The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Cuba

By Vexen Crabtree 2018


Comments:
FB, LJ

#cuba #human_rights

Cuba
Republic of Cuba

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalHavana
Land Area 106 440km21
LocationNorth America, The Americas, Caribbean
Population11.2m (2011)2
Life Expectancy79.57yrs (2017)3
GNI$7 455 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesCU, CUB, 1925
Internet Domain.cu6
CurrencyPeso (CUP)7
Telephone+538

Cuba is one of those countries where 'compliance with international human rights standards would mean removal of those in power'9. When it comes to press and media freedom, Cuba is one of the worst 5 countries in the world10.


1. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #Cuba #eritrea #france #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Cuba is one of those countries where the government is deeply opposed to the concept of human rights, and the only way to ensure basic citizens' freedoms 'would mean removal of those in power'9. In 2017 there were over 3,700 arbitrary detentions - without any due process - of human rights defenders, journalists and others11. The government intimidates and controls dissidents using "repressive tactics, including beatings, public shaming, travel restrictions, and termination of employment"11.

The number of arbitrary short-term detentions increased dramatically between 2010 and 2016, from a monthly average of 172 incidents to 827, according to the Cuban Commission for Human Rights and National Reconciliation, an independent human rights group that lacks official authorization and the government considers to be illegal.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)11

International human-rights laws that Cuba has signed up for are often ignored. Despite signing international laws regarding "freedom of association, collective bargaining, protection of wages, and prohibitions on forced labour", Cuba does not in fact uphold those11.

Corruption (2012-2016)12
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score12
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
58Bahrain48.4
59Croatia48.4
60Saudi Arabia47.4
61Cuba46.8
62Oman45.8
63Ghana45.8
64Turkey45.4
65Lesotho45.2
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)13
Pos.Lower is better13
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
67Albania1.93
68Macedonia1.94
69Guyana1.94
70Cuba1.95
71Ukraine1.95
72Tunisia1.96
73Cyprus1.96
74Gambia1.96
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)14
Pos.Higher is better
Score14
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
96Bosnia & Herzegovina-6
97Jordan-6
98Kazakhstan-6
99Cuba-6
100Yemen-7
101Egypt-7
102Equatorial Guinea-7
103Swaziland-7
World Avg-1.9
q=123.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)15
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties15
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
148Thailand11
149Barbados11
150Bahamas11
151Cuba11
152Guyana11
153Swaziland11
154Zimbabwe11
155Saudi Arabia10
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Press Freedom (2013)10
Pos.Lower is better10
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
167Laos6799
168Yemen6922
169Sudan7006
170Cuba7164
171Vietnam7178
172China7307
173Iran7340
174Somalia7359
World Avg3249
q=178.

The government controls virtually all media outlets in Cuba and restricts access to outside information. A small number of journalists and bloggers who are independent of government media manage to write articles for websites or blogs, or publish tweets.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)11

Slavery (2018)16
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims16
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
74Mali0.36
75Hungary0.37
76Bangladesh0.37
77Cuba0.38
78Israel0.39
79Latvia0.39
80Dominican Rep.0.40
81Kosovo0.40
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory17. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends18. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life19. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves20.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery21. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity22. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.23. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi16, Eritrea16, Indonesia24) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery25.

Despite signing international laws prohibiting forced labour, Cuba routinely violates this principle11. In 2017, the United Nations specialist on human trafficking "visited Cuba and called for new laws and stronger action targeting human trafficking"11.

2. Gender Equality

#Cuba #gender #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)26
Pos.Lower is better26
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
59Malaysia0.29
60Barbados0.29
61Armenia0.29
62Cuba0.30
63Costa Rica0.31
64Maldives0.31
65Chile0.32
66Tajikistan0.32
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Year Women Can Vote27
Pos.Lower is better
Year27
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
39Thailand1932
40Turkey1934
41Brazil1934
42Cuba1934
43Myanmar (Burma)1935
44Philippines1937
45Uzbekistan1938
46Dominican Rep.1942
World Avg1930
q=189.

Cuba has made some steps towards ending gender inequality but much more needs to be done.

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#Cuba #equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)28
Pos.Higher is better
Score28
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
78Panama25
79Vietnam25
80Nepal25
81Cuba25
82Paraguay20
83Philippines20
84Central African Rep.20
85Sao Tome & Principe20
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence29. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws30. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries29. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

4. Cuba Overall National and Social Development

#Cuba #human_development

Social & Moral
Development Index
31
Pos.Higher is better
Points31
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
86Kyrgyzstan53.4
87Jordan53.3
88Bahamas53.3
89Cuba53.0
90Morocco52.8
91Oman52.8
92Bolivia52.8
93Dominican Rep.52.7
94Turkmenistan52.5
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

Current edition: 2018 Dec 23
http://www.humantruth.info/cuba_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Cuba (Republic of Cuba)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#burundi #corruption #Cuba #equality #eritrea #france #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #mass_media #misogyny #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #women

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References: (What's this?)

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Donnelly (2013). p171.^^
  10. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  11. Human Rights Watch (2018). p166-171.^
  12. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^
  13. ^
  14. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^
  15. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^
  16. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^
  17. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  18. McCall (1979). p180.^
  19. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  20. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  21. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  22. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  23. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  24. Klein (2004) .^
  25. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  26. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^
  27. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.9. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  28. Sources:^
  29. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  30. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  31. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^

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