The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Somalia

By Vexen Crabtree 2019


Comments:
FB, LJ

#equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #somalia #tolerance

Somalia
[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalMogadishu
Land Area 627 340km21
LocationAfrica
Population9.8m (2011)2
Life Expectancy55.71yrs (2017)3
GNI$0 294 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesSO, SOM, 7065
Internet Domain.so6
CurrencyShilling (SOS)7
Telephone+2528

Somalia is amongst the very worst places in the world at ensuring any human rights and freedoms, and it has severe cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Somalia does worse than average in its nominal commitment to Human Rights9. It falls into the bottom 20 in commentary from Human Rights Watch10, eliminating modern slavery11 and in supporting press freedom12. It is second-from-the-bottom in LGBT equality13. And finally, it is the worst in its Global Peace Index rating14 and in fighting corruption15. "Somalia´s armed conflict, abuses by all warring parties, and a new humanitariancrisis [continues] to take a devastating toll on civilians16". The country has no moral anchor nor effective defenders of human rights; where protections exist, they are often part of the problem rather than a good solution; for example, sexual violence is classified as being against "honour" and "modesty" rather than being fundamentally wrong in its own right16 and Shariah courts are sometimes permitted to take place instead of ordinary judicial processes. Much needs to change, and it cannot all be blamed on historical issues: prejudice against LGBT folk is a result of poor moral thinking, not a result of poverty or conflict.


1. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery #Somalia

Corruption (2012-2016)15
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score15
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
169Turkmenistan18.2
170Libya16.8
171Iraq16.6
172S. Sudan13.8
173Sudan12.2
174Afghanistan10.8
175N. Korea08.8
176Somalia08.4
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)14
Pos.Lower is better14
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
150Central African Rep.2.87
151N. Korea2.93
152Russia2.94
153Congo, DR3.07
154Iraq3.19
155Sudan3.19
156Afghanistan3.25
157Somalia3.39
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)10
Pos.Higher is better
Score10
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
109Central African Rep.-8
110Myanmar (Burma)-9
111Eritrea-9
112Somalia-9
113Libya-9
114Sudan-10
115Iran-10
116Burundi-10
World Avg-1.9
q=123.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)9
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties9
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
171Cook Islands9
172Guinea-Bissau8
173USA8
174Somalia8
175Eritrea8
176Indonesia7
177N. Korea7
178Sao Tome & Principe7
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Press Freedom (2013)12
Pos.Lower is better12
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
171Vietnam7178
172China7307
173Iran7340
174Somalia7359
175Syria7853
176Turkmenistan7914
177N. Korea8390
178Eritrea8483
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)11
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims11
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
154Sudan1.20
155Mongolia1.23
156Congo, DR1.37
157Somalia1.55
158Iran1.62
159Cambodia1.68
160Pakistan1.68
161S. Sudan2.05
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory17. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends18. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life19. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves20.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery21. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity22. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.23. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi11, Eritrea11, Indonesia24) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery25.

2. Gender Equality

#politics #Somalia #women

Year Women Can Vote26
Pos.Lower is better
Year26
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
108Mali1956
109Benin1956
110Mauritius1956
111Somalia1956
112Gabon1956
113Egypt1956
114Comoros1956
115Malaysia1957
World Avg1930
q=189.

The 1950s saw a late rush of 43 countries, including Somalia and many developing nations, move to cease preventing women from voting.

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #sexuality #Somalia #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)13
Pos.Higher is better
Score13
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
189Libya-42
190Morocco-42
191Solomon Islands-44
192Qatar-54
193Sudan-67
194Saudi Arabia-72
195Somalia-79
196Syria-84
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence27. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws28. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries27. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

4. Somalia Overall National and Social Development

#human_development #Somalia

Social & Moral
Development Index
29
Pos.Higher is better
Points29
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
190Equatorial Guinea33.5
191Central African Rep.33.3
192Afghanistan33.0
193Iraq31.9
194Congo, DR31.4
195Chad31.3
196Somalia31.3
197Angola30.8
198Yemen30.3
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

5. Freedom of Belief and Religion

#somalia

When it comes to religious freedom and persecution, sociologists Grim & Finke place Somalia into the worst category, along with just 13 other countries. In this category, severe restrictions on religious freedom and freedom of belief stem simultaneously from top-down pressure from government and institutionalized religion, and from bottom-up grassroots movements that often go even further than the government in harassing those who do not believe the right things (2011)30.

Current edition: 2019 Jan 01
http://www.humantruth.info/somalia_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Somalia

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#burundi #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #mass_media #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #Somalia #tolerance #women

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References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Book Cover

Book Cover

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

Grim & Finke. Dr Grim is senior researcher in religion and world affairs at the Pew Research Center, Washington, D.C, USA. Finke is Professor of Sociology and Religious Studies at the Pennsylvania State University.
(2011) The Price of Freedom Denied. Subtitled: "Religious Persecution and Conflict in the Twenty-First Century". Amazon Kindle digital edition. Published by Cambridge University Press, UK. An e-book.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  10. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^^
  11. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  12. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  13. Sources:^^
  14. ^^
  15. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  16. Human Rights Watch (2018). p483-488.^
  17. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  18. McCall (1979). p180.^
  19. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  20. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  21. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  22. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  23. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  24. Klein (2004) .^
  25. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  26. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.9. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  27. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  28. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  29. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  30. Grim & Finke (2011). Chapter 5 "A Closer Look China, India, and Iran" digital location 3560.^

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