The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Japan

By Vexen Crabtree 2018


Comments:
FB, LJ

#equality #freedom #human_rights #japan #politics #tolerance

Japan
[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalTokyo
Land Area 364 500km21
LocationAsia
Population126.4m (2011)2
Life Expectancy83.68yrs (2017)3
GNI$37 268 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesJP, JPN, 3925
Internet Domain.jp6
CurrencyYen (JPY)7
Telephone+818

Japan performs very well in ensuring human rights and freedom compared to most other countries. Japan performs the best in eliminating modern slavery9. It comes in the top 20 in its Global Peace Index rating10 and in fighting corruption11. It does better than average in opposing gender inequality12, commentary from Human Rights Watch13, fighting anti-semitic opinions14, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms15, LGBT equality16 and in supporting press freedom17. Japan allows extensive religious freedom and has one of the lowest rates of religious persecution worldwide18. In 2017, it strengthened laws against sexual violence, further increasing protections for women's rights19. Japan does not succeed in everything, however. It does worse than average in its nominal commitment to Human Rights20. Japan is famed for being insular, and likewise its attitude towards asylum seekers is needlessly uncooperative - granting just 28 out of 10,901 applicants in 201619 and allowing substandard and abusive behaviour towards imported workers19.


1. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #Japan #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Japan has an "active civil society"19, with citizens and lobby groups able to access and influence government without undue political restrictions.

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)14
Pos.Lower is better
%14
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
28Portugal21
29Ivory Coast22
30Estonia22
31Japan23
32Trinidad & Tobago24
33Argentina24
34Mexico24
35Haiti26
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)11
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score11
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
14UK78.0
15Belgium76.0
16Hong Kong75.6
17Japan74.2
18USA74.0
19Ireland72.6
20Uruguay72.6
21Austria72.2
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)10
Pos.Lower is better10
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
4Canada1.32
5Japan1.33
6Austria1.33
7Ireland1.33
8Slovenia1.33
9Finland1.35
10Switzerland1.35
11Belgium1.38
12Qatar1.40
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)13
Pos.Higher is better
Score13
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
27USA4
28Croatia4
29Poland4
30Japan3
31Australia3
32Hungary3
33Gambia2
34Liechtenstein2
World Avg-1.9
q=123.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)20
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties20
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
111Mozambique15
112Dominican Rep.14
113Kenya14
114Japan14
115Jamaica14
116Jordan14
117China14
118Mauritius14
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)15
Pos.Lower is better
Rank15
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
29Chile29
30Romania30
31France31
32Japan32
33Cyprus33
34Mauritius34
35S. Korea35
36Spain36
World Avg79.7
q=159.

Press Freedom (2013)17
Pos.Lower is better17
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
49S. Korea2448
50Comoros2452
51S. Africa2456
52Japan2517
53Argentina2567
54Moldova2601
55Hungary2609
56Italy2611
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)9
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims9
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
4Australia0.06
5New Zealand0.06
6Chile0.08
7Mauritius0.10
8Uruguay0.10
9Costa Rica0.13
10USA0.13
11Argentina0.13
12Hong Kong0.14
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory21. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends22. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life23. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves24.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery25. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity26. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.27. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi9, Eritrea9, Indonesia28) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery29.

Japan provides only weak legal protections for the approximately 230,000 foreigners– most of them from Vietnam and China–working in the country as part of the Technical Intern Training Program. Created in response to labor shortages for low-level jobs, the program is a main framework through which foreign migrant workers are permitted to work in Japan.

Abuses that program participants faced include payment of sub-minimum wages, illegal overtime, dangerous or unhygienic working conditions, restrictions on changing employers, forced return to their home countries, as well as requirements to pay unreasonably high fees to labor-sending agencies, andpenalty fees if the trainee does not successfully complete the training. Sexual abuses and rules that violate privacy (for example, prohibitions on owning a cell phone, or having romantic relationships) are also significant problems.

In November 2016, the Diet responded by passing the so-called Technical Training Act [which] introduced more criminal penalties against rights violations. However, key issues the reforms failed to address included restrictions related to changing employers and reliance on often exploitative labor-sending agencies.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)19

2. Gender Equality

#gender #Japan #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)12
Pos.Lower is better12
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
18Canada0.10
19France0.10
20Israel0.10
21Japan0.12
22Cyprus0.12
23Greece0.12
24Australia0.12
25Lithuania0.12
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Year Women Can Vote30
Pos.Lower is better
Year30
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
53Italy1945
54Senegal1945
55Indonesia1945
56Japan1945
57Togo1945
58N. Korea1946
59Liberia1946
60Romania1946
World Avg1930
q=189.

Japan is on the way towards ending gender inequality.

In 2017, Japan strengthened laws against sexual violence, further increasing protections for women's rights19

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #Japan #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)16
Pos.Higher is better
Score16
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
48San Marino35
49Montenegro35
50Guatemala35
51Japan35
52Bosnia & Herzegovina35
53Georgia35
54Nicaragua35
55El Salvador35
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence31. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws32. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries31. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

4. Japan Overall National and Social Development

#human_development #Japan

Social & Moral
Development Index
33
Pos.Higher is better
Points33
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
17Hong Kong77.5
18Taiwan77.5
19France76.9
20Japan75.0
21Spain73.4
22Estonia72.7
23USA71.9
24Italy71.1
25Czechia71.0
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

5. Freedom of Belief and Religion

#buddhism #christianity #japan #shinto

From the 1950s Japan reformed itself, granting extensive religious freedom to its citizens and attaining one of the lowest rates of violent religious persecution worldwide18.

Before WW2, Japanese folk had almost no religious freedom; only three main classes of religious groups were accepted - 28 Buddhist groups, 13 Shinto ones and just 2 Christian communities were officially recognized34. But since WW2, Japan reformed itself, and its rate of violence religious persecution dropped to one of the lowest rates in the world35

Current edition: 2018 Dec 30
http://www.humantruth.info/japan_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Japan

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#antisemitism #buddhism #burundi #christianity #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #Japan #mass_media #misogyny #peace #politics #sexuality #shinto #slavery #tolerance #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Book Cover

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Grim & Finke. Dr Grim is senior researcher in religion and world affairs at the Pew Research Center, Washington, D.C, USA. Finke is Professor of Sociology and Religious Studies at the Pennsylvania State University.
(2011) The Price of Freedom Denied. Subtitled: "Religious Persecution and Conflict in the Twenty-First Century". Amazon Kindle digital edition. Published by Cambridge University Press, UK. An e-book.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  10. ^^
  11. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  12. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  13. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^^
  14. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  15. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  16. Sources:^^
  17. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  18. Grim & Finke (2011). Chapter 4 "Case Studies: Japan, Brazil, and Nigeria" digital location 2381,2435.^^
  19. Human Rights Watch (2018). p301-304.^^^
  20. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  21. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  22. McCall (1979). p180.^
  23. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  24. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  25. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  26. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  27. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  28. Klein (2004) .^
  29. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  30. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.9. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  31. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  32. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  33. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  34. Grim & Finke (2011). Chapter 4 "Case Studies: Japan, Brazil, and Nigeria" digital location 2557.^
  35. Grim & Finke (2011). Chapter 4 "Case Studies: Japan, Brazil, and Nigeria" digital location 2435.^

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