The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Oman

By Vexen Crabtree 2019


Comments:
FB, LJ

#equality #freedom #human_rights #oman #politics #tolerance

Oman
Sultanate of Oman

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalMuscat
Land Area 309 500km21
LocationAsia, Middle East
Population2.9m (2011)2
Life Expectancy76.97yrs (2017)3
GNI$34 402 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesOM, OMN, 5125
Internet Domain.om6
CurrencyRial (OMR)7
Telephone+9688

Oman is very poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world, and it has cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Oman does better than average in eliminating modern slavery9, opposing gender inequality10, its Global Peace Index rating11 and in fighting corruption12. Oman does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in commentary from Human Rights Watch13, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms14, supporting press freedom15, LGBT equality16 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights17. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in fighting anti-semitic opinions18. Free speech is routinely denied, even on independent social media platforms where saying that that displeases the government can result in arrests and detainment19. Migrant workers, especially, are often abused and are poorly protected19.


1. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #Oman #peace #politics #slavery

Omani authorities continued in 2017 to harass activists and restrict publications by local independent magazines and newspapers critical of the government, violating international standards of freedom of expression. [...] Authorities, particularly from the Internal Security Service (ISS), continued to target pro-reform activists.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)18
Pos.Lower is better
%18
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
86Greece69
87Saudi Arabia74
88Egypt75
89Oman76
90Lebanon78
91Morocco80
92Qatar80
93UAE80
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)12
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score12
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
59Croatia48.4
60Saudi Arabia47.4
61Cuba46.8
62Oman45.8
63Ghana45.8
64Turkey45.4
65Lesotho45.2
66Romania44.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)11
Pos.Lower is better11
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
56Burkina Faso1.88
57Djibouti1.88
58Mongolia1.88
59Oman1.89
60Malawi1.89
61Panama1.90
62Jordan1.90
63Indonesia1.91
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)13
Pos.Higher is better
Score13
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
83Zimbabwe-5
84Bahrain-5
85Venezuela-5
86Oman-5
87Tajikistan-5
88Lebanon-5
89Mali-5
90Israel-5
World Avg-1.9
q=123.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)17
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties17
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
164Iraq9
165Samoa9
166Papua New Guinea9
167Oman9
168Iran9
169St Kitts & Nevis9
170Comoros9
171Cook Islands9
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)14
Pos.Lower is better
Rank14
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
117Qatar117
118UAE118
119Guinea-Bissau118
120Oman120
121Timor-Leste (E. Timor)120
122Burundi122
123Tunisia123
124Mali124
World Avg79.7
q=159.

Press Freedom (2013)15
Pos.Lower is better15
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
137Tunisia3993
138Indonesia4105
139India4122
140Oman4151
141Congo, DR4166
142Cambodia4181
143Bangladesh4201
144Malaysia4273
World Avg3249
q=178.

Freedom of speech does not exist in Oman. Publications that are critical (even indirectly) of the government find themselves harassed, and some of them have been shut down completely (i.e. the Azamn newspaper). Those who call for reform, point out corruption, or defend human rights, can face harassment from the government.19.

Slavery (2018)9
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims9
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
34France0.20
35Bolivia0.21
36Iceland0.21
37Oman0.21
38Panama0.21
39Sri Lanka0.21
40UK0.21
41Tunisia0.22
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory20. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends21. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life22. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves23.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery24. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity25. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.26. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi9, Eritrea9, Indonesia27) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery28.

Migrant workers remained vulnerable to exploitation and abuse, due in part tothe kafala (visa sponsorship) system. [...] Human Rights Watch documented abuse and exploitation of domestic workers, including employers frequently confiscating workers´ passports despite a legal prohibition; not paying workers their salaries, in full or at all; forcing them to work excessively long hours without breaks or days off; and denying them adequate food and living conditions. In some cases, workers reported physical and sexual abuse.

Migrant domestic workers who fled abusive employers reported facing “absconding” charges that can lead to fines, imprisonment and deportation, trumped-up criminal charges by employers to force them to drop their cases, and lengthy delays when pursuing cases against employers. Workers reported that police at times returned them to their employers despite complaints of abuse, and Ministry of Manpower officials sided with employers during dispute-resolution processes despite workers´ complaints of severe abuse.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

2. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #Oman #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)10
Pos.Lower is better10
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
51Albania0.27
52Russia0.27
53Mongolia0.28
54Oman0.28
55Uruguay0.28
56Ukraine0.28
57Uzbekistan0.29
58Tunisia0.29
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Year Women Can Vote29
Pos.Lower is better
Year29
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
182Samoa1990
183Kazakhstan1993
184Moldova1994
185Oman1994
186Qatar2003
187Kuwait2005
188Saudi Arabia0
189Vatican City0
World Avg1930
q=189.

Oman is on the way towards ending gender inequality but women are still in an unfavourable position much of the time.

Oman´s kafala (sponsorship) immigrant labor system and lack of labor law protections leaves the country´s more than 160,000 female migrant domestic workers exposed to abuse and exploitation by employers, whose consent they need to change jobs. Those who flee abuse–including beatings, sexual abuse, unpaid wages, and excessive working hours–have few avenues for redress and can face legal penalties for “absconding.” [...]

Article 17 of the Basic Law states that all citizens are equal and bans gender based discrimination. In practice, however, women continue to face discrimination. The Personal Status Law discriminates against women on matters such as divorce, inheritance, child custody, and legal guardianship. For instance, women can lose child custody if they re-marry, and men continue to hold guardianship of the child regardless of whether they have custody. Oman has no laws prohibiting domestic violence and marital rape.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #Oman #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)16
Pos.Higher is better
Score16
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
161Nigeria-22
162Malawi-22
163Uganda-22
164Oman-22
165Yemen-22
166Turkmenistan-24
167Lebanon-24
168Zimbabwe-24
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence30. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws31. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries30. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

Oman artificially denies same-sex partners and simultaneously makes sexual relations outside of marriage illegal and "Oman´s penal code provides for six months to three years in prison for consensual sex between two people of the same sex"19.

4. Oman Overall National and Social Development

#human_development #Oman

Social & Moral
Development Index
32
Pos.Higher is better
Points32
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
88Bahamas53.3
89Cuba53.0
90Morocco52.8
91Oman52.8
92Bolivia52.8
93Dominican Rep.52.7
94Turkmenistan52.5
95Sri Lanka52.2
96El Salvador51.9
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

Current edition: 2019 Jan 01
http://www.humantruth.info/oman_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Oman (Sultanate of Oman)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #mass_media #misogyny #Oman #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  10. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  11. ^^
  12. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  13. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^^
  14. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  15. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  16. Sources:^^
  17. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  18. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  19. Human Rights Watch (2018). p403-407.^^^^
  20. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  21. McCall (1979). p180.^
  22. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  23. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  24. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  25. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  26. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  27. Klein (2004) .^
  28. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  29. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.9. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  30. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  31. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  32. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^

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