The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Morocco

By Vexen Crabtree 2019


Comments:
FB, LJ

#equality #freedom #human_rights #islam #morocco #politics #tolerance

Morocco
Kingdom of Morocco

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalRabat
Land Area 446 300km21
LocationAfrica, Mediterranean
Population32.6m (2011)2
Life Expectancy74.31yrs (2017)3
GNI$7 195 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesMA, MAR, 5045
Internet Domain.ma6
CurrencyDirham (MAD)7
Telephone+2128

Morocco is very poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world, and it has cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Morocco does better than average in eliminating modern slavery9, its Global Peace Index rating10 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights11. But unfortunately Morocco gets most other things wrong. It does worse than average in commentary from Human Rights Watch12, fighting corruption13, opposing gender inequality14, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms15 and in supporting press freedom16. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in fighting anti-semitic opinions17 and in LGBT equality18. Morocco occasionally takes to beating and repressing protestors19. Free speech is limited for two inappropriate reasons: (1) to protect the interests of the Moroccan leaders and interests (i.e. insulting the king, or criticizing Morocco's claim over Western Sahara), and (2) religious concepts (Islam). Homosexuality is outlawed, both entrenching and reflecting cultural prejudice and intolerance about other people's private lives19. Organisations such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International are hindered and effectively banned from operating19.


1. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #Morocco #peace #politics #slavery

Authorities tolerated many marches and rallies throughout the year demanding political reform and protesting government actions, but often forcibly dispersed protests, even when they were peaceful. [...]

Many of the detained protesters [from a Hirak Rif protest] alleged beatings by police during arrest and said police forced them to sign written statements unread. Some of these allegations were corroborated by reports prepared by forensic doctors appointed by the National Human Rights Council, who had examined detained protesters.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

Morocco has been actively accepting refugees and helping out asylum seekers and other people who desperately need help:

Since 2013, Morocco ... has granted refugee cards and one-year renewable residency permits to almost every person that the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) recognized as a refugee, totalling 745 persons. [The] UNHCR said it had 2,995 Syrian asylum seekers in its registry [and Morocco] allows them to reside in Morocco and to access essential public services, such as health and education, according to UNHCR. Morocco also granted one-year renewable residency permits to thousands of sub-Saharan migrants who were not asylum-seekers but who met criteria set forth in a 2013 plan.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)17
Pos.Lower is better
%17
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
88Egypt75
89Oman76
90Lebanon78
91Morocco80
92Qatar80
93UAE80
94Jordan81
95Bahrain81
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)13
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score13
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
90India37.6
91Sri Lanka37.6
92Panama37.4
93Morocco37.2
94Peru37.0
95Benin36.8
96Colombia36.6
97Thailand36.6
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)10
Pos.Lower is better10
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
51Zambia1.83
52Sierra Leone1.86
53Lesotho1.86
54Morocco1.87
55Tanzania1.87
56Burkina Faso1.88
57Djibouti1.88
58Mongolia1.88
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)12
Pos.Higher is better
Score12
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
70Philippines-4
71Nigeria-4
72Vietnam-4
73Morocco-4
74Thailand-4
75Angola-4
76Kyrgyzstan-4
77Kuwait-4
World Avg-1.9
q=123.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)11
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties11
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
77Estonia17
78Turkmenistan17
79Turkey17
80Morocco17
81Guinea17
82Russia17
83Armenia17
84Egypt16
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)15
Pos.Lower is better
Rank15
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
128Vietnam128
129Azerbaijan128
130Sri Lanka130
131Morocco131
132Niger132
133Sierra Leone133
134Swaziland134
135Gabon135
World Avg79.7
q=159.

Press Freedom (2013)16
Pos.Lower is better16
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
132Zimbabwe3812
133Jordan3847
134Thailand3860
135Morocco3904
136Ethiopia3957
137Tunisia3993
138Indonesia4105
139India4122
World Avg3249
q=178.

The penal code maintains prison as a punishment for a variety ofnonviolent speech offenses [including] "causing harm" to Islam, the monarchy, the person of the king and the royal family, and “inciting against” Morocco´s “territorial integrity,” a reference to its claim to Western Sahara.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

Slavery (2018)9
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims9
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
44Spain0.23
45Ecuador0.24
46Italy0.24
47Morocco0.24
48El Salvador0.25
49Portugal0.25
50Peru0.26
51Guyana0.26
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory20. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends21. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life22. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves23.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery24. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity25. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.26. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi9, Eritrea9, Indonesia27) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery28.

2. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #Morocco #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)14
Pos.Lower is better14
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
110Bhutan0.48
111Jordan0.48
112Cambodia0.48
113Morocco0.49
114Guatemala0.49
115Nepal0.50
116Ethiopia0.50
117Guyana0.51
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Year Women Can Vote29
Pos.Lower is better
Year29
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
136Uganda1962
137Monaco1962
138Algeria1962
139Morocco1963
140Iran1963
141Kenya1963
142Fiji1963
143Afghanistan1963
World Avg1930
q=189.

Morocco is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

The Constitution of Morocco sounds like it might protect women and end legal gender discrimination - it specifically says it guarantees equality - but it adds a caveat of "while respecting [the] permanent characteristic of the Kingdom"19. Which means: "we will continue to discriminate against women, because it's our culture".

The 2004 Family Code, which improved women´s rights in divorce and child custody, discriminates against women with regard to inheritance and procedures to obtain divorce. [...] Criminalization of adultery and sex outside marriage has a discriminatory gender impact, in that rape victims face prosecution if they file charges that are not later sustained. Women and girls also face prosecution if they are found to be pregnant or bear children outside marriage.

On March 17, 2016, the government adopted a revised bill on combatting violence against women (Bill 103-13), and the House of Representatives passed it on July 20, 2016. The draft law remained with the House of Councillors, the parliament´s second chamber, at the end of 2016.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #Morocco #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)18
Pos.Higher is better
Score18
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
187Cameroon-39
188Senegal-39
189Libya-42
190Morocco-42
191Solomon Islands-44
192Qatar-54
193Sudan-67
194Saudi Arabia-72
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence30. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws31. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries30. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

Moroccan courts continued to jail persons for same-sex conduct under article489 of the penal code, which stipulates prison terms of six months to three years for "lewd or unnatural acts with an individual of the same sex."

In December 2016, a court in Marrakech acquitted two teenage girls who had been detained for one week and charged with "sexual deviancy" for allegedly hugging and kissing in private.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

It is wrong because (1) adult consensual sexual relations are a matter of personal privacy, (2) homosexuality is rife in nature32 and (3) discriminating against people based on their sexuality is immoral.

4. Morocco Overall National and Social Development

#human_development #Morocco

Social & Moral
Development Index
33
Pos.Higher is better
Points33
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
87Jordan53.3
88Bahamas53.3
89Cuba53.0
90Morocco52.8
91Oman52.8
92Bolivia52.8
93Dominican Rep.52.7
94Turkmenistan52.5
95Sri Lanka52.2
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

5. Freedom of Belief and Religion

#islam #morocco

Morocco is better at protecting Islam than human rights, and makes "insulting Islam" a criminal offence19.

Current edition: 2019 Jan 01
http://www.humantruth.info/morocco_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Morocco (Kingdom of Morocco)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #islam #mass_media #misogyny #Morocco #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Book Cover

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  10. ^^
  11. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  12. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^^
  13. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  14. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  15. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  16. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  17. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  18. Sources:^^
  19. Human Rights Watch (2018). p375-381.^^^^^
  20. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  21. McCall (1979). p180.^
  22. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  23. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  24. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  25. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  26. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  27. Klein (2004) .^
  28. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  29. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.9. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  30. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  31. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  32. "Homosexuality in Animals and Humans" by Vexen Crabtree (2013)^
  33. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^

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