The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Papua New Guinea

By Vexen Crabtree 2019


Comments:
FB, LJ

#equality #freedom #human_rights #papua_new_guinea #politics #tolerance

Papua New Guinea
Independent State of Papua New Guinea

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalPort Moresby
Land Area 452 860km21
LocationAustralasia, Melanesia
Population7.2m (2011)2
Life Expectancy62.77yrs (2017)3
GNI$2 712 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesPG, PNG, 5985
Internet Domain.pg6
CurrencyKina (PGK)7
Telephone+6758

Papua New Guinea is very poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world, and it has cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Papua New Guinea does better than average in supporting press freedom9, commentary from Human Rights Watch10 and in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms11. But unfortunately Papua New Guinea gets most other things wrong. It does worse than average in its Global Peace Index rating12, LGBT equality13, eliminating modern slavery14, fighting corruption15 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights16. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in opposing gender inequality17. "The government has not taken sufficient steps to address gender inequality, violence, excessive use of force by police, or corruption and relies heavily on religious groups and nongovernment organizations (NGOs) to provide services on a charitable basis to meet the economic and social rights of the population"18.


1. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #Papua_New_Guinea #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)15
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score15
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
146Paraguay26.0
147Kenya26.0
148Bangladesh25.8
149Papua New Guinea25.6
150Laos25.4
151Guinea25.0
152Central African Rep.23.8
153Tajikistan23.6
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)12
Pos.Lower is better12
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
90Dominican Rep.2.07
91Bangladesh2.07
92Guinea2.07
93Papua New Guinea2.08
94Trinidad & Tobago2.08
95Angola2.11
96Cameroon2.11
97Uganda2.12
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)10
Pos.Higher is better
Score10
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
58Singapore-2
59Haiti-2
60Serbia-3
61Papua New Guinea-3
62Belarus-3
63India-3
64Qatar-3
65Tanzania-3
World Avg-1.9
q=123.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)16
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties16
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
163Vanuatu10
164Iraq9
165Samoa9
166Papua New Guinea9
167Oman9
168Iran9
169St Kitts & Nevis9
170Comoros9
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)11
Pos.Lower is better
Rank11
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
72Indonesia72
73Turkey73
74S. Africa74
75Papua New Guinea74
76Nicaragua76
77Paraguay77
78Mexico77
79Trinidad & Tobago79
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)9
Pos.Lower is better9
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
37El Salvador2286
38Latvia2289
39Botswana2291
40Papua New Guinea2297
41Romania2305
42Niger2308
43Trinidad & Tobago2312
44Malta2330
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)14
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims14
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
144Swaziland0.88
145Thailand0.89
146Laos0.94
147Papua New Guinea1.03
148Belarus1.09
149Brunei1.09
150Myanmar (Burma)1.10
151Turkmenistan1.12
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory19. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends20. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life21. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves22.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery23. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity24. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.25. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi14, Eritrea14, Indonesia26) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery27.

2. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #Papua_New_Guinea #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)17
Pos.Lower is better17
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
140Sudan0.57
141Congo, (Brazzaville)0.59
142Haiti0.59
143Papua New Guinea0.59
144Benin0.61
145Malawi0.61
146Burkina Faso0.62
147Mauritania0.63
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Year Women Can Vote28
Pos.Lower is better
Year28
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
145Bahamas1963
146Sudan1964
147Libya1964
148Papua New Guinea1964
149Lesotho1965
150Botswana1965
151Tuvalu1967
152Kiribati1967
World Avg1930
q=189.

Papua New Guinea is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

Papua New Guinea "has one of the highest rates of maternal death in the world. Just over 50 percent of women and girls give birth in a health facility or with the help of a skilledbirth attendant. [...] Two out of three women still cannot access contraception due to geographic, cultural, and economic barriers. Abortion remains illegal in PNG, except when the mother´s life is at risk"18.

More than three years after the 2013 Family Protection Act was adopted, parliament in May finally passed regulations to implement the law, which criminalizes domestic violence and allows victims to obtain protection orders. Police and prosecutors rarely pursue investigations or criminal charges against people who commit family violence–even in cases of attempted murder, serious injury, or repeated rape.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)18

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #Papua_New_Guinea #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)13
Pos.Higher is better
Score13
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
134Samoa-10
135Trinidad & Tobago-10
136S. Sudan-10
137Papua New Guinea-10
138Sri Lanka-10
139Antigua & Barbuda-10
140St Vincent & Grenadines-10
141Mauritius-10
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence29. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws30. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries29. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

Homosexuality is outlaws according to a nonsensical law that criminalizes sex "against the order of nature"18, despite the documented prevalence of same-sex sexual activity in animals in Papua New Guinea.

4. Papua New Guinea Overall National and Social Development

#human_development #Papua_New_Guinea

Social & Moral
Development Index
31
Pos.Higher is better
Points31
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
176Ivory Coast40.3
177Gabon40.0
178Pakistan39.9
179Papua New Guinea39.9
180Nigeria39.4
181Congo, (Brazzaville)39.1
182Palestine38.9
183Mauritania38.3
184Niger38.0
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

Current edition: 2019 Jan 01
http://www.humantruth.info/papua_new_guinea_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Papua New Guinea (Independent State of Papua New Guinea)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#burundi #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #mass_media #misogyny #Papua_New_Guinea #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #women

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References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  10. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^^
  11. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  12. ^^
  13. Sources:^^
  14. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  15. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  16. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  17. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  18. Human Rights Watch (2018). p417-421.^^^
  19. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  20. McCall (1979). p180.^
  21. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  22. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  23. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  24. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  25. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  26. Klein (2004) .^
  27. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  28. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.9. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  29. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  30. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  31. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^

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