The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Bahrain

By Vexen Crabtree 2018


Comments:
FB, LJ

#Bahrain #equality #freedom #human_rights #politics #tolerance

Bahrain
Kingdom of Bahrain

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalManama
Land Area 760km21
LocationAsia, Middle East
GroupingsSmall Islands
Population1.4m (2011)2
Life Expectancy76.72yrs (2017)3
GNI$37 236 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesBH, BHR, 485
Internet Domain.bh6
CurrencyDinar (BHD)7
Telephone+9738

Bahrain is very poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world, and it has cultural issues when it comes to tolerance and equality. Bahrain does better than average in eliminating modern slavery9, opposing gender inequality10 and in fighting corruption11. But unfortunately Bahrain gets most other things wrong. It does worse than average in supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms12, its Global Peace Index rating13, LGBT equality14 and in its nominal commitment to Human Rights15. And finally, it falls into the bottom 20 in fighting anti-semitic opinions16 and in supporting press freedom17. Things are getting worse, it seems, and in 2017 Bahrain shut down its only independent newspaper and human rights activists were silenced, imprisoned and harrassed (including their relatives) and also prevented representation at the UN Human Rights Council and its associated processes18.


1. Politics and Freedom

#antisemitism #Bahrain #burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Anti-Semite Opinions (2014)16
Pos.Lower is better
%16
1Laos0
2Philippines3
3Sweden4
...
92Qatar80
93UAE80
94Jordan81
95Bahrain81
96Kuwait82
97Tunisia86
98Algeria87
99Libya87
World Avg36.8
q=101.
Corruption (2012-2016)11
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score11
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
55Namibia50.0
56Slovakia49.0
57Jordan48.6
58Bahrain48.4
59Croatia48.4
60Saudi Arabia47.4
61Cuba46.8
62Oman45.8
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)13
Pos.Lower is better13
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
114Armenia2.24
115Niger2.24
116Turkmenistan2.24
117Bahrain2.25
118Rwanda2.25
119Kenya2.25
120Algeria2.26
121Eritrea2.26
World Avg2.02
q=157.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)15
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties15
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
138Haiti12
139Dominica12
140Central African Rep.12
141Bahrain12
142Israel12
143Angola12
144Suriname12
145Kuwait12
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)12
Pos.Lower is better
Rank12
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
87India87
88Burkina Faso88
89Kenya88
90Bahrain88
91Jordan91
92Cape Verde92
93Botswana93
94Liberia94
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)17
Pos.Lower is better17
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
161Sri Lanka5659
162Saudi Arabia5688
163Uzbekistan6039
164Bahrain6275
165Equatorial Guinea6720
166Djibouti6740
167Laos6799
168Yemen6922
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)9
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims9
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
27Netherlands0.18
28Norway0.18
29Saudi Arabia0.19
30Bahrain0.19
31Korea, S.0.19
32Germany0.20
33Belgium0.20
34France0.20
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory19. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends20. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life21. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves22.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery23. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity24. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.25. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi9, Eritrea9, Indonesia26) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery27.

Bahrain's human rights situation continued to worsen in 2017. Authorities shut down the country's only independent newspaper and the leading secular-left opposition political society. The country's preeminent human rights defender remained in prison on speech charges. The government ... executed three people in January following unfair trials, despite their alleging that they had been tortured and their confessions coerced. ... Authorities restored arrest and investigation powers to the National Security Agency, despite its record of torture and abuse, and in April, King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa signed legislation authorizing trial of civilians before military courts. Bahrain continued to deny access to ... the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights [and] authorities prevented dozens of rights advocates from traveling to Geneva [and] the regular UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC) session. [...]

Both Sunni and Shia women face discrimination in the right to divorce and other matters. Adultery and sexual relations outside marriage are criminalized. No law prohibits discrimination on the grounds of gender, gender identity, or sexual orientation.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)18

Some of the restrictions are absurd, and would be entertaining if not for their all-too-serious limitations on basic freedoms. They declared, for example, "that it would be a crime punishable by up to five years in prison to express "sympathy" with Qatar or criticize Bahrain's decision to break relations with that country"28. Others are serious, such as the use of collective persecution of family and relatives.

2. Gender Equality

#Bahrain #gender #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)10
Pos.Lower is better10
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
45Bulgaria0.22
46UAE0.23
47Moldova0.23
48Bahrain0.23
49Hungary0.25
50Saudi Arabia0.26
51Albania0.27
52Russia0.27
World Avg0.36
q=159.
Year Women Can Vote29
Pos.Lower is better
Year29
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
158Yemen1970
159Switzerland1971
160Bangladesh1972
161Bahrain1973
162San Marino1973
163Andorra1973
164Jordan1974
165Solomon Islands1974
World Avg1930
q=189.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Bahrain is on the way towards ending gender inequality but women are still in an unfavourable position much of the time.

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#Bahrain #equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)14
Pos.Higher is better
Score14
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
120Russia1
121Benin1
122Niger1
123Bahrain-2
124Sierra Leone-3
125Grenada-5
126Dominica-5
127Namibia-5
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence30. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries30. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

Because sexual relations outside of marriage are illegal fundamental LGBT equality is not possible, and the state infringes on basic freedom of personal relations and personal life for any sexually active LGBT folk31.

4. Bahrain Overall National and Social Development

#Bahrain #human_development

Social & Moral
Development Index
32
Pos.Higher is better
Points32
1Denmark84.2
2Sweden83.7
3Finland83.5
...
106India50.9
107St Vincent & Grenadines50.9
108Lebanon50.9
109Bahrain50.8
110Cape Verde50.4
111Kazakhstan50.4
112Kenya50.0
113Senegal49.6
114Ghana49.6
World Avg54.1
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

Current edition: 2018 Sep 02
http://www.humantruth.info/bahrain_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Bahrain (Kingdom of Bahrain)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#antisemitism #Bahrain #burundi #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #mass_media #misogyny #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #women

Social Media

References: (What's this?)

Anti-Defamation League. (ADL)
(2014) ADL Global 100, Executive Summary. Accessed on global100.adl.org on 2017 Jan 02. The numbers given are of those who state that racist stereotyped statements about Jews are true; they have to agree to 6 or more of the 11 statements to be counted. An example statements is "Jews are hated because of the way they behave". The data was collected from 53,100 interviews across 101 countries plus the West Bank and Gaza. The global average is 26%.

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2018) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2018). Accessed 2018 Sep 02.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  10. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  11. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  12. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  13. ^^
  14. Sources:^^
  15. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  16. ADL (2014). Lower is better.^^
  17. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  18. Human Rights Watch (2018). P60-65.^^
  19. Thomson (1993). P28.^
  20. McCall (1979). P180.^
  21. Thomson (1993). P166.^
  22. Casely-Hayford (2012). P253.^
  23. Thomson (1993). P31.^
  24. Thomson (1993). P199.^
  25. Thomson (1993). P28-29.^
  26. Klein (2004) .^
  27. Walk Free Foundation (2018). P2.^
  28. Human Rights Watch (2018). P61.^
  29. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.6. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^
  30. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  31. Human Rights Watch (2018). P64.^
  32. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2018)^

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