The Human Truth Foundation

Human Rights and Freedom in Kyrgyzstan

By Vexen Crabtree 2018


Comments:
FB, LJ

#equality #freedom #human_rights #kyrgyzstan #politics #tolerance

Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyz Republic

[Country Profile Page]
StatusIndependent State
CapitalBishkek
Land Area 191 800km21
LocationAsia
Population5.4m (2011)2
Life Expectancy70.79yrs (2017)3
GNI$3 097 (2017)4
ISO3166-1 CodesKG, KGZ, 4175
Internet Domain.kg6
CurrencySom (KGS)7
Telephone+9968

Kyrgyzstan is generally poor at ensuring human rights and freedom compared to the rest of the world. Kyrgyzstan does better than average in its nominal commitment to Human Rights9, eliminating modern slavery10 and in LGBT equality11. But unfortunately Kyrgyzstan gets most other things wrong. It does worse than average in commentary from Human Rights Watch12, opposing gender inequality13, supporting personal, civil & economic freedoms14, supporting press freedom15, its Global Peace Index rating16 and in fighting corruption17. LGBT folk experience ill-treatment, extortion, and discrimination, both from wider society and the government18. The government sometimes persecutes, wrongly imprisons and harasses human rights defenders and 2017 took further steps to limit the civil freedom of peaceful assembly18. Allegations of torture are largely ignored (of 435 complains in 2016, 400 were not investigated)18.


1. Politics and Freedom

#burundi #corruption #eritrea #france #freedom #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #Kyrgyzstan #mass_media #peace #politics #slavery

Corruption (2012-2016)17
Pos.Higher is better
Avg Score17
1Denmark90.8
2New Zealand90.6
3Finland89.4
...
142Comoros26.4
143Cameroon26.2
144Uganda26.2
145Kyrgyzstan26.2
146Paraguay26.0
147Kenya26.0
148Bangladesh25.8
149Papua New Guinea25.6
World Avg43.05
q=176.
Global Peace Index (2012)16
Pos.Lower is better16
1Iceland1.11
2New Zealand1.24
3Denmark1.24
...
127Iran2.32
128Honduras2.34
129Turkey2.34
130Kyrgyzstan2.36
131Azerbaijan2.36
132Philippines2.42
133Ivory Coast2.42
134Mexico2.45
World Avg2.02
q=157.
Human Rights Watch Comments (2017)12
Pos.Higher is better
Score12
1UK9
2France9
3Germany9
...
73Morocco-4
74Thailand-4
75Angola-4
76Kyrgyzstan-4
77Kuwait-4
78Azerbaijan-5
79China-5
80Cambodia-5
World Avg-1.9
q=123.

Nominal Commitment to HR (2009)9
Pos.Higher is better
Treaties9
1Argentina24
2Chile23
3Costa Rica23
...
65Ireland19
66Lithuania18
67Moldova18
68Kyrgyzstan18
69Philippines18
70Algeria18
71Malta18
72Tunisia18
World Avg15.1
q=194.
Personal, Civil & Economic Freedom (2014)14
Pos.Lower is better
Rank14
1Hong Kong1
2Switzerland2
3New Zealand3
...
95Lesotho94
96Kazakhstan96
97Ecuador97
98Kyrgyzstan98
99Tanzania99
100Uganda100
101Philippines101
102Honduras101
World Avg79.7
q=159.
Press Freedom (2013)15
Pos.Lower is better15
1Finland638
2Netherlands648
3Norway652
...
102Maldives3110
103Uganda3169
104Peru3187
105Kyrgyzstan3220
106Fiji3269
107Brazil3275
108Bolivia3280
109Qatar3286
World Avg3249
q=178.

Slavery (2018)10
Pos.Lower is better
% Victims10
1Japan0.03
2Canada0.05
3Taiwan0.05
...
80Dominican Rep.0.40
81Kosovo0.40
82Cape Verde0.41
83Kyrgyzstan0.41
84Cyprus0.42
85Kazakhstan0.42
86Lesotho0.42
87Georgia0.43
World Avg0.65
q=167.

The taking of slaves has been an unwholesome feature of Human cultures since prehistory19. Private households and national endeavours have frequently been augmented with the use of slaves. The Egyptian and Roman empires both thrived on them for both purposes. Aside from labourers they are often abused sexually by their owners and their owners' friends20. The era of colonialism and the beginnings of globalisation changed nothing: the imprisonment and forced movements of labour continued to destroy many lives except that new justifications were invented based on Christian doctrine and the effort to convert non-Christians. By 1786 over 12 million slaves had been extracted from Africa and sent to colonial labour camps, with a truly atrocious condition of life21. But they were not the only ones to blame; in Africa internal nations such as the Asantes sold and bought tens of thousands of slaves22.

The abolition of the slave trade was a long and slow process. Until a relatively modern time, even philosophers, religious leaders and those concerned with ethics justified, or ignored, the problem of slavery23. The first abolitionists were always the slaves themselves. Their protests and rebellions caused the industry to become too expensive to continue. After that, it was the economic costs of maintain slave colonies that led the British to reject and then oppose the slave trade globally. Finally, the enlightenment-era thinkers of France encouraged moral and ethical thinking including the declaration of the inherent value of human life and human dignity24. A long-overdue wave of compassionate and conscientious movements swept across the West, eliminating public support for slavery, until the industries and churches that supported it had no choice but to back down.

'Modern slavery' includes forced labour (often of the under-age), debt bondage (especially generational), sexual slavery, chattel slavery and other forms of abuse, some of which can be surprisingly difficult to detect, but often target those fleeing from warzones and the vulnerable.25. Some industries (diamond, clothing, coal) from some countries (Burundi10, Eritrea10, Indonesia26) are a particular concern. The Walk Free Foundation, say that in 2016, 40.3 million people were living in modern slavery27.

2. Gender Equality

#gender #Kyrgyzstan #misogyny #politics #women

Gender Inequality (2015)13
Pos.Lower is better13
1Switzerland0.04
2Denmark0.04
3Netherlands0.04
...
88Ecuador0.39
89Colombia0.39
90S. Africa0.39
91Kyrgyzstan0.39
92Brazil0.41
93Jamaica0.42
94Algeria0.43
95Botswana0.44
World Avg0.36
q=159.

Gender inequality is not a necessary part of early human development. Although a separation of roles is almost universal due to different strengths between the genders, this does not have to mean that women are subdued, and, such patriarchialism is not universal in ancient history. Those cultures and peoples who shed, or never developed, the idea that mankind ought to dominate womankind, are better cultures and peoples than those who, even today, cling violently to those mores.

Year Women Can Vote28
Pos.Lower is better
Year28
1New Zealand1893
2Australia1902
3Finland1906
...
7Russia1917
8Latvia1918
9Estonia1918
10Kyrgyzstan1918
11Austria1919
12Slovakia1919
13Belarus1919
14Germany1919
World Avg1930
q=189.

Kyrgyzstan has made some steps towards ending gender inequality but much more needs to be done.

Domestic violence is widespread, but in 2017 the Government adopted a Prevention and Protection against Family Violence law to curb abuse.

[It] which requires police to register any domestic abuse complaint, and recognizes physical and psychological abuse, and “economic violence,”which includes restricting access to and use of financial resources or other assets. The law mandates police and judicial response to domestic violence, and ensures victims´ access to shelter, psychosocial support, and legal aid. Some provisions of the law lack specificity and survivor protections.

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)18

See:

3. LGBT Equality and Tolerance

#equality #homosexuality #human_rights #intolerance #Kyrgyzstan #sexuality #tolerance

LGBT Equality (2017)11
Pos.Higher is better
Score11
1Netherlands103
2Belgium90
3Sweden86
...
101Lesotho15
102Belize15
103Belarus15
104Kyrgyzstan15
105Jordan12
106China12
107Djibouti11
108Mali11
World Avg12.6
q=196.

Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) folk is rife across the world. Legal restrictions co-exist alongside social stigmatisation and physical violence29. LGBT tolerance and equal rights have been fought for country-by-country across the world, often against tightly entrenched cultural and religious opposition. Adult consensual sexual activity is a Human Right, protected by privacy laws30. Despite this, homosexual activity is outlawed in around 80 countries29. The Social & Moral LGBT Equality Index was created to compare countries and regions, granting points to each country for a variety of factors including how long gay sex has been criminalized and the extent of LGBT legal rights. Graded negative points are given for criminality of homosexuality, unequal ages of consent, legal punishments and for not signing international accords on LGBT tolerance. The signs in many developed countries are positive, and things are gradually improving. Europe is by far the least prejudiced region (Scandinavia in particular being exemplary). The Middle East and then Africa are the least morally developed, where cultural bias goes hand-in-hand with state intolerance, all too often including physical violence.

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people continued to experience ill-treatment, extortion, and discrimination by both state and non-state actors. There is widespread impunity for these abuses. Consideration of an anti-LGBT bill, which would ban “propaganda of nontraditional sexual relations,” remained stalled in parliament

"World Report 2018" by Human Rights Watch (2018)18

4. Kyrgyzstan Overall National and Social Development

#human_development #Kyrgyzstan

Social & Moral
Development Index
31
Pos.Higher is better
Points31
1Denmark84.0
2Sweden83.9
3Finland83.5
...
83Colombia53.7
84Ecuador53.5
85Kuwait53.5
86Kyrgyzstan53.4
87Jordan53.3
88Bahamas53.3
89Cuba53.0
90Morocco52.8
91Oman52.8
World Avg53.8
q=198.

The Social and Moral Development Index concentrates on moral issues and human rights, violence, public health, equality, tolerance, freedom and effectiveness in climate change mitigation and environmentalism, and on some technological issues. A country scores higher for achieving well in those areas, and for sustaining that achievement in the long term. Those countries towards the top of this index can truly said to be setting good examples and leading humankind onwards into a bright, humane, and free future. See: What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life.

Current edition: 2018 Dec 31
http://www.humantruth.info/kyrgyzstan_human_rights_and_freedom.html
Parent page: Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic)

All #tags used on this page - click for more:

#burundi #corruption #equality #eritrea #france #freedom #gender #homosexuality #human_development #human_rights #indonesia #intolerance #Kyrgyzstan #mass_media #misogyny #peace #politics #sexuality #slavery #tolerance #women

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References: (What's this?)

Casely-Hayford, Gus
(2012) The Lost Kingdoms of Africa. Published by Bantram Press. A hardback book.

Crabtree, Vexen
(2019) "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" (2019). Accessed 2019 Jan 13.

Donnelly, Jack
(2013) Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 3rd edition. Published by Cornell University Press.

The Fraser Institute
(2016) The Human Freedom Index. Published by The Cato Institute, The Fraser Institute and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Covers data up to 2014. On www.fraserinstitute.org/.../human-freedom-index-2016.

Human Rights Watch
(2018) World Report 2018. Covering the events of 2017.

Klein, Naomi
(2004) No Logo. Originally published 2000, HarperCollins, London, UK. A paperback book.

McCall, Andrew
(1979) The Medieval Underworld. 2004 edition. Published by Sutton Publishing. A paperback book.

Thomson, Oliver
(1993) A History of Sin. Published by Canongate Press. A hardback book.

United Nations
(2011) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. This edition had the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. Available on hdr.undp.org/... UN Development Program: About the Human Development Index.
(2017) Human Development Report. Published by the UN Development Programme. Data for 2015. Available on hdr.undp.org/.

Walk Free Foundation
(2018) Global Slavery Index. Published on www.walkfreefoundation.org/.

Footnotes

  1. World Bank data on data.worldbank.org accessed 2013 Nov 04.^
  2. UN (2011) .^
  3. UN (2017). Table 1.^
  4. UN (2017). Gross National Income, per person. Table 1.^
  5. International Standards Organisation (ISO) standard ISO3166-1, on www.iso.org, accessed 2013 May 01.^
  6. Top level domains (TLDs) are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on www.iana.org.^
  7. According to ISO4217.^
  8. According to ITU-T.^
  9. Max possible=24. Total amount of treaties ratified. Nominal Commitment to Human Rights report published by UCL School of Public Policy, London, UK, at ucl.ac.uk/spp/research/research-projects/nchr accessed 2011 Apr 30.^^
  10. Walk Free Foundation (2018) .^^
  11. Sources:^^
  12. Human Rights Watch (2018). Negative and positive comments have been added to create a score for each country covered in the report.^^
  13. UN (2017). Table 5. Lower is better.^^
  14. Fraser Institute, the (2016). Covers data for 2014.^^
  15. Reporters Without Borders Report "2013 World Press Freedom Index: Dashed hopes after spring" at fr.rsf.org/.../classement_2013_gb-bd.pdf accessed 2013 Feb.^^
  16. ^^
  17. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (2017). Accessed 2017 Dec 30. The scores given are the TI average for the years 2012-2016.^^
  18. Human Rights Watch (2018). p329-334.^^^
  19. Thomson (1993). p28.^
  20. McCall (1979). p180.^
  21. Thomson (1993). p166.^
  22. Casely-Hayford (2012). p253.^
  23. Thomson (1993). p31.^
  24. Thomson (1993). p199.^
  25. Thomson (1993). p28-29.^
  26. Klein (2004) .^
  27. Walk Free Foundation (2018). p2.^
  28. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life: 2.9. Women Stand for Election & Vote" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^
  29. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p278.^
  30. Donnelly (2013). Chapter 16 "Nondiscrimination for All: The Case of Sexual Minorities" p289. According to a 1992 ruling of the Human Rights Committee, which declared that 'it is undisputed that adult consensual sexual activity in private is covered by the concept of privacy' when discussing Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. See Human Rights Committee, Communication 488/1992, paragraph 8.2.^
  31. "What is the Best Country in the World? An Index of Morality, Conscience and Good Life" by Vexen Crabtree (2019)^

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