The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in the Ivory Coast

By Vexen Crabtree 2018

#equality #freedom #human_rights #Ivory_Coast #politics #tolerance

Ivory Coast
Republic of Cote d'Ivoire

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
Social and Moral Index152nd best
LocationAfrica
Population25.1m1
Life Expectancy51.89yrs (2017)2

The Ivory Coast is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. The Ivory Coast does better than average when it comes to its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice3, commentary in Human Rights Watch reports4 (one of the best in Africa) and in freethought5. Human Rights Watch in 2017 reported some improvement in the legal defence of human rights, including in press freedom6 and judicial abuses and arbitrary arrests were decreasing in number6. But unfortunately The Ivory Coast gets most other things wrong. It does worse than average in supporting press freedom7, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms8, LGBT equality9 (still high for Africa), its nominal commitment to Human Rights10 and in speed of uptake of HR treaties11. And finally, it falls into the worst-performing 20 when it comes to opposing gender inequality12 (one of the highest in Africa). Prosecutions against historical human rights abusers is still rare and perpetrators of post-election abuse and violence in 2010-11 largely remained unaccountable6.


1. Ivory Coast's Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance

#equality #human_rights #morals #politics #prejudice #tolerance

Compared to Africa (2020)13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1S. Africa56.0
2Seychelles67.0
3Namibia69.7
4Mauritius72.6
5Senegal74.0
...
19Tanzania95.9
20Kenya95.9
21Sierra Leone100.4
22Ivory Coast100.5
23Madagascar100.6
24Rwanda107.1
25Morocco107.6
Africa Avg109.3
q=54.
Human Rights, Equality & Tolerance (2020)13,14
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Rank13,14
1Sweden9.9
2Denmark14.7
3Norway15.5
4Netherlands16.5
5New Zealand19.0
...
115Timor-Leste (E. Timor)98.6
116India98.9
117Sierra Leone100.4
118Ivory Coast100.5
119San Marino100.6
120Madagascar100.6
121Kazakhstan102.4
World Avg89.0
q=199.

The best countries in the world at ensuring human rights, fostering equality and promoting tolerance, are Sweden, Denmark and Norway13. These countries are displaying the best traits that humanity has to offer. The worst countries are The Solomon Islands, Palestine and Somalia13.

The data sets used to calculate points for each country are statistics on commentary in Human Rights Watch reports, its nominal commitment to Human Rights, speed of uptake of HR treaties, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms, supporting press freedom, eliminating modern slavery, opposing gender inequality, the year from which women could participate in democracy, its success in fighting anti-semitic prejudice, LGBT equality and freethought. The regions with the best average results per country are Scandinavia, Baltic States and Europe13, whereas the worst are Melanesia, Micronesia and Australasia13.

For more, see:

Human Rights Watch in 2017 reported some improvement in the legal defence of human rights in Côte d'Ivoire, that the press is mostly free6, judicial abuses such as arbitrary arrests have been decreasing in number6 and the "International Criminal Court (ICC) continued the trial of former President Gbagboand Charles Blé Goudé, a former youth minister and leader of a pro-Gbagbo militia"6. Despite these positive comments, prosecutions against historical human rights abusers is still rare and perpetrators of post-election abuse and violence in 2010-11 largely remained unaccountable6.

The prevalence of arbitrary arrests, mistreatment of detainees, and unlawful killings by the security forces lessened again in 2017, but investigations and prosecutions of those who commit abuses were rare. Although Côte d'Ivoire's press largely operated without restrictions, laws criminalizing publication of false information were on occasion used to unfairly detain journalists and several pro-opposition newspapers were temporarily suspended. [...]

Many members of the security forces, including senior army officers, continued to engage in racketeering and extortion. Several army commanders allegedly responsible for atrocities during the 2002-03 armed conflict and 2010-11 crisis were promoted in January.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)15

2. Human Rights & Tolerance Data Sets

2.1. Human Rights Watch Comments

#human_rights

Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)4
Pos.Higher is better
Score4
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
4Canada8
5Netherlands8
...
42S. Korea0
43Guatemala-1
44Armenia-1
45Ivory Coast-1
46Kosovo-1
47Honduras-1
Africa Avg-5.6
World Avg-1.9
q=123.

Human Rights Watch comments concentrate mostly on negative issues, however, they also make positive comments for those countries that engage in human rights defence around the world, or who make improvements at home. By adding up positive and negative comments (including double-points for negatives that involve large scales and crimes against humanity), the Social and Moral Index turns HRW commentary into quantified values. Some countries may be unfairly penalized because HRW have not examined them, and, some countries "get away" with abuses if they manage to hide it, or if it goes unnoticed - a negative point has been given for those countries in which HRW specifically state that access to investigators has been barred. The points were limited to a minimum of -10 because there are some points at which things are so bad, with abuses affecting so many, it is difficult to be more specific about the depths of the issues.

2.2. Nominal Commitment to HR

#human_rights

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)10
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties10
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
4Ecuador23
5Germany23
...
127Malawi13
128Zambia13
129Congo, (Brazzaville)13
130Ivory Coast13
131Afghanistan13
132Gambia13
Africa Avg14.8
World Avg15.1
q=194.

There are many international agreements on human rights, and, many mechanisms by which countries can be brought to account for their actions. Together, these have been the biggest historical movement in the fight against oppression and inhumanity. Or, putting it another way: these are rejected mostly by those who wish to oppress inhumanely. None of them are perfect and many people object to various components and wordings, but, no-one has come up with, and enforced, better methods of controlling the occasional desires that states and peoples have of causing angst for other states and peoples in a violent, unjust or inhumane way. Points are awarded for the number of human rights agreements ratified by the country, plus the acceptance of the petition mechanisms for disputes. The maximum possible score in 2009 was 24.

2.3. HR Treaties Lag

#human_rights #international_law #micronesia #politics #small_islands

HR Treaties Lag (2019)11
Pos.Lower is better
Avg Yrs/Treaty11
1Ecuador2.15
2Uruguay2.25
3Tunisia3.65
4Colombia3.68
5Costa Rica4.05
...
136Botswana12.05
137Estonia12.06
138Gambia12.12
139Ivory Coast12.14
140Trinidad & Tobago12.26
141Turkmenistan12.35
Africa Avg9.88
World Avg10.02
q=195.

Human Rights (HR) Treaties Lag is a count of how long it took each country to sign each of 11 key HR treaties. From the date of the first signatory of each treaty, all other countries have one point added to their score for each day they delayed in signing. Results are presented as average time in years to sign each one. The lower a country's score, the more enthusiastically it has taken on international Human Rights Treaties - which are, of course, minimal standards of good governance. The slowest are the countries of Micronesia, Melanesia, Australasia and Polynesia all lagged by over 12 years per treaty. The best regions are The Americas, Scandinavia and the Mediterranean.

For more, see:

2.4. Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom

#freedom #politics

Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)8
Pos.Lower is better
Rank8
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
4Ireland4
5Denmark5
...
107Thailand107
108Lebanon108
109Laos109
110Ivory Coast110
111Ukraine111
112Senegal111
Africa Avg114.2
World Avg79.7
q=159.

The Human Freedom Index published by the Fraser Institute is...

... a broad measure of human freedom, understood as the absence of coercive constraint. It uses 79 distinct indicators of personal and economic freedom in the following areas: Rule of Law, Security and Safety, Movement, Religion, Association, Assembly, and Civil Society, Expression, Relationships, Size of Government, Legal System and Property Rights, Access to Sound Money, Freedom to Trade Internationally, Regulation of Credit, Labor, and Business. [...]

The highest levels of freedom are in Western Europe, Northern Europe, and North America (Canada and the United States. The lowest levels are in the Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. [...]

Countries in the top quartile of freedom enjoy a significant higher per capita income ($37,147) [compared with] the least-free quartile [at] $8,700). The HFI finds a strong correlation between human freedom and democracy.

"The Human Freedom Index" by The Fraser Institute (2016)16

2.5. Press Freedom

#democracy #freedom #mass_media #politics #UK

Press Freedom (2013)7
Pos.Lower is better7
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
4Luxembourg668
5Andorra682
...
92Seychelles2919
93Northern Cyprus2934
94Guatemala2939
95Ivory Coast2977
96Liberia2989
97Mongolia2993
Africa Avg3511
World Avg3249
q=178.

The freedom to investigate, publish information, and have access to others' opinion is a fundamental part of today's information-driven world. Scores on the Press Freedom Index are calculated according to indicators including pluralism - the degree to which opinions are represented in the media, media independence of authorities, self-censorship, legislation, transparency and the infrastructure that supports news and information, and, the level of violence against journalists which includes lengths of imprisonments. The index "does not take direct account of the kind of political system but it is clear that democracies provide better protection for the freedom to produce and circulate accurate news and information than countries where human rights are flouted".

It must be noted that press freedom is not an indicator of press quality and the press itself can be abusive; the UK suffers in particular from a popular brand of nasty reporting that infuses several of its newspapers who are particularly prone to running destructive and often untrue campaigns against victims. The Press Freedom Index notes that "the index should in no way be taken as an indicator of the quality of the media in the countries concerned".

2.6. Slavery

#burundi #eritrea #france #human_rights #indonesia #slavery

Slavery (2018)17
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims17
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
4Australia0.06
5New Zealand0.06
...
108Zambia0.57
109Gambia0.58
110Lithuania0.58
111Ivory Coast0.59
112Montenegro0.59
113Nepal0.60
Africa Avg0.96
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory18. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends19. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life20. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves21.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery22. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity23. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.24. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi17, Eritrea17, Indonesia25) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery26.

For more, see:

3. Gender Equality Data Sets

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including The Ivory Coast and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting. The Ivory Coast culture has a severe problem with gender equality, with male rights dominating those of women. Things need to change.

Although the UN reported in January 2017 that the number of reported cases of sexual and gender-based violence has progressively decreased since 2014, social stigma and widespread impunity prevents many victims from reporting abuses. The holding of cour d'assises sessions has enabled some trials and convictions for rape, but many sexual assaults are reclassified as lesser offenses or settled out of court.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)15

See:

3.1. Gender Inequality

#gender #gender_equality #human_rights #misogyny #women

Gender Inequality (2015)12
Pos.Lower is better12
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
4Sweden0.05
5Iceland0.05
...
152Tonga0.66
153Congo, DR0.66
154Afghanistan0.67
155Ivory Coast0.67
156Mali0.69
157Chad0.69
Africa Avg0.54
World Avg0.36
q=159.

The UN Human Development Reports include statistics on gender equality which take into account things like maternal mortality, access to political power (seats in parliament) and differences between male and female education rates. Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

3.2. Year Women Can Vote

#christianity #gender_equality #human_rights #politics #women

Year Women Can Vote
Pos.Lower is better
Year
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
4Norway1913
5Denmark1915
...
89St Kitts & Nevis1951
90St Vincent & Grenadines1951
91Bolivia1952
92Ivory Coast1952
93Greece1952
94Lebanon1952
Africa Avg1961
World Avg1930
q=189.

Women now have equal rights in the vast majority of countries across the world. Although academic literature oftens talks of when a country "grants women the right to vote", this enforces a backwards way of thinking. Women always had the right to vote, however, they were frequently denied that right. The opposition to women's ability to vote in equality with man was most consistently and powerfully opposed by the Catholic Church, other Christian organisations, Islamic authorities and some other religious and secular traditionalists.

4. Prejudice Data Sets

4.1. Anti-Semite Opinions

#antisemitism #christianity #germany #indonesia #israel #jordan #judaism #laos #morocco #netherlands #pakistan #philippines #religion #religious_violence #saudi_arabia #spain #sweden #turkey #UK #vietnam

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)3
Pos.Lower is better
%3
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
4Netherlands5
5Vietnam6
...
26Italy20
27China20
28Portugal21
29Ivory Coast22
30Estonia22
31Japan23
Africa Avg45.9
World Avg36.8
q=101.

Anti-Semitism is the world given to irrational racism against Jews. It is not the same as anti-Judaism (involving arguments against the religion) nor the same as anti-Zionism (arguments against Israel). In history, influential Christian theologians concocted the arguments against Jews that led, very early on, to widespread Christian action against Jews27,28,29,30. As Christianity rose to power in the West and presided over the Dark Ages, there were widespread violent outbursts against Jews of the most persistent and horrible kind. The Crusades were frequently aimed at them and the feared Spanish Inquisition paid Jews particular attention. The horror of the holocaust instigated by German Nazis in the 1940s was followed (finally) by the era of European human rights and a movement against racism in general.

The places that are the least anti-Semitical are a few countries of south-east Asia (Laos, the Philippines and Vietnam) and some of the secular liberal democracies of Europe (Sweden, the Netherlands and the UK). The worst countries for antisemitism are Islamic states of the Middle East31, which are undergoing their own Dark Age. Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Morocco, Indonesia, Pakistan and Turkey see the most oppressive and violent actions towards Jews32,33. Jews in Muslim countries face a host of restrictions and "ceaseless humiliation and regular pogroms"34. In 2004 the European Union Monitoring Center on Racism and Xenophobia reported on violent anti-Jew crimes in the EU and found that that largest group of perpetrators were young Muslim males35.

For more, see:

4.2. LGBT Equality

#equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #sexuality #tolerance

"Côte d'Ivoire does not criminalize same-sex conduct, although the criminal code establishes higher minimum sentences for public indecency for same-sex couples. An antidiscrimination provision in Côte d'Ivoire's new constitution, promulgated in January 2017, does not include protection against discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation. Incidents of discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons, including physical assaults, are common.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)15

LGBT Equality (2017)9
Pos.Higher is better
Score9
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
4Brazil81
5Spain79
...
116Madagascar5
117Chad5
118Indonesia1
119Ivory Coast1
120Russia1
121Benin1
Africa Avg-10.4
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence36. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws37. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries36. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

For more, see:

4.3. Freedom of Thought

#europe #freedom_of_belief #freethought #human_rights #netherlands #religion #religious_tolerance #secularism #the_enlightenment

Freedom of Thought (2021)5
Pos.Lower is better5
1Belgium1.0
2Netherlands1.0
3Taiwan1.0
4Sao Tome & Principe1.3
5Ecuador1.3
...
98India3.0
99Guatemala3.0
100Uganda3.0
101Ivory Coast3.0
102Moldova3.0
103Serbia3.0
Africa Avg3.1
World Avg3.0
q=196.

Freedom of Religion and Freedom of Belief are upheld in Article 18 the United Nation's Universal Declaration of Human Rights38. It affirms that it is a basic human right that all people are free to change their beliefs and religion as they wish39. No countries voted against this (although eight abstained). This right was first recognized clearly in the policies of religious toleration of the Netherlands and elsewhere in Europe in the post-enlightenment era40 of the 19th century. In democratic countries, freedom of belief and religion is now taken for granted41. In 2016 a study found that over 180 countries in the world had come to guarantee freedom of religion and belief42. The best countries at doing so are Taiwan, Belgium and The Netherlands5,43 and the worst: Afghanistan, N. Korea, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia5,44.

Long-term studies have shown that religious violence and persecution both decrease in cultures where religious freedom is guaranteed45. Despite this, there still are many who are strongly against freedom of belief39, including entire cultures and many individual communities of religious believers. Their alternative is that you are not free to believe what you want and they often state that you cannot change religion without being punished (often including the death penalty): this is bemoaned as one of the most dangerous elements of religion46 and "the denial of religious freedoms is inevitably intertwined with the denial of other freedoms"47 and the solution is, everywhere, to allow religious freedom and the freedom of belief.

For more, see: