America, The Americas, Caribbean
GroupingsSmall Islands
Population10.3m (2011)2
Life Expectancy63.12yrs (2017)3
GNI$1 657 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesHT, HTI, 3325
Internet Domain.ht6
CurrencyGourde (HTG)7
Telephone+5098

Haiti is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Haiti does better than average in fighting anti-semitic opinions9, supporting press freedom10, commentary from Human Rights Watch11, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms12 and in LGBT equality13. Haiti does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in eliminating modern slavery14, its Global Peace Index rating15 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights16. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in opposing gender inequality17 and in fighting corruption18. There is a widespread problem with violence against women and poor legal protections for the vulnerable. Prisons are inhumanely overcrowded: detainees have less than one metre of space and are confined for 23 hours a day: the main cause is that 71% of them have been imprisoned before trials have been held19.


1. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #Haiti #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Haiti´s prison system remained severely overcrowded, with many inmates living in inhumane conditions. In 2016, the United Nations estimated that nearly all inmates in Haiti´s national prison system have access to less than one square meter of space and most are confined for 23 hours a day. According to the UN, overcrowding is largely attributable to high numbers of arbitrary arrests and the country´s large number of pretrial detainees. In May 2017, Haitian prisons housed more than 10,000 detainees, 71 percent of whom were awaiting trial.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)9
Pos.Lower is better
%9
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
32Trinidad & Tobago24
33Argentina24
34Mexico24
35Haiti26
36Mongolia26
37Switzerland26
38Belgium27
39Germany27
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)18
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score18
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
162Angola19.4
163Guinea-Bissau19.2
164Syria18.8
165Haiti18.8
166Yemen18.4
167Venezuela18.4
168Uzbekistan18.4
169Turkmenistan18.2
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)15
Pos.Lower is better15
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
103Congo, (Brazzaville)2.15
104Kazakhstan2.15
105Saudi Arabia2.18
106Haiti2.18
107Cambodia2.21
108Belarus2.21
109Uzbekistan2.22
110El Salvador2.22
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)11
Pos.Higher is better
Score11
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
56Sri Lanka-2
57S. Africa-2
58Singapore-2
59Haiti-2
60Serbia-3
61Papua New Guinea-3
62Belarus-3
63India-3
World Avg-1.9
q=123.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)16
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties16
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
135Nepal13
136Djibouti13
137Ethiopia12
138Haiti12
139Dominica12
140Central African Rep.12
141Bahrain12
142Israel12
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)12
Pos.Lower is better
Rank12
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
58El Salvador58
59Ghana59
60Jamaica60
61Haiti61
62Fiji61
63Dominican Rep.63
64Cambodia64
65Madagascar65
World Avg79.7
q=159.

Press Freedom (2013)10
Pos.Lower is better10
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
45Burkina Faso2370
46Taiwan2382
47Samoa2384
48Haiti2409
49S. Korea2448
50Comoros2452
51S. Africa2456
52Japan2517
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)14
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims14
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
104Egypt0.55
105Benin0.55
106Venezuela0.56
107Haiti0.56
108Zambia0.57
109Gambia0.58
110Lithuania0.58
111Ivory Coast0.59
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory20. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends21. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life22. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves23.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery24. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity25. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.26. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi14, Eritrea14, Indonesia27) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery28.

Haitian culture accepts a form of child labourers - called restavèks:

Restavèks, most of whom are girls, are sent from low-income households to live with wealthier families in the hope that they will be schooled and cared for in exchange for performing light chores. Though difficult to calculate, some estimates suggest that between 225,000 and 300,000 children work as restavèks. These children are often unpaid, denied education, and physically or sexually abused. Haiti´s labor code does not set a minimum age for work in domestic services. [...] In February 2016, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child called on Haiti to criminalize the practice.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

2. Gender Equality

#gender #Haiti #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)17
Pos.Lower is better17
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
139Mozambique0.57
140Sudan0.57
141Congo, (Brazzaville)0.59
142Haiti0.59
143Papua New Guinea0.59
144Benin0.61
145Malawi0.61
146Burkina Faso0.62
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Year Women Can Vote29
Pos.Lower is better
Year29
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
81Bosnia & Herzegovina1949
82Barbados1950
83India1950
84Haiti1950
85Antigua & Barbuda1951
86Grenada1951
87Nepal1951
88Dominica1951
World Avg1930
q=189.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Haiti and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting. Haiti is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#equality #Haiti #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)13
Pos.Higher is better
Score13
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
91Armenia20
92Mozambique17
93Laos15
94Haiti15
95Azerbaijan15
96Equatorial Guinea15
97Burkina Faso15
98Cambodia15
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence30. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws31. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries30. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons continue to suffer high levels of discrimination. In June 2017, the Haitian Senate introduced a bill regulating conditions for the issuance of the Certificat de Bonne Vie et Murs, a document that many employers and universities require. The bill lists homosexuality, alongside child pornography, incest, and commercial sexual exploitation of children, as a reason to deny a citizen a certificate.

In August 2017, the Haitian Senate passed another bill calling for a ban on gay marriage, as well as any public support or advocacy for LGBT rights. The bill states that "the parties, co-parties and accomplices" of a homosexual marriage can be punished by three years in prison and a fine of about US$8,000. The Senate approved both these bills, which were awaiting a vote in the Chamber of Deputies as of November 2017.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

4. Haiti Overall National and Social Development

#Haiti #human_development

Social & Moral
Development Index
32
Pos.Higher is better
Points32
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
135Solomon Islands47.0
136Sao Tome & Principe46.9
137Saudi Arabia46.8
138Haiti46.5
139Gambia46.4
140Laos46.0
141Uganda45.8
142Tonga45.6
143Egypt45.5
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

Current edition: 2018 Dec 27
http://www.humantruth.info/haiti_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Haiti (Republic of Haiti)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #haiti #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #mass_media #misogyny #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #women

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References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  10. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  11. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^^
  12. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  13. Sources:^^
  14. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  15. ^^
  16. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  17. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  18. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  19. Human Rights Watch (2018). p252-256.^^^
  20. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  21. McCall (1979). p180.^
  22. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  23. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  24. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  25. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  26. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  27. Klein (2004) .^
  28. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  29. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.9. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  30. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  31. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  32. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^

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