The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Peru

By Vexen Crabtree 2019


Comments:
FB, LJ

#equality #freedom #human_rights #peru #politics #tolerance #venezuela

Peru
Republic of Peru

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalLima
Land Area1 280 000km21
LocationSouth America, The Americas
Population29.7m (2011)2
Life Expectancy74.81yrs (2017)3
GNI$11 295 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesPE, PER, 6045
Internet Domain.pe6
CurrencySol (PEN)7
Telephone+518

Peru does relatively well in ensuring human rights and freedom, compared to many other countries. Peru does the second-best in its nominal commitment to Human Rights9. It does better than average in LGBT equality10, commentary from Human Rights Watch11, eliminating modern slavery12 and in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms13. Peru does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in fighting anti-semitic opinions14, its Global Peace Index rating15, opposing gender inequality16, fighting corruption17 and in supporting press freedom18. "Efforts to prosecute grave human rights abuses committed during the 20-year armed conflict that ended in 2000 have had mixed results"19.


1. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #Peru #politics #slavery

Efforts to prosecute grave human rights abuses committed during the 20-year armed conflict that ended in 2000 have had mixed results. Since May, new evidence became public implicating former President Ollanta Humala Tasso (2011-2016) in egregious human rights violations that security forces committed in the early 1990s. [...]

In 2016, the Interior Ministry announced an investigation into a group of 28 policemen, including a general, who had allegedly carried out at least 20 extrajudicial killings between 2009 and 2015, and falsely reported the victims as criminals killed in combat, in order to receive promotions and awards. At least 11 policemen were awaiting trial for these crimes at time of writing.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

Along with 11 others, Peru signed the Lima Declaration in 2017, condemning "the assault on democratic order and the systematic violation of human rights in Venezuela"20.

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)14
Pos.Lower is better
%14
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
67Ukraine38
68S. Africa38
69Belarus38
70Peru38
71Colombia41
72Hungary41
73Dominican Rep.41
74Serbia42
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)17
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score17
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
91Sri Lanka37.6
92Panama37.4
93Morocco37.2
94Peru37.0
95Benin36.8
96Colombia36.6
97Thailand36.6
98Maldives36.0
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)15
Pos.Lower is better15
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
76Paraguay1.97
77Greece1.98
78Senegal1.99
79Peru2.00
80Nepal2.00
81Montenegro2.01
82Nicaragua2.01
83Brazil2.02
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)11
Pos.Higher is better
Score11
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
45Ivory Coast-1
46Kosovo-1
47Honduras-1
48Peru-1
49Mozambique-2
50Brazil-2
51Argentina-2
52Georgia-2
World Avg-1.9
q=123.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)9
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties9
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
4Ecuador23
5Germany23
6Mexico23
7Peru23
8Spain23
9Slovenia23
10Paraguay23
11Serbia23
12Sweden23
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)13
Pos.Lower is better
Rank13
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
50Albania50
51Seychelles51
52Israel52
53Peru53
54Bosnia & Herzegovina54
55Armenia55
56Macedonia55
57Suriname55
World Avg79.7
q=159.

Journalists investigating the corruption of regional government officials, mayors,and business people are frequent targets of physical attack, threats, and criminal defamation suits.

In November 2016, according to media reports, gunmen broke into the Camaná radio station in the southern state of Arequipa where Hernán David Choquepata Ordoñez was hosting his regular show, and shot him dead while he was on the air.

In February 2017, unknown men attacked journalist Marco Bonifacio Sánchez in the northern state of Cajamarca. The Institute of Press and Society (IPYS) in Peru, a respected nongovernmental organization (NGO) that monitors press freedoms, reported that the men beat him, forced him to get into a vehicle, and tried to cut out his tongue.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

Press Freedom (2013)18
Pos.Lower is better18
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
101Albania3088
102Maldives3110
103Uganda3169
104Peru3187
105Kyrgyzstan3220
106Fiji3269
107Brazil3275
108Bolivia3280
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)12
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims12
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
47Morocco0.24
48El Salvador0.25
49Portugal0.25
50Peru0.26
51Guyana0.26
52Jamaica0.26
53Mexico0.27
54Colombia0.27
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory21. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends22. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life23. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves24.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery25. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity26. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.27. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi12, Eritrea12, Indonesia28) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery29.

2. Gender Equality

#gender #misogyny #Peru #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)16
Pos.Lower is better16
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
83Lebanon0.38
84Rwanda0.38
85El Salvador0.38
86Peru0.39
87Sri Lanka0.39
88Ecuador0.39
89Colombia0.39
90S. Africa0.39
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Year Women Can Vote30
Pos.Lower is better
Year30
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
101Ghana1954
102Nicaragua1955
103Ethiopia1955
104Peru1955
105Eritrea1955
106Honduras1955
107Cambodia1955
108Mali1956
World Avg1930
q=189.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Peru and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting. Peru has made some steps towards ending gender inequality but much more needs to be done.

Gender-based violence is a significant problem in Peru. More than 382 women were victims of “femicides” (the killing of a woman in certain contexts, including domestic violence and gender-based discrimination) or attempted “femicide” in 2016, according to official statistics. Courts in Peru convicted 54 people for “femicide” between January 2015 and March 2016.

In August 2017, thousands demonstrated in Lima and other cities as part of the massive movement to call on authorities to do more to curb gender-based violence. Women and girls in Peru have the right to access abortions only in cases of risk to their health.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #Peru #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)10
Pos.Higher is better
Score10
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
24Ireland53
25Ecuador50
26Australia50
27Peru50
28Hungary49
29Israel48
30Estonia45
31Honduras45
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence31. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws32. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries31. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

"Same-sex couples in Peru are not allowed to marry or engage in civil unions. In [2017] a group of lawmakers introduced a bill to legalize same-sex marriage. It remained pending in Congress at time of writing"19 and faces stiff opposition from the Catholic Church in Peru as elsewhere.

4. Peru Overall National and Social Development

#human_development #Peru

Social & Moral
Development Index
33
Pos.Higher is better
Points33
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
75Thailand55.2
76Montenegro54.9
77Tajikistan54.9
78Peru54.9
79Georgia54.7
80Armenia54.4
81Guatemala54.3
82Ukraine54.2
83Colombia53.7
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

Current edition: 2019 Jan 01
http://www.humantruth.info/peru_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Peru (Republic of Peru)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #mass_media #misogyny #peace #Peru #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #venezuela #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  10. Sources:^^
  11. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^^
  12. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  13. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  14. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  15. ^^
  16. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  17. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  18. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  19. Human Rights Watch (2018). p423-427.^^^^
  20. Human Rights Watch (2018). p617-624.^
  21. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  22. McCall (1979). p180.^
  23. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  24. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  25. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  26. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  27. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  28. Klein (2004) .^
  29. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  30. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.9. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  31. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  32. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  33. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^

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