The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in USA

By Vexen Crabtree 2019


Comments:
FB, LJ

#christianity #egypt #equality #freedom #human_rights #kazakhstan #politics #russia #tolerance #turkey #usa

USA
United States of America

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalWashington
Land Area9 147 420km21
LocationNorth America, The Americas
Population315.8m (2011)2
Life Expectancy79.22yrs (2017)3
GNI$53 245 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesUS, USA, 8405
Internet Domain.us6
CurrencyDollar (USD)7
Telephone+18

The USA performs very well in ensuring human rights and freedom compared to most other countries. The USA comes in the top 20 in fighting anti-semitic opinions9, eliminating modern slavery10 and in fighting corruption11. It does better than average in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms12, commentary from Human Rights Watch13, supporting press freedom14, LGBT equality15 and in opposing gender inequality16. The USA has aggressively supported human rights in many parts of the world17 and hosts (and encourages) a large number of international human rights organisations. This persisted in not only the Clinton and Obama administrations (where it was a central concern) but even in the Bush eras18. The USA does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in its Global Peace Index rating19 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights20. Trump-era politics has driven back human rights concerns, and is ushering in an era of intolerance and inequality, especially for LGBT folk, the poor, women and other minorities21 and has been vocally supportive of authoritarian strong-man regimes that also have poor human rights records. Despite Trump, on some occasions, the USA still manages to encourage human rights, most notably in cutting $100 million and holding back another $195 million of its aid to Egypt, citing human rights violations22 and 'threatening targeted sanctions against the Burmese military officials behind the ethnic cleansing of the Rohingya minority'21.


1. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery #USA

The USA does not always (especially since Trump) support international systems of conciliation or human rights18, and Americans have always struggled to see that the way they do some things "is not necessarily what international human rights norms require"23. In particular, the commercialist nature of USA civic life means that those in poverty are, in reality, being deprived of human rights and access to the justice system on account of being unable to afford bail and sensible health care21. Trump's battle against the Accordable Care Act ('Obamacare') will only make this worse.

The USA has a "strong civil society", allowing people to collaborate, congregate, assemble and protest. But actual influence is much harder to achieve, as the American political system has fundamental flaws.

The individuals most likely to suffer abuse in the United States - including members of racial and ethnic minorities, immigrants, children, the poor, and prisoners - are often least able to defend their rights in court or via the political process. Many vulnerable groups endured renewed attacks on their rights during the year. Other longstanding US laws and practices - particularly related to criminal and juvenile justice, immigration, and national security - continued to violate internationally recognized human rights.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)21

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)9
Pos.Lower is better
%9
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
4Netherlands5
5Vietnam6
6UK8
7Denmark9
8USA9
9Tanzania12
10Thailand13
11Czechia13
12Canada14
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)11
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score11
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
15Belgium76.0
16Hong Kong75.6
17Japan74.2
18USA74.0
19Ireland72.6
20Uruguay72.6
21Austria72.2
22Barbados71.5
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)19
Pos.Lower is better19
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
85Ecuador2.03
86Swaziland2.03
87Equatorial Guinea2.04
88USA2.06
89China2.06
90Dominican Rep.2.07
91Bangladesh2.07
92Guinea2.07
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)13
Pos.Higher is better
Score13
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
24Slovakia5
25Latvia5
26Lithuania5
27USA4
28Croatia4
29Poland4
30Japan3
31Australia3
World Avg-1.9
q=123.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
170Comoros9
171Cook Islands9
172Guinea-Bissau8
173USA8
174Somalia8
175Eritrea8
176Indonesia7
177N. Korea7
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)12
Pos.Lower is better
Rank12
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
20Lithuania20
21Estonia21
22Poland21
23USA23
24Latvia24
25Iceland25
26Taiwan26
27Slovakia27
World Avg79.7
q=159.

Press Freedom (2013)14
Pos.Lower is better14
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
29UK1689
30Ghana1727
31Suriname1819
32USA1822
33Lithuania1824
34Slovenia2049
35Spain2050
36France2160
World Avg3249
q=178.

President Trump repeatedly criticized journalists and posted comments andvideos denigrating them during the year, prompting concerns over the chilling of freedom of speech. In August 2017, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights expressed concern that “freedom of the press” in the United States was “under attack from the President.”

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)21

In many Western countries, the free press is itself immature and irresponsible, often seeking out stories for shock value, no matter that they are inaccurate or fabricated. Mainland Europe has some of the best legal and administrative systems in place for managing broadcast media in a sensible manner, which has required a cautious, careful and wise approach, developed over time. Trump is not following this route. His attacks on mass media are akin to the defensive attacks on critics seen in totalitarian and oppressive regimes such as Turkey, Russia and Kazakhstan.

Slavery (2018)10
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims10
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
7Mauritius0.10
8Uruguay0.10
9Costa Rica0.13
10USA0.13
11Argentina0.13
12Hong Kong0.14
13Kuwait0.15
14Luxembourg0.15
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory24. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends25. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life26. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves27.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery28. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity29. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.30. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi10, Eritrea10, Indonesia31) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery32.

2. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #politics #USA #women

Gender Inequality (2015)16
Pos.Lower is better16
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
40Serbia0.18
41Latvia0.19
42Kazakhstan0.20
43USA0.20
44Malta0.22
45Bulgaria0.22
46UAE0.23
47Moldova0.23
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Year Women Can Vote33
Pos.Lower is better
Year33
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
18Czechia1919
19Poland1919
20Canada1920
21USA1920
22Albania1920
23Lithuania1921
24Sweden1921
25Azerbaijan1921
World Avg1930
q=189.

The USA is on the way towards ending gender inequality but women are still in an unfavourable position much of the time.

Under the Trump era, progress towards gender equality and women's rights have been reversed, as Christian extremists are making progress in blocking access to family planning services for huge numbers of people (especially those who need it most):

President Trump, his cabinet appointees, and the Republican-controlled Congress rolled back some important women´s rights protections, domestically and in foreign policy, and pledged to dismantle others. Some state governments also eroded women´s rights by introducing new laws with absurd restrictions on women´s reproductive rights. [...]

Trump also issued an executive order on “promoting free speech and religious liberty,” which will cut women off from access to reproductive health services. [...]

Several states adopted highly restrictive laws on abortion and reproductive health. These include new bans on abortion in some circumstances or other restrictive measures in Texas, Arkansas, Kentucky, Iowa, Tennessee. Some states increased efforts to deny public family planning funds to providers who alsooffer abortion services. [...]

On his first full day in office, President Trump reinstated and dramatically expanded the Mexico City Policy, or “Global Gag Rule.” This strips US health funding from foreign nongovernmental organizations if they use funds from any source to supply information about abortions, provide abortions, or advocate to liberalize abortion laws [...] restricting some $8.8 billion in foreign assistance for health services such as family planning, maternal healthcare, and services to treat HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis in 60 countries.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)21

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #sexuality #tolerance #USA

LGBT Equality (2017)15
Pos.Higher is better
Score15
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
33Croatia45
34Slovenia45
35Germany44
36USA44
37Monaco40
38Poland40
39Albania40
40Switzerland40
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence34. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws35. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries34. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

Same-sex marriage only became possible nation-wide in 2015, although it was legal in some particular states before then - Massachusetts was the first in 200436. Despite that, legal discrimination is still too pervasive. Jack Donnelly in "Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice" (2013)37 states that sadly, the following old description was still mostly accurate:

Our society forbids gay people to marry, denies us equal pay for equal work, throws us off the job, forbids us from serving our country in the armed forces, refuses us health insurance, forces us into the closet, arrests us in our bedrooms, harasses our daily associations, takes away our children, beats and kills us in the streets and parks, smothers images of ourselves and others like us, and then tells us we are irresponsible, unstable, and aberrant.

Evan Wolfson (1991)38

Not only that, but Trump-era politics has seen the government force a top-down assault on LGBT rights, although some progress has still continued in some states.

In the first five months of 2017, legislators in several states introduced more than100 bills that would attack or undermine LGBT rights.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)21

4. USA Overall National and Social Development

#human_development #USA

Social & Moral
Development Index
39
Pos.Higher is better
Points39
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
20Japan75.0
21Spain73.4
22Estonia72.7
23USA71.9
24Italy71.1
25Czechia71.0
26Singapore71.0
27Portugal70.3
28S. Korea70.3
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

5. Racism

Racial disparities permeate every part of the US criminal justice system, including in the enforcement of drug laws. Black people make up 13 percent of the population and 13 percent of all adults who use drugs, but 27 percent of all drug arrests. Black men are incarcerated at nearly six times the rate of white men.

Police continue to kill black people in numbers disproportionate to their overall share of the population. Black people are 2.5 times as likely as white to be killed by police. An unarmed black person is five times as likely to be killed by police as an unarmed white person.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)21

6. President Trump's Dismantling of Human Rights Mechanisms and Opposition to Equality and Tolerance

#china #christianity #democracy #japan #philippines #politics #popularism #south_korea #USA #vietnam

Despite some truly worrying and racist trends, President Trump has been removing oversight mechanisms on police behaviour, and has been vocally encourage severe methods (including torture), although thankfully on multiple issues there are more moral and conscientious politicians who have held him back or managed to side-step his commandments40.

.... scaling back or altogether removing police oversight mechanisms. The US Department of Justice began to discontinue investigations into, and monitoring of, local police departments reported to have patterns and practices of excessive force and constitutional violations. [...]

In a speech in July [2017], President Trump encouraged officers to use unnecessary force on suspects. Congress introduced the “Back the Blue Act,” which would severely restrict civilians´ rights to sue police officers who unlawfully injure them. [...]

President Trump made statements during the presidential campaign and once in office supporting the use of torture of detainees and other counterterrorism policies that would amount to violations of US and international law. Trump later backtracked on these proposals saying he would defer to Defense Secretary James Mattis, who was outspoken against torture, on interrogation matters.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)21

The anti-immigrant rhetoric and intolerance of non-whites has defined Trump-era USA migration politics; even those who arrived as children are being targeted for deportation (as of 2017 August)21, no matter how long they have lived and settled in the USA. This kind of instability and social disruption can only ever serve to increase crime and poverty, leading to worse problems over time.

Other social law is being threatened including those that protect disabled-people, women's rights and LGBT rights21. Family planning, women's rights and gender equality are all being driven backwards, especially in those areas where the Trump administration is heavily influenced by the intolerant campaigns of powerful conservative Christian organisations. American culture is being driven backwards towards an environment of hostility towards many kinds of minority groups.

In November [2017], Trump traveled to Asia, visiting China, Japan, South Korea, and Vietnam while in the region for the ASEAN summit in the Philippines. During the trip, Trump boasted of his good relations with authoritarian leaders and did not publicly comment on core human rights concerns, including the Rohingya crisis.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)21

Popularism: The Trump presidency is one of "popularism", where "gut reactions", including instinctive dislike of anything that is not mainstream, is given prominence over well-thought-out policy. The election of Donald Trump has epitomized this modern anti-liberal movement, but, it has caused a visible backlash, and many are rallying behind moral and ethical organisations to try to protect them against dismantling.

Trump won the presidency with a campaign of hatred against Mexican immigrants, Muslim refugees, and other racial and ethnic minorities, and an evident disdain for women.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)40

In politics, popularism is the effect of uninformed mass opinion on governance. It can transpire through the government being too sensitive to the loudest voices of the masses, through grassroots movements that are too narrow in scope to represent the entire population, through nasty forms of nationalism and jingoism. Popularist slogans are often catchy policies based on simple one-line policies that do not have a proper depth of research or meaning; hence, they appeal to 'the masses' and it is the job of politicians to convince the populace to pursue wiser courses of action than they would if left to their own devices. In the modern world, Internet-based and social media campaigns are becoming the most important source of public pressure on governments41 and this is giving enemies of democracy powerful new tools of interference42. The worst aspects of popularism are a disregard for minorities43 and any unpopular subcultures (wherein popularism becomes 'the tyranny of the majority')44 and the other main disadvantage is the pursuit of shallow and short-sighted policies that harm the nation in the long-run45,46,47. The solution to popularism is to ensure the politicians are professional, well-trained, well-educated, and who are not afraid to engage in long-term strategy that is unpopular in the short term.

"Popularism: When Mass Instincts Defeat National Strategy" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)

Thankfully, tolerance and equality are a core part of a large part of American culture amongst its people.

In reaction to the election of Donald Trump, the United States saw a broad reaffirmation of human rights from many quarters. ... A powerful response came from civic groups, journalists, lawyers, judges, many members of the public, and sometimes even elected members of Trump´s own party.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)40

7. Freedom of Belief and Religion

#usa

As far as developed countries go, the USA has particular problems with religious tolerance. Although the legal system is fair in many ways and you should expect tolerance, "the actions of local governments and private businesses suggest otherwise"48 and the amount of discrimination is "massive" (according to a congressional report in 1999)49.

Current edition: 2019 Jan 01
http://www.humantruth.info/usa_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: The United States of America

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#antisemitism #burundi #china #christianity #corruption #democracy #egypt #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #japan #kazakhstan #mass_media #misogyny #peace #philippines #politics #popularism #russia #sexuality #slavery #south_korea #tolerance #turkey #usa #vietnam #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Book Cover

Book Cover

Book Cover

Book Cover

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Beetham, David
(2005) Democracy: A Beginner's Guide. Published by Oneworld Publications, Oxford, UK. A paperback book.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

Emmott, Bill
(2017) The Fate of the West. Subtitled: "The Battle to Save the World´s Most Successful Political Idea". Published by The Economist via Profile Books, London, UK. An e-book.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Grim & Finke. Dr Grim is senior researcher in religion and world affairs at the Pew Research Center, Washington, D.C, USA. Finke is Professor of Sociology and Religious Studies at the Pennsylvania State University.
(2011) The Price of Freedom Denied. Subtitled: "Religious Persecution and Conflict in the Twenty-First Century". Amazon Kindle digital edition. Published by Cambridge University Press, UK. An e-book.

House of Commons (UK Government)
(2018) Disinformation and 'fake news´: Interim Report. Published by House of Commons (UK Government). Fifth Report of Session 2017–19 together with formal minutes relating to the report. Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed 24 July 2018. A briefing paper.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Pew Forum
(2017 Aug 08) Gay Marriage Around the World.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Zakaria, Fareed
(2003) The Future of Freedom. Subtitled: "Illiberal Democracy at Home and Abroad". Published by W.W. Norton & Company, New York, USA. A hardback book.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  10. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  11. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  12. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  13. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^^
  14. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  15. Sources:^^
  16. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  17. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 4 "Equal Concern and Respect" p56.^
  18. Donnelly (2013). p118.^^
  19. ^^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  21. Human Rights Watch (2018). p591-608.^^^^^^
  22. Human Rights Watch (2018). p193.^
  23. Donnelly (2013). p111.^
  24. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  25. McCall (1979). p180.^
  26. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  27. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  28. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  29. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  30. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  31. Klein (2004) .^
  32. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  33. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.9. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  34. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  35. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  36. Pew Forum (2017 Aug 08) .^
  37. Donnelly (2013) .^
  38. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All" p274-290.^
  39. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  40. Human Rights Watch (2018). p3-4.^
  41. Zakaria (2003). Chapter "Introduction" p14.^
  42. House of Commons (2018). Chapter "Summary".^
  43. Grim & Finke (2011). Chapter 2 "Religious Freedom Broken Promises" digital location 1433.^
  44. "The Tyranny of the Majority: How Democracy Can Be Bad" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  45. Beetham (2005). p5-6.^
  46. Zakaria (2003). Chapter "Introduction" p17-18,20.^
  47. Emmott (2017). Chapter "Introduction" digital location 71.^
  48. Grim & Finke (2011). Chapter 2 "Religious Freedom Broken Promises" digital location 1395.^
  49. Grim & Finke (2011). Chapter 2 "Religious Freedom Broken Promises" digital location 1400.^

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