The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Iraq

By Vexen Crabtree 2018


Comments:
FB, LJ

#equality #freedom #human_rights #iraq #politics #tolerance

Iraq
Republic of Iraq

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalBaghdad
Land Area 434 320km21
LocationAsia, Middle East
Population33.7m (2011)2
Life Expectancy69.63yrs (2017)3
GNI$11 608 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesIQ, IRQ, 3685
Internet Domain.iq6
CurrencyDinar (IQD)7
Telephone+9648

Iraq is amongst the very worst places in the world at ensuring any human rights and freedoms, and it has severe cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Iraq does worse than average in commentary from Human Rights Watch9, eliminating modern slavery10, opposing gender inequality11, supporting press freedom12, its nominal commitment to Human Rights13 and in LGBT equality14. It falls into the bottom 20 in its Global Peace Index rating15 and in fighting corruption16. And finally, it is the worst in fighting anti-semitic opinions17. Violence against women is rife, and women have few legal protections to shield them from domestic abuse18. Homosexual relations are illegal18. As a result of the death penalty, "Iraq has long had one of the highest rates of executions in the world"18.

Human Rights Watch finds that ISIS have "carried out the most serious human rights abuses, war crimes and crimes against humanity"18 and the UN finds the ISIS responsible for genocide18. Iraq forces have conducted widespread 'collective punishments' against families and communities18.


1. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #Iraq #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)17
Pos.Lower is better
%17
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
94Jordan81
95Bahrain81
96Kuwait82
97Tunisia86
98Algeria87
99Libya87
100Yemen88
101Iraq92
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)16
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score16
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
168Uzbekistan18.4
169Turkmenistan18.2
170Libya16.8
171Iraq16.6
172S. Sudan13.8
173Sudan12.2
174Afghanistan10.8
175N. Korea08.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)15
Pos.Lower is better15
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
150Central African Rep.2.87
151N. Korea2.93
152Russia2.94
153Congo, DR3.07
154Iraq3.19
155Sudan3.19
156Afghanistan3.25
157Somalia3.39
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)9
Pos.Higher is better
Score9
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
91UAE-6
92Rwanda-6
93Uzbekistan-6
94Iraq-6
95Bangladesh-6
96Bosnia & Herzegovina-6
97Jordan-6
98Kazakhstan-6
World Avg-1.9
q=123.
Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)13
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties13
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
161Fiji10
162Vietnam10
163Vanuatu10
164Iraq9
165Samoa9
166Papua New Guinea9
167Oman9
168Iran9
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Press Freedom (2013)12
Pos.Lower is better12
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
146Philippines4311
147Russia4342
148Singapore4343
149Iraq4467
150Myanmar (Burma)4471
151Gambia4509
152Mexico4530
153Turkey4656
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)10
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims10
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
93Tajikistan0.45
94Indonesia0.47
95Ghana0.48
96Iraq0.48
97Gabon0.48
98Sierra Leone0.50
99Uzbekistan0.52
100Armenia0.53
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory19. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends20. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life21. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves22.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery23. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity24. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.25. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi10, Eritrea10, Indonesia26) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery27.

2. Gender Equality

#gender #Iraq #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)11
Pos.Lower is better11
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
120Senegal0.52
121Uganda0.52
122Sao Tome & Principe0.52
123Iraq0.53
124Zambia0.53
125India0.53
126Zimbabwe0.54
127Gabon0.54
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Year Women Can Vote28
Pos.Lower is better
Year28
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
173Marshall Islands1979
174Palau1979
175Micronesia1979
176Iraq1980
177Vanuatu1980
178Liechtenstein1984
179Djibouti1986
180Central African Rep.1986
World Avg1930
q=189.

Iraq is an unequal country, with male rights dominating those of women.

Women have few legal protections to shield them from domestic violence. Iraq´s criminal code includes provisions criminalizing physical assault, but lacks any explicit mention of domestic violence. While sexual assault is criminalized, article 398 provides that such charges be dropped if the assailant marries the victim. A 2012 Ministry of Planning study found that at least 36 percent of married women reported experiencing some form of psychological abuse from their husbands, 23 percent reported verbal abuse, 6 percent reported physical violence, and 9 percent reported sexual violence.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)18

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #Iraq #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)14
Pos.Higher is better
Score14
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
171Ghana-25
172Pakistan-26
173Egypt-27
174Iraq-29
175Togo-29
176Comoros-30
177Angola-30
178Uzbekistan-30
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence29. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws30. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries29. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

There is no provision for same-sex marriage in Iraq, and, "article 394 makes it illegal to engage in extra-marital sexual relations"18, therefore homosexual relations are illegal.

4. Iraq Overall National and Social Development

#human_development #Iraq

Social & Moral
Development Index
31
Pos.Higher is better
Points31
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
190Equatorial Guinea33.5
191Central African Rep.33.3
192Afghanistan33.0
193Iraq31.9
194Congo, DR31.4
195Chad31.3
196Somalia31.3
197Angola30.8
198Yemen30.3
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

5. The War Against ISIL / ISIS / Islamic State

#ISIS

Multinational military operations in Iraq against the extremist group Islamic State (also known as ISIS) intensified over 2017. [...] Fighting displaced at least 3.2 million Iraqis, over 1 million of them to the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI). ISIS used civilians as human shields, carried out chemical attacks and targeted fleeing civilians, before being defeated in most of Iraq. In their battle against ISIS, Iraqi forces summarily executed, tortured, and forcibly disappeared hundreds of ISIS suspects. Communities in former ISIS-controlled territory took actions of collective punishment against families of suspected ISIS members, displacing them and destroying their property with the complicity of government forces.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)18

Complications from the fighting were used as an excuse to punish Kurdish populations18.

Human Rights Watch stated in 2017 that ISIS forces have "carried out the most serious human rights abuses, war crimes and crimes against humanity"18 and the United Nations finds that ISIS are responsible for genocide18.

Unfortunately, local communities and government officials and security forces have used 'collective punishments' against families and communities that are seen as supporting ISIS, including physical attacks, murders, and widespread forced displacements18. This can only entrench and lengthen divisive conflict: the correct approach is to detain ISIS members, not entire families. Witnesses and proper judicial methods are not being followed for those accused of ISIS membership18, resulting in the high chance of abuse of the system for purposes of punishing anyone who is disliked, such as minorities and dissenters from government policy (and religion).

The battle against ISIS has afforded Iraqi government and KRG forces the latitude to carry out serious abuses under the guise of fighting terror. For example, during the operations to retake Mosul, Iraqi forces tortured and executed those captured in and around the battlefield with complete impunity, sometimes even after posting photos and videos of the abuses on social media sites. [...]

Iraqi and US-led coalition forces bombarded civilian objects including homes and hospitals in ISIS-held areas. They have fired inherently imprecise groundfired munitions, including mortars, grad rockets and Improvised Rocket-Assisted Munitions (IRAM), into densely populated civilian areas. In addition, aircraft have dropped explosive weapons with wide-area effects on these areas. By the coalition´s own admission, its aircraft have unintentionally killed at least 624 civilians.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)18

6. Freedom of Belief and Religion

#iraq

When it comes to religious freedom and persecution, sociologists Grim & Finke place Iraq into the worst category, along with just 13 other countries. In this category, severe restrictions on religious freedom and freedom of belief stem simultaneously from top-down pressure from government and institutionalized religion, and from bottom-up grassroots movements that often go even further than the government in harassing those who do not believe the right things (2011)32.

Current edition: 2018 Dec 30
http://www.humantruth.info/iraq_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Iraq (Republic of Iraq)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#antisemitism #burundi #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #Iraq #ISIS #mass_media #misogyny #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Book Cover

Book Cover

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

Grim & Finke. Dr Grim is senior researcher in religion and world affairs at the Pew Research Center, Washington, D.C, USA. Finke is Professor of Sociology and Religious Studies at the Pennsylvania State University.
(2011) The Price of Freedom Denied. Subtitled: "Religious Persecution and Conflict in the Twenty-First Century". Amazon Kindle digital edition. Published by Cambridge University Press, UK. An e-book.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^^
  10. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  11. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  12. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  13. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  14. Sources:^^
  15. ^^
  16. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  17. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  18. Human Rights Watch (2018). p285-290.^^^^
  19. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  20. McCall (1979). p180.^
  21. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  22. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  23. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  24. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  25. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  26. Klein (2004) .^
  27. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  28. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.9. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  29. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  30. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  31. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  32. Grim & Finke (2011). Chapter 5 "A Closer Look China, India, and Iran" digital location 3560.^

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