The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in China

By Vexen Crabtree 2018


Comments:
FB, LJ

#australia #china #equality #freedom #germany #human_rights #politics #russia #syria #tolerance #USA

China
People's Republic of China

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalBeijing
Land Area9 327 490km21
LocationAsia
Population1.4b (2011)2
Life Expectancy75.96yrs (2017)3
GNI$13 345 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesCN, CHN, 1565
Internet Domain.cn6
CurrencyYuan Renminbi (CNY)7
Telephone+868

The concept of Human Rights has not been accepted by the Chinese government. Although outright draconian abuse only exists in terms of censorship and political limitations, there are many areas where human rights are more generically denied. Since President Xi Jinping took power in 2012, a "broad and sustained offensive on human rights" has ensued, according to Human Rights Watch's 2017 report9. Forced confessions and televised sham trials were used to harass and silence human rights supporters and "the government also tried to eliminate the country's few independent human rights news websites by jailing their founders"9. The government remains "hostile to women's rights activism" even though "women and girls in China continue to confront sexual abuse and harassment, employment discrimination, and domestic violence"10. China's censorship of Internet access is already one of the most draconian worldwide and these controls were made even stronger in 20179.

China does worse than average in commentary from Human Rights Watch11, its Global Peace Index rating12, LGBT equality13 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights14. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms15 and in supporting press freedom16.

"Foreign governments did little in 2017 to push back against China's worsening rights record at home and abroad"9. China and Russia both worked together to prevent and delay investigations of widespread human rights abuses in Syria by the International Criminal Court17. Australia and Germany both applied some pressure, and although the USA followed suit, their efforts were undermined by their own President Trump's applause of President Xi.


1. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #China #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Xi Jinping got away with little resistance to his imposition of the most intense crackdown since the brutal smothering of the 1989 Tiananmen Square democracy movement because other nations were afraid to jeopardize lucrative Chinese contracts by standing up for the rights of the Chinese people. [...] China detained its citizens who hoped to engage with United Nations bodies on its rights abuse.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)18

Some commentators are more positive in their outlook, although China since the 2000s has been going backwards:

[In] late nineteenth century [China] Western ideas of political rights... became of considerable interest. Marina Svensson, in Debating Human Rights in China (2003), tells a nuanced story of the Chinese engagement with ideas of rights. ... China came to Western ideas of rights, rather than had them imposed upon them, and they came to those ideas largely as a result of their dissatisfaction with the sufferings of China at the hands of Western state power and the global economy. The concept of human rights was embraced by Chinese writers as useful in their struggle to save China (Svensson 2003: 73). As Svensson emphasizes, national survival rather than the freedom of the individual from an oppressive state was the main preoccupation of early-twentieth-century Chinese advocates of rights (2003: 98).

"Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice" by Jack Donnelly (2013)19

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)20
Pos.Lower is better
%20
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
24India20
25Ireland20
26Italy20
27China20
28Portugal21
29Ivory Coast22
30Estonia22
31Japan23
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)21
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score21
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
80Bosnia & Herzegovina40.0
81Jamaica38.8
82Burkina Faso38.8
83China38.4
84El Salvador38.0
85Suriname38.0
86Mongolia38.0
87Liberia38.0
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)12
Pos.Lower is better12
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
86Swaziland2.03
87Equatorial Guinea2.04
88USA2.06
89China2.06
90Dominican Rep.2.07
91Bangladesh2.07
92Guinea2.07
93Papua New Guinea2.08
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)11
Pos.Higher is better
Score11
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
76Kyrgyzstan-4
77Kuwait-4
78Azerbaijan-5
79China-5
80Cambodia-5
81Uganda-5
82S. Sudan-5
83Zimbabwe-5
World Avg-1.9
q=123.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)14
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties14
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
114Japan14
115Jamaica14
116Jordan14
117China14
118Mauritius14
119Botswana14
120Madagascar14
121Syria14
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)15
Pos.Lower is better
Rank15
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
138Belize138
139Congo, (Brazzaville)139
140Nigeria140
141China141
142Ethiopia142
143Mauritania143
144Egypt144
145Saudi Arabia144
World Avg79.7
q=159.

Press Freedom (2013)16
Pos.Lower is better16
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
169Sudan7006
170Cuba7164
171Vietnam7178
172China7307
173Iran7340
174Somalia7359
175Syria7853
176Turkmenistan7914
World Avg3249
q=178.
Slavery (2018)22
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims22
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
54Colombia0.27
55Algeria0.27
56Barbados0.27
57China0.28
58S. Africa0.28
59Slovakia0.29
60Czechia0.29
61Guatemala0.29
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory23. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends24. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life25. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves26.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery27. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity28. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.29. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi22, Eritrea22, Indonesia30) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery31.

2. Gender Equality

#China #gender #misogyny #politics #women

"The Chinese government remains hostile to women's rights activism. [...] Women and girls in China continue to confront sexual abuse and harassment, employment discrimination, and domestic violence"9. In 2017 "between May and June, Guangzhou police forced five activists from their homes in retaliation for their campaign to raise awareness about sexual harassment on public transportation.9

Gender Inequality (2015)32
Pos.Lower is better32
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
34New Zealand0.16
35Bosnia & Herzegovina0.16
36Macedonia0.16
37China0.16
38Libya0.17
39Slovakia0.18
40Serbia0.18
41Latvia0.19
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Year Women Can Vote33
Pos.Lower is better
Year33
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
77Seychelles1948
78Costa Rica1949
79Chile1949
80China1949
81Bosnia & Herzegovina1949
82Barbados1950
83India1950
84Haiti1950
World Avg1930
q=189.

China is on the way towards ending gender inequality.

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#China #equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)13
Pos.Higher is better
Score13
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
103Belarus15
104Kyrgyzstan15
105Jordan12
106China12
107Djibouti11
108Mali11
109Tajikistan11
110Gabon10
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence34. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws35. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries34. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

While China de-criminalized homosexuality in 1997, it lacks laws protecting people from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity, and same-sex partnership is not legal. In May, Chinese authorities shut down a popular dating app for lesbians. In June, the government banned "abnormal sexual lifestyles," including homosexuality, from online video programs. In July, authorities forced the LGBT group Speak Out to cancel a conference in Chengdu. An earlier Speak Out event scheduled for May in Xi'an was also cancelled after police briefly detained the organizers and told them that LGBT events were "not welcome" in the city.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)9

4. China Overall National and Social Development

#China #human_development

Social & Moral
Development Index
36
Pos.Higher is better
Points36
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
103Tunisia51.0
104St Lucia51.0
105St Vincent & Grenadines50.9
106China50.5
107India50.5
108Cape Verde50.4
109Lebanon50.1
110Bahrain50.0
111Paraguay49.8
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

5. Hong Kong and Tibet

#china #democracy #hong_kong #human_rights #UK

China's continuing erosion of the human rights gained during Hong Kong's rule by the UK continued in 20179; "Hong Kong courts disqualified four pro-democracy lawmakers in July and jailed three prominent pro-democracy student leaders in August"9.

Likewise, Tibet continues to suffer under Chinese control.

Authorities in Tibetan areas continue to severely restrict religious freedom, speech, movement, and assembly, and fail to redress popular concerns about mining and land grabs by local officials, which often involve intimidation and arbitrary violence by security forces. In 2017, officials intensified surveillance of online and phone communications.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)9

6. Freedom of Belief and Religion

#china

The Chinese government "restricts religious practice to five officially recognized religions in officially approved religious premises" and for (many) religious communities that it doesn't like, it "subjects members to police harassment, torture, arbitrary detention, and imprisonment""World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)9. Chinese authorities in Tibetan "severely restrict religious freedom""World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)9.

The government restricts religious practice to five officially recognized religions in officially approved religious premises. Authorities retain control over religious bodies´ personnel appointments, publications, finances, and seminary applications. The government classifies many religious groups outside its control as "evil cults," and subjects members to police harassment, torture, arbitrary detention, and imprisonment. [...]

In September, China passed revisions to the 2005 Regulations on Religious Affairs. The document, which comes into effect in February 2018, introduces new restrictions designed to “curb extremism” and “resist infiltration,” including banning unauthorized teaching about religion and going abroad to take part in training or meetings.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)37

37

Current edition: 2018 Nov 09
http://www.humantruth.info/china_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: China (People's Republic of China)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#antisemitism #australia #burundi #China #corruption #democracy #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #germany #homosexuality #hong_kong #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #mass_media #misogyny #peace #politics #russia #sexuality #slavery #syria #tolerance #UK #USA #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Human Rights Watch (2018). p137-151-.^^^^^
  10. Human Rights Watch (2018). p146-147-.^
  11. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^^
  12. ^^
  13. Sources:^^
  14. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  15. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  16. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  17. Human Rights Watch (2018). p7-.^
  18. Human Rights Watch (2018). p7.^
  19. Donnelly (2013). p144.^
  20. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^
  21. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  22. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  23. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  24. McCall (1979). p180.^
  25. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  26. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  27. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  28. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  29. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  30. Klein (2004) .^
  31. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  32. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^
  33. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.9. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  34. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  35. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  36. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  37. Human Rights Watch (2018). p137-151.^

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